Pages in category "Lay theologians"
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Christian – A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian derives from the Koine Greek word Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach, while there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance. The term Christian is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a sense all that is noble, and good. According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, by 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the worlds largest religion in 2050, about half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the worlds Christians, other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in 158 countries and territories,280 million Christian live as a minority. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, in other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are likewise derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish. The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26,28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4,16, which believers, Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames, in the Annals he relates that by vulgar appellation commonly called Christians and identifies Christians as Neros scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is Nazarenes which is used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus in Acts 24, the Hebrew equivalent of Nazarenes, Notzrim, occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices is found across the world among those who call themselves Christian, denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of Christianity. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian, in fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism, the term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי, a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel. Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים, the term Nasara rose to prominence in July 2014, after the Fall of Mosul to the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The nun or ن— the first letter of Nasara—was spray-painted on the property of Christians ejected from the city, where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture and Masihi is used by Christians themselves for those with a religious faith in Jesus. In some countries Nasrani tends to be used generically for non-Muslim Western foreigners, another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Ṣalībī from ṣalīb which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations
2. Theology – Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as a discipline, typically in universities, seminaries. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity, the term can, however, be used for a variety of different disciplines or fields of study. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, explain, test, critique, the English equivalent theology had evolved by 1362. Greek theologia was used with the discourse on god in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii. Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of discourse, mythical, rational and civil. Theologos, closely related to theologia, appears once in some manuscripts, in the heading to the book of Revelation, apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of study, dealing with the motionless. Boethius definition influenced medieval Latin usage, Theology can also now be used in a derived sense to mean a system of theoretical principles, an ideology. They suggest the term is appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently. Kalam. does not hold the place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for theology in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of theology is appropriate, can only do so, he says, I take theology not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course atheological, rejecting as it does the notion of God, within Hindu philosophy, there is a solid and ancient tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God and of the Atman. The Sanskrit word for the schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana. Nevertheless, Jewish theology historically has been active and highly significant for Christian. It is sometimes claimed, however, that the Jewish analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law, the history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves. Modern Western universities evolved from the institutions and cathedral schools of Western Europe during the High Middle Ages
3. Ethan Allen – Ethan Allen was a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U. S. state of Vermont and he was the brother of Ira Allen. Born in rural Connecticut, Allen had a frontier upbringing but also received an education that included some philosophical teachings, in the late 1760s he became interested in the New Hampshire Grants, buying land there and becoming embroiled in the legal disputes surrounding the territory. Legal setbacks led to the formation of the Green Mountain Boys, when the American Revolutionary War broke out, Allen and the Boys seized the initiative and captured Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775. In September 1775 Allen led an attempt on Montreal that resulted in his capture by British authorities. First imprisoned aboard Royal Navy ships, he was paroled in New York City, upon his release, Allen returned to the Grants, which had declared independence in 1777, and resumed political activity in the territory. Allen wrote accounts of his exploits in the war that were read in the 19th century, as well as philosophical treatises. His business dealings included successful farming operations, one of Connecticuts early iron works, land purchased by Allen and his brothers included tracts of land that eventually became Burlington, Vermont. He was twice married, fathering eight children, Ethan Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the first-born child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen, both of English and Puritan descent. The family moved to the town of Cornwall shortly after his birth and his lifelong interest in philosophy and ideas emerged against the backdrop of his fathers involvement in these Puritan debates and his fathers refusal to convert to the covenant by grace. As a boy Allen already excelled at quoting the Bible and was known for disputing the meaning of passages, seven siblings, all of whom survived to adulthood, joined the family between Allens birth in 1738 and 1751. Allen had five brothers and two sisters and his brothers Ira and Heman would also become prominent figures in the early history of Vermont. Although not very much is known about Allens childhood, the town of Cornwall was frontier territory in the 1740s. Joseph Allen died in 1755, at the time of his death he was one of the landowners in the area, ran a successful farm. Allen had, before his fathers death, begun studies under a minister in the town of Salisbury with the goal of gaining admission to Yale College. Allens brother Ira recalled that, even at an age, Allen was curious. Allen was forced to end his studies upon his fathers death, in that year, he became part owner of an iron furnace in Salisbury. He also married Mary Brownson, a five years his senior, from the nearby town of Roxbury
4. Joseph Bates (Adventist) – Joseph Bates was an American seaman and revivalist minister. He was the founder and developer of Sabbatarian Adventism, a strain of thinking that evolved into the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Bates is also credited with convincing James White and Ellen G. White of the validity of the seventh-day Sabbath, Bates was born in Rochester, Massachusetts on July 8,1792. His father, also named Joseph, was a volunteer in the Revolutionary War and his mother was the daughter of Barnabas Nye of Sandwich, in 1793, Bates family moved to the part of New Bedford, Massachusetts that would become the township of Fairhaven in 1812. In June 1807, Bates sailed as cabin boy on the new ship commanded by Elias Terry, called the Fanny and this was the commencement of Bates sailing career. In 1811, Bates was forced into servitude for the British navy, after his release he continued his career, eventually becoming captain of a ship. During one of his voyages, he read a copy of the Bible that his wife packed for him and he experienced conversion and became involved in a variety of reforms, including helping to found an early temperance society. Bates became disturbed by the way the sailors were forced to go to Anglican services, later in life he became adamant that the separation of church and he also was a strong supporter of abolition. In his everyday life as a sailor, he noticed the intemperance of the sailors, many of these problems came from poor rations, but many more were the result of overindulgence by the men. He became one of the champions of health reform, abstaining from all alcohol, tobacco, in 1839 he accepted the teachings of William Miller that Jesus was coming soon. After October 22,1844, like many other Millerites, Bates sought meaning out of the Great Disappointment, during the spring of 1845, Bates accepted the seventh-day Sabbath after reading a pamphlet by T. M. Preble. Bates soon became known as the apostle of the Sabbath and wrote several booklets on the topic, one of the first, published in 1846, was entitled The Seventh Day Sabbath, a Perpetual Sign. One of Bates most significant contributions was his ability to connect theologically the Sabbath with an understanding of the heavenly sanctuary. This apocalyptic understanding of theology would become known as the Great Controversy theme, Bates was a strong supporter of James White and the prophetic gift, which he believed was manifested in visions received by the young Ellen G. White. He contributed to publications such as A Word to the Little Flock. Bates was active with the Whites in participating in a series of Bible Conferences held in 1848 to 1850 that have known as the Sabbath. During the 1850s Bates supported the development of formal church organization that culminated in 1863 with the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church. Joseph Bates died on March 19,1872 in Battle Creek and he is buried in Poplar Hill Cemetery in Monterey, Michigan