Pages in category "Lay theologians"
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 37 pages are in this category, out of 37 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Christian – A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian derives from the Koine Greek word Christós, a translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mashiach, while there are diverse interpretations of Christianity which sometimes conflict, they are united in believing that Jesus has a unique significance. The term Christian is also used as an adjective to describe anything associated with Christianity, or in a sense all that is noble, and good. According to a 2011 Pew Research Center survey, there were 2.2 billion Christians around the world in 2010, by 2050, the Christian population is expected to exceed 3 billion. According to a 2012 Pew Research Center survey Christianity will remain the worlds largest religion in 2050, about half of all Christians worldwide are Catholic, while more than a third are Protestant. Orthodox communions comprise 12% of the worlds Christians, other Christian groups make up the remainder. Christians make up the majority of the population in 158 countries and territories,280 million Christian live as a minority. In the Greek Septuagint, christos was used to translate the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, in other European languages, equivalent words to Christian are likewise derived from the Greek, such as Chrétien in French and Cristiano in Spanish. The second mention of the term follows in Acts 26,28, where Herod Agrippa II replied to Paul the Apostle, Then Agrippa said unto Paul, Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian. The third and final New Testament reference to the term is in 1 Peter 4,16, which believers, Yet if as a Christian, let him not be ashamed. The city of Antioch, where someone gave them the name Christians, had a reputation for coming up with such nicknames, in the Annals he relates that by vulgar appellation commonly called Christians and identifies Christians as Neros scapegoats for the Great Fire of Rome. Another term for Christians which appears in the New Testament is Nazarenes which is used by the Jewish lawyer Tertullus in Acts 24, the Hebrew equivalent of Nazarenes, Notzrim, occurs in the Babylonian Talmud, and is still the modern Israeli Hebrew term for Christian. A wide range of beliefs and practices is found across the world among those who call themselves Christian, denominations and sects disagree on a common definition of Christianity. Most Baptists and fundamentalists, for example, would not acknowledge Mormonism or Christian Science as Christian, in fact, the nearly 77 percent of Americans who self-identify as Christian are a diverse pluribus of Christianities that are far from any collective unity. The identification of Jesus as the Messiah is not accepted by Judaism, the term for a Christian in Hebrew is נוּצְרי, a Talmudic term originally derived from the fact that Jesus came from the Galilean village of Nazareth, today in northern Israel. Adherents of Messianic Judaism are referred to in modern Hebrew as יְהוּדִים מָשִׁיחַיים, the term Nasara rose to prominence in July 2014, after the Fall of Mosul to the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The nun or ن— the first letter of Nasara—was spray-painted on the property of Christians ejected from the city, where there is a distinction, Nasrani refers to people from a Christian culture and Masihi is used by Christians themselves for those with a religious faith in Jesus. In some countries Nasrani tends to be used generically for non-Muslim Western foreigners, another Arabic word sometimes used for Christians, particularly in a political context, is Ṣalībī from ṣalīb which refers to Crusaders and has negative connotations
2. Theology – Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine. It is taught as a discipline, typically in universities, seminaries. Augustine of Hippo defined the Latin equivalent, theologia, as reasoning or discussion concerning the Deity, the term can, however, be used for a variety of different disciplines or fields of study. Theologians use various forms of analysis and argument to help understand, explain, test, critique, the English equivalent theology had evolved by 1362. Greek theologia was used with the discourse on god in the fourth century BC by Plato in The Republic, Book ii. Drawing on Greek Stoic sources, the Latin writer Varro distinguished three forms of discourse, mythical, rational and civil. Theologos, closely related to theologia, appears once in some manuscripts, in the heading to the book of Revelation, apokalypsis ioannoy toy theologoy. The Latin author Boethius, writing in the early 6th century, used theologia to denote a subdivision of philosophy as a subject of study, dealing with the motionless. Boethius definition influenced medieval Latin usage, Theology can also now be used in a derived sense to mean a system of theoretical principles, an ideology. They suggest the term is appropriate in religious contexts that are organized differently. Kalam. does not hold the place in Muslim thought that theology does in Christianity. To find an equivalent for theology in the Christian sense it is necessary to have recourse to several disciplines, and to the usul al-fiqh as much as to kalam. Jose Ignacio Cabezon, who argues that the use of theology is appropriate, can only do so, he says, I take theology not to be restricted to its etymological meaning. In that latter sense, Buddhism is of course atheological, rejecting as it does the notion of God, within Hindu philosophy, there is a solid and ancient tradition of philosophical speculation on the nature of the universe, of God and of the Atman. The Sanskrit word for the schools of Hindu philosophy is Darshana. Nevertheless, Jewish theology historically has been active and highly significant for Christian. It is sometimes claimed, however, that the Jewish analogue of Christian theological discussion would more properly be Rabbinical discussion of Jewish law, the history of the study of theology in institutions of higher education is as old as the history of such institutions themselves. Modern Western universities evolved from the institutions and cathedral schools of Western Europe during the High Middle Ages
3. Ethan Allen – Ethan Allen was a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, hero, and politician. He is best known as one of the founders of the U. S. state of Vermont and he was the brother of Ira Allen. Born in rural Connecticut, Allen had a frontier upbringing but also received an education that included some philosophical teachings, in the late 1760s he became interested in the New Hampshire Grants, buying land there and becoming embroiled in the legal disputes surrounding the territory. Legal setbacks led to the formation of the Green Mountain Boys, when the American Revolutionary War broke out, Allen and the Boys seized the initiative and captured Fort Ticonderoga in May 1775. In September 1775 Allen led an attempt on Montreal that resulted in his capture by British authorities. First imprisoned aboard Royal Navy ships, he was paroled in New York City, upon his release, Allen returned to the Grants, which had declared independence in 1777, and resumed political activity in the territory. Allen wrote accounts of his exploits in the war that were read in the 19th century, as well as philosophical treatises. His business dealings included successful farming operations, one of Connecticuts early iron works, land purchased by Allen and his brothers included tracts of land that eventually became Burlington, Vermont. He was twice married, fathering eight children, Ethan Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the first-born child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen, both of English and Puritan descent. The family moved to the town of Cornwall shortly after his birth and his lifelong interest in philosophy and ideas emerged against the backdrop of his fathers involvement in these Puritan debates and his fathers refusal to convert to the covenant by grace. As a boy Allen already excelled at quoting the Bible and was known for disputing the meaning of passages, seven siblings, all of whom survived to adulthood, joined the family between Allens birth in 1738 and 1751. Allen had five brothers and two sisters and his brothers Ira and Heman would also become prominent figures in the early history of Vermont. Although not very much is known about Allens childhood, the town of Cornwall was frontier territory in the 1740s. Joseph Allen died in 1755, at the time of his death he was one of the landowners in the area, ran a successful farm. Allen had, before his fathers death, begun studies under a minister in the town of Salisbury with the goal of gaining admission to Yale College. Allens brother Ira recalled that, even at an age, Allen was curious. Allen was forced to end his studies upon his fathers death, in that year, he became part owner of an iron furnace in Salisbury. He also married Mary Brownson, a five years his senior, from the nearby town of Roxbury
4. Margaret Fell – Margaret Fell or Margaret Fox was a founder of the Religious Society of Friends. Known popularly as the mother of Quakerism, she is considered one of the Valiant Sixty early Quaker preachers and her daughter Sarah Fell was also a leading Quaker. She was born Margaret Askew at the seat of Marsh Grange in the parish of Kirkby Ireleth. She married Thomas Fell, a barrister, in 1632, in 1641, Thomas became a Justice of the Peace for Lancashire, and in 1645 a member of the Long Parliament. He ceased to be a member from 1647 to 1649, disapproving of Oliver Cromwells assumption of authority, in late June 1652, George Fox visited Swarthmoor Hall. A day or two later it was lecture day at the church, she invited Fox to attend with them, he came in after the singing. Over the next weeks she and many of her household became convinced and she wrote many epistles herself and collected and disbursed funds for those on missions. After her husbands death in 1658, she retained control of Swarthmoor Hall, after the Stuart Restoration, she travelled from Lancashire to London to petition King Charles II and his parliament in 1660 and 1662 for freedom of conscience in religious matters. A submission signed by George Fox and other prominent Quakers was only made subsequently in November 1660, in 1664 Margaret Fell was arrested for failing to take an oath and for allowing Quaker Meetings to be held in her home. She defended herself by saying that as long as the Lord blessed her with a home and she spent six months in Lancaster Gaol, whereafter she was sentenced to life imprisonment and forfeiture of her property. She remained in prison until 1668, during which time she wrote religious pamphlets, perhaps her most famous work is Womens Speaking Justified, a scripture-based argument for womens ministry, and one of the major texts on womens religious leadership in the 17th century. In this short pamphlet, Fell bases her argument for equality of the sexes on one of the premises of Quakerism. Her belief was that God created all human beings, therefore both men and women were capable of not only possessing the Inner Light but also the ability to be a prophet, having been released by order of the King and council, she married George Fox in 1669. On returning to Lancashire after her marriage, she was imprisoned for about a year in Lancaster for breaking the Conventicle Act. Shortly after her release, George Fox departed on a mission to America. Margaret again travelled to London to intercede on his behalf, George Fox spent most of the rest of his life thereafter abroad or in London until his death in 1691, while Margaret Fell spent most of the rest of her life at Swarthmoor. In the last decade of her life, she opposed the effort of her fellow believers in Lancashire to maintain certain traditional Quaker standards of conduct. Margaret Fells meeting with George Fox and her subsequent conversion are the subject of the first part of the novel The Peaceable Kingdom by Jan de Hartog, Swarthmoor Hall Website An abstract of the life of Margaret Fell
5. George Fox – George Fox was an English Dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends. The son of a Leicestershire weaver, Fox lived in a time of social upheaval. He rebelled against the religious and political authorities by proposing an unusual and he travelled throughout Britain as a dissenting preacher, for which he was often persecuted by the authorities who disapproved of his beliefs. In 1669, Fox married Margaret Fell, the widow of one of his wealthier supporters and his ministry expanded and he undertook tours of North America and the Low Countries. Between these tours, he was imprisoned for more than a year and he spent the final decade of his life working in London to organize the expanding Quaker movement. While his movement attracted disdain from some, others such as William Penn, George Fox was born in the strongly Puritan village of Drayton-in-the-Clay, Leicestershire, England,15 miles west-south-west of Leicester. He was the eldest of four children of Christopher Fox, a weaver, called Righteous Christer by his neighbours. Christopher Fox was a churchwarden and was wealthy, when he died in the late 1650s he left his son a substantial legacy. From childhood Fox was of a serious, religious disposition, there is no record of any formal schooling but he learned to read and write. When I came to eleven years of age, he said, I knew pureness and righteousness, for, while I was a child, I was taught how to walk to be kept pure. The Lord taught me to be faithful, in all things, known as an honest person, he also proclaimed, The Lord taught me to be faithful in all things. and to keep to Yea and Nay in all things. As he grew up, his relatives thought to have made me a priest but he was apprenticed to a local shoemaker and grazier. This suited his temperament and he became well known for his diligence among the wool traders who had dealings with his master. George Fox knew people who were professors, but by the age of 19 he had begun to look down on their behaviour, driven by his inner voice, Fox left Drayton-in-the-Clay in September 1643, moving toward London in a state of mental torment and confusion. The English Civil War had begun and troops were stationed in many towns through which he passed, in Barnet, he was torn by depression. He alternately shut himself in his room for days at a time or went out alone into the countryside, after almost a year he returned to Drayton, where he engaged Nathaniel Stephens, the clergyman of his hometown, in long discussions on religious matters. Stephens considered Fox a gifted young man but the two disagreed on so many issues that he later called Fox mad and spoke against him, over the next few years Fox continued to travel around the country as his particular religious beliefs took shape. At times he sought the company of clergy but found no comfort from them as they seemed unable to help with the matters troubling him
6. Justin Martyr – Saint Justin, also known as Justin Martyr was an early Christian apologist, and is regarded as the foremost interpreter of the theory of the Logos in the 2nd century. He was martyred, alongside some of his students, and is considered a saint by the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglican Church, Most of his works are lost, but two apologies and a dialogue did survive. Further, he indicates, as St Augustine did regarding the true religion that predated Christianity. This notion allows him to many historical Greek philosophers, in whose works he was well studied. Justin Martyr was born at Flavia Neapolis in Samaria into a pagan family and he says he tried first the school of a Stoic philosopher, who was unable to explain Gods being to him. He then attended a Peripatetic philosopher but was put off because the philosopher was too eager for his fee, then he went to hear a Pythagorean philosopher who demanded that he first learn music, astronomy, and geometry, which he did not wish to do. Subsequently, he adopted Platonism after encountering a Platonist thinker who had settled in his city. Moved by the aged mans argument, Justin renounced both his religious faith and his philosophical background, choosing instead to re-dedicate his life to the service of the Divine. As a result, he decided that the only option for him was to travel throughout the land. His conversion is commonly assumed to have taken place at Ephesus though it may have occurred anywhere on the road from Judaea to Rome and he then adopted the dress of a philosopher himself and traveled about teaching. During the reign of Antoninus Pius, he arrived in Rome, Tatian was one of his pupils. In the reign of Marcus Aurelius, after disputing with the cynic philosopher Crescens, he was denounced by the latter to the authorities, according to Tatian and Eusebius. Justin was tried, together with six companions, by Junius Rusticus, who was urban prefect from 163-167, though the precise year of his death is uncertain, it can reasonably be dated by the prefectoral term of Rusticus. The martyrdom of Justin preserves the record of the trial. The Prefect Rusticus says, Approach and sacrifice, all of you, Justin says, No one in his right mind gives up piety for impiety. The Prefect Rusticus says, If you do not obey, you will be tortured without mercy, and all the martyrs said, Do as you wish, for we are Christians, and we do not sacrifice to idols. The Prefect Rusticus read the sentence, Those who do not wish to sacrifice to the gods, the holy martyrs glorifying God betook themselves to the customary place, where they were beheaded and consummated their martyrdom confessing their Saviour. The church of St. John the Baptist in Sacrofano, a few north of Rome
7. C. S. Lewis – Clive Staples Lewis was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist. He held academic positions at both Oxford University and Cambridge University, Lewis and fellow novelist J. R. R. Tolkien were close friends. They both served on the English faculty at Oxford University, and were active in the informal Oxford literary group known as the Inklings, according to Lewiss memoir Surprised by Joy, he was baptised in the Church of Ireland, but fell away from his faith during adolescence. Lewis returned to Anglicanism at the age of 32, owing to the influence of Tolkien and other friends and his faith profoundly affected his work, and his wartime radio broadcasts on the subject of Christianity brought him wide acclaim. In 1956, he married American writer Joy Davidman, she died of cancer four years later at the age of 45, Lewis died on 22 November 1963 from renal failure, one week before his 65th birthday. In 2013, on the 50th anniversary of his death, Lewis was honoured with a memorial in Poets Corner in Westminster Abbey, Lewiss works have been translated into more than 30 languages and have sold millions of copies. The books that make up The Chronicles of Narnia have sold the most and have been popularised on stage, TV, radio and his works entered the public domain in 2014 in countries where copyright expires 50 years after the death of the creator, such as Canada. Clive Staples Lewis was born in Belfast, Ireland, on 29 November 1898 and his father was Albert James Lewis, a solicitor whose father Richard had come to Ireland from Wales during the mid-19th century. His mother was Florence Augusta Lewis, née Hamilton, known as Flora and he had an elder brother, Warren Hamilton Lewis. When he was four, his dog Jacksie was killed by a car, at first, he would answer to no other name, but later accepted Jack, the name by which he was known to friends and family for the rest of his life. When he was seven, his family moved into Little Lea, as a boy, Lewis was fascinated with anthropomorphic animals, he fell in love with Beatrix Potters stories and often wrote and illustrated his own animal stories. He and his brother Warnie created the world of Boxen, inhabited, Lewis loved to read, his fathers house was filled with books, and he felt that finding a book to read was as easy as walking into a field and finding a new blade of grass. Lewis was schooled by tutors before being sent to the Wynyard School in Watford, Hertfordshire, in 1908. Lewiss brother had enrolled there three years previously, the school was closed not long afterwards due to a lack of pupils, the headmaster Robert Oldie Capron was soon after committed to a psychiatric hospital. Lewis then attended Campbell College in the east of Belfast about a mile from his home and he was then sent to the health-resort town of Malvern, Worcestershire, where he attended the preparatory school Cherbourg House, which Lewis calls Chartres in his autobiography. It was during this time that Lewis abandoned his childhood Christian faith and became an atheist, becoming interested in mythology, in September 1913, Lewis enrolled at Malvern College, where he remained until the following June. He found the school socially competitive, after leaving Malvern, he studied privately with William T. Kirkpatrick, his fathers old tutor and former headmaster of Lurgan College. As a teenager, Lewis was wonder-struck by the songs and legends of what he called Northernness and these legends intensified an inner longing he later called joy
8. Philip Melanchthon – He stands next to Luther and Calvin as a reformer, theologian, and molder of Protestantism. Along with Luther, he is the founder of Lutheranism. Both rejected the doctrine of transubstantiation, but not the belief that the body and blood of Christ are present with the elements of bread and wine in the Lords Supper. The Lutheran view of sacramental union contrasts with the understanding of the Roman Church that the bread and wine cease to be bread, Melanchthon made the distinction between law and gospel the central formula for Lutheran evangelical insight. By the law, he meant Gods requirements both in Old and New Testament, the meant the free gift of grace through faith in Jesus Christ. He was born Philipp Schwartzerdt on 16 February 1497, at Bretten, near Karlsruhe and his birthplace, along with almost the whole city of Bretten, was burned in 1689 by French troops during the War of the Palatinate Succession. The towns Melanchthonhaus was built on its site in 1897, in 1507 he was sent to the Latin school at Pforzheim, where the rector, Georg Simler of Wimpfen, introduced him to the Latin and Greek poets and to Aristotle. He and a brother were brought to Pforzheim to live with his maternal grandmother, the next year he entered the University of Heidelberg, where he studied philosophy, rhetoric, and astronomy/astrology, and became known as a scholar of Greek. Denied the masters degree in 1512 on the grounds of his youth, he went to Tübingen, where he continued humanistic studies but also worked on jurisprudence, mathematics, while there he was also taught the technical aspects of astrology by Johannes Stöffler. After gaining a degree in 1516 he began to study theology. Under the influence of Reuchlin, Erasmus, and others, he convinced that true Christianity was something different from the scholastic theology as taught at the university. He became a conventor in the contubernium and instructed younger scholars and he also lectured on oratory, on Virgil and on Livy. His first publications were an edition of Terence and a Greek grammar and he studied the Scriptures, especially of Paul, and Evangelical doctrine. Attending the disputation of Leipzig as a spectator, he participated with his comments. After his views were attacked by Johann Eck, Melanchthon replied based on the authority of Scripture in his Defensio contra Johannem Eckium and he married Katharina Krapp, daughter of Wittenbergs mayor, on 25 November 1520. In the beginning of 1521 in his Didymi Faventini versus Thomam Placentinum pro M. Luthero oratio and he argued that Luther rejected only papal and ecclesiastical practises which were at variance with Scripture. But while Luther was absent at Wartburg Castle, during the disturbances caused by the Zwickau prophets, the appearance of Melanchthons Loci communes rerum theologicarum seu hypotyposes theologicae was of subsequent importance for Reformation. Melanchthon presented the new doctrine of Christianity under the form of a discussion of the thoughts of the Epistle to the Romans
9. Dorothy L. Sayers – Dorothy Leigh Sayers was a renowned English crime writer, poet, playwright, essayist, translator, and Christian humanist. She was also a student of classical and modern languages, however, Sayers herself considered her translation of Dantes Divine Comedy to be her best work. She is also known for her plays, literary criticism, Sayers was an only child, born on 13 June 1893 at the Headmasters House, Christ Church Cathedral School, Oxford. Her father, the Rev. Henry Sayers, M. A. was a chaplain of Christ Church, when she was six, he started teaching her Latin. She grew up in the village of Bluntisham-cum-Earith in Huntingdonshire after her father was given the living there as rector. From 1909 she was educated at the Godolphin School, a school in Salisbury. Her father later moved to the living of Christchurch, in Cambridgeshire. In 1912, Sayers won a scholarship to Somerville College, Oxford where she studied modern languages and she finished with first-class honours in 1915. Women could not be awarded degrees at that time, but Sayers was among the first to receive a degree when the position changed a few years later and her experience of Oxford academic life eventually inspired her penultimate Peter Wimsey novel, Gaudy Night. Her father was from Littlehampton, West Sussex, and her mother was born at The Chestnuts, Millbrook, Hampshire, to Frederick Leigh, Sayerss Aunt Amy, her mothers sister, married Henry Richard Shrimpton. Sayerss first book of poetry was published in 1916 as OP, I by Blackwell Publishing in Oxford. Her second book of poems, Catholic Tales and Christian Songs, was published in 1918, later, Sayers worked for Blackwells and then as a teacher in several locations, including Normandy, France. Sayerss longest employment was from 1922 to 1931 as a copywriter at S. H, bensons advertising agency, located at International Buildings, Kingsway, London. Sayers was quite successful as an advertiser and her collaboration with artist John Gilroy resulted in The Mustard Club for Colmans Mustard and the Guinness Zoo advertisements, variations of which still appear today. One famous example was the Toucan, his bill arching under a glass of Guinness, with Sayerss jingle and she used the advertising industry as the setting of Murder Must Advertise, where she describes the role of truth in advertising. The firm of Pyms Publicity, Ltd, now, Mr. Pym is a man of rigid morality—except, of course, as regards his profession, whose essence is to tell plausible lies for money— How about truth in advertising. Of course, there is truth in advertising. Theres yeast in bread, but you cant make bread with yeast alone, is like leaven, which a woman hid in three measures of meal
10. Ellen G. White – Ellen Gould White was an author and an American Christian pioneer. Along with other Sabbatarian Adventist leaders such as Joseph Bates and her husband James White, the Smithsonian magazine named Ellen G. White among 100 Most Significant Americans in an acknowledgement of her influence on religion. White reported her experiences to her fellow believers. Her Conflict of the Ages series of writings endeavor to showcase the hand of God in Biblical history and this cosmic conflict, referred to by Seventh-day Adventist theologians as the Great Controversy theme, became foundational to the development of Seventh-day Adventist theology. Her book on successful Christian living, Steps to Christ, has published in more than 140 languages. White was considered a controversial figure by her critics, with much of the controversy centering on her reports of visionary experiences. She experienced her first vision soon after the Millerite Great Disappointment of 1844, historian Randall Balmer has described White as one of the more important and colorful figures in the history of American religion. Walter Martin described her as one of the most fascinating and controversial personages ever to appear upon the horizon of religious history and she promoted and was instrumental in the establishment of schools and medical centers. During her lifetime she wrote more than 5,000 periodical articles and 40 books, as of 2015 more than 100 White titles are available in English, including compilations from her 100,000 pages of manuscript. Some of her notable books include The Desire of Ages. Ellen and her twin sister Elizabeth, were born November 26,1827, to Robert, Robert was a farmer who also made hats using mercuric nitrate. Much of Ellens youth was spent in the pursuit of her fathers hat making business. Ellen learned the simplest part of it, which was shaping the crown of the hat, in 1999, Charles E. Dudley, Sr. In his book, Charles Dudley claims that Ellen White had an African-American ancestry, in March 2000, the Ellen G. White Estate commissioned Roger D. Joslyn, a professional genealogist, to research Ellen G. Whites ancestry. Joslyn concluded that she was of Anglo-Saxon origin, Joslyn found that Ellens mother, Eunice Harmon was the daughter of Joseph Goold/Gould, an American Revolutionary soldier. After the war, he moved from Kittery to Portland, Maine and his father was Joseph Gould of Kittery. His father, Ellens great grandfather, was also named Joseph Gould and he settled in Kittery in the first decade of the 1700s and was probably from Taunton, Massachusetts. His father was John Gould of Taunton and probably the one born in Hingham, Massachusetts Bay Colony, son of Jarvis Gould, the cruel blow which blighted the joys of earth, was the means of turning my eyes to heaven