This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
This category has the following 2 subcategories, out of 2 total.
1. Lemkivshchyna – Lemkivshchyna or Lemkovina is a region in Europe that is traditionally inhabited by the Lemko people. While the Lemko are an ethnic group, they consider themselves to be part of the broader Rusyn and/or Ukrainian communities. Lemkovina mostly stretches along the border between Poland and Slovakia covering some western territories of Ukraine, the region forms an ethnographic peninsula 140 km long and 25–50 km wide from the Ukrainian border within Polish and Slovak territory. The Lemko region occupies the lowest part of the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains—most of the Low Beskids, the part of the Middle Beskyd. The corresponding latitudes of the adjacent highlands of present-day Slovakia are also included by some in the description of Lemko-land, previously a frontier area under the nominal control of Great Moravia, Lemkivshchyna became part of Poland in medieval Piast times. It was made part of the Austrian province of Galicia due to the First Partition of Poland in 1772, parts were briefly independent under the Lemko-Rusyn Republic, and later annexed to Poland. The landscape is typical of medium-height-mountain terrain, with ridges reaching 1,000 m, only small parts of southern Low Beskids and the northern San river region have a low-mountain landscape. A series of passes along the Torysa River and Poprad River—Tylych Pass, Dukla Pass. Paul J. COM - Lemkos Portal Magazine Lemkivshchyna lemko. org
2. Divisions of the Carpathians – Divisions of the Carpathians are categorization of the Carpathian mountains system. Below is an overview of the major subdivisions and ranges of the Carpathian Mountains. The Carpathians are a subsystem of a bigger Alps-Himalaya System that stretches from the western Europe all the way to southern Asia, the last level of the division, i. e. the actual mountain ranges and basins, is usually classified as units. The main divisions are shown in the map on the right, to generalize, there are three major provinces, Western Carpathians, Eastern Carpathians, and Southern Carpathians. The division is largely undisputed at the lowest level, but various divisions are given for the higher levels, a geomorphological division has been used as much as the data was available, other new physiogeographic divisions were used in other cases. Where the classification of a higher title is known/sure, it is added at the end of the name in brackets. Their geologic features are distinct, but multiple traditions, languages and nationalities have developed overlapping variants for the divisions. In Romania, it is usual to divide the Eastern Carpathians in Romanian territory into three groups, instead in Outer and Inner Eastern Carpathians. But it is not a region and its inclusion is disputed in some sources. The Serbian Carpathians are sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians, with the difficulty of finding their exact subdivisions, they are given only as a list of the final units from the west to the east and south, in a separate listing at the end. In Poland Central Beskidian Piedmont and Lower Beskids belongs to Western Carpathians province, note that there are many variants for the divisions and names of these ranges. Wooded Beskids, Bieszczady or Western Bieszczady + Bukovské vrchy Mts. e. e, the term Bihor Massif is sometimes used for the Apuseni Mountains and Poiana Ruscă. Trascău Mountains RO, Munții Poiana Ruscă Poiana Ruscă Lipova Plateau Bega-Timiș Groove Orăștie Groove, hațeg Depression RO, Munții Banatului Banat Mountains sensu stricto, i. e. Semenic Mountains, Locva Mountains, Anina Mountains and Dognecea Mountains Almăj Mountains Timiș-Cerna Gap, incl. Almăj Depression Caraș Hills RO, Depresiunea Transilvaniei, i. e. Transylvanian Depression, some authors do not consider it to be part of the Carpathians. Mureș-Turda Depression Sibiu Depression Făgăraș Depression Transylvanian Plateau, Târnava Plateau, hârtibaci Plateau and Secașe Plateau Transylvanian Plain, or Transylvanian Plateau sensu stricto Someș Plateau Serbian, Karpatske planine, i. e. Carpathian Mountains. Sometimes considered part of the Southern Carpathians, sometimes not considered part of the Carpathians at all, origin and growth of the Western Carpathian orogenetic wedge during the mesozoic. Geologica Carpathica Special Issues,53, Proceedings of XVII, congress of Carpathian-Balkan Geological Association Bratislava, September 1 -42002 Mazúr, E. Lukniš M. Geomorphological division of SSR and ČSSR. Moravo-Silesian Beskids, Collection of tourist maps 1,50000, geology of the Carpathian Region, pp.106,108,109,172,554, etc
3. Eastern Europe – Eastern Europe, also known as East Europe, is the eastern part of the European continent. There is no consensus on the area it covers, partly because the term has a wide range of geopolitical, geographical, cultural. There are almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region, a related United Nations paper adds that every assessment of spatial identities is essentially a social and cultural construct. One definition describes Eastern Europe as an entity, the region lying in Europe with main characteristics consisting in Byzantine, Orthodox. Another definition was created during the Cold War and used more or less synonymously with the term Eastern Bloc, a similar definition names the formerly communist European states outside the Soviet Union as Eastern Europe. Historians and social scientists generally view such definitions as outdated or relegating, several definitions of Eastern Europe exist today, but they often lack precision or are extremely general. These definitions vary both across cultures and among experts, even scientists, recently becoming more and more imprecise. The Ural Mountains, Ural River, and the Caucasus Mountains are the land border of the eastern edge of Europe. Eurovoc, a multilingual thesaurus maintained by the Publications Office of the European Union, provides entries for 23 EU languages, of these, those in italics are classified as Eastern Europe in this source. Other official web-pages of the European Union classify some of the countries as strictly Central European. The East–West Schism is the break of communion and theology between what are now the Eastern and Western churches which began in the 11th century and lasts until this very day and it divided Christianity in Europe, and consequently the world, into Western Christianity and Eastern Christianity. Since the Great Schism of 1054, Europe has been divided between Roman Catholic and Protestant churches in the West, and the Eastern Orthodox Christian churches in the east, due to this religious cleavage, Eastern Orthodox countries are often associated with Eastern Europe. A cleavage of this sort is, however, often problematic, for example, Greece is overwhelmingly Orthodox, the fall of the Iron Curtain brought the end of the East–West division in Europe, but this geopolitical concept is sometimes still used for quick reference by the media. The Baltic states have seats in the Nordic Council as observer states and they also are members of the Nordic-Baltic Eight whereas Eastern European countries formed their own alliance called the Visegrád Group. Estonia Latvia Lithuania The Caucasus nations may be included in the definitions of Eastern Europe, the extent of their geographic or political affiliation with Europe varies by country and source. All three states are members of the European Unions Eastern Partnership program and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly, on 12 January 2002, the European Parliament noted that Armenia and Georgia may enter the EU in the future. Georgia — in modern geography, Georgia has been classified as part of Eastern Europe. Under the European Union’s geographic criteria, Georgia is viewed as part of Eastern Europe and is the only Caucasus country to be actively seeking EU membership and it is a member of Council of Europe and Eurocontrol
4. Florynka – Florynka is a village in southern Poland, in the commune of Grybów, Nowy Sącz County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship. It lies approximately 7 kilometres south of Grybów,22 km east of Nowy Sącz,1785 –745 Greek Catholics,10 Roman Catholics, the village lands comprised 20. The village was incorporated into the Lemko Apostolic Administration in 1934, the Lemko inhabitants of the village were removed in Operation Vistula in 1947, and scattered to 30 different villages in 6 counties. Parish Data, The Saint Michael Church was built in 1875, the village Vafka 3km away was served by the priest Florynka
5. Komancza Republic – It was headed by Head of the Council Panteleymon Shpylka. Unlike the contemporaneous Lemko Republic to its west, the Komancza Republic planned to unite with the West Ukrainian Peoples Republic in an independent Ukrainian state, unification of the Komancza Republic and West Ukraine was suppressed by the Polish government as part of the Polish–Ukrainian War. The Treaty of Saint-Germain made Galicia west of the San Polish
6. Lemko Republic – It was centered on Florynka, a village in the south-east of present-day Poland. Being Russophile, its intent was unification with a democratic Russia and was opposed to a union with the West Ukrainian Peoples Republic, a union with Russia proved impossible, so the Republic then attempted to join Carpathian Ruthenia as an autonomous province of Czechoslovakia. This, however, was opposed by the governor of Carpathian Ruthenia. The Republic was headed by Jaroslav Kacmarcyk as President of the Central National Council and it was ended by the Polish government in March 1920. This state should not be confused with the Komancza Republic of eastern Lemkivshchyna and this was a smaller pro-Ukrainian state that existed between November 1918 and 23 January 1919. Do not wish to be incorporated into the Polish state, and wish to share the fate of our Rusyn brothers in Spiš, Šariš, lemkos History of the Lemko-Rusyn Republic Paul R. Magocsi article on the Lemko Republic Ćmiech, Andrzej. Państwo w państwie Ruska Ludowa Republika Łemków
7. Lemkos – Lemkos are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna. Many Lemkos identify as a branch of Ukrainians, Ukraine has signed but has not honored the Copenhagen agreement granting self identified Lemkos minority rights status in Ukraine. Their spoken language, which is uncodified, has variously described as a language in its own right or a dialect of the Ukrainian language. In Ukraine, almost all Lemkos also speak Ukrainian, according to the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the Lemkos homeland is commonly referred to as Lemkivshchyna. This part of the Carpathian mountains is mostly deforested, which allowed for an economy, alongside such traditional occupations as ox grazing. The Lemko region became part of Poland in medieval Piast times, Lemkos were made part of the Austria province of Galicia in 1772. This area was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until its dissolution in 1918, independence did not last long however, and the republic was incorporated into Poland in 1920. Lemkos are/were neighbours with Slovaks, Carpathian Germans and Lachy sądeckie to the west, Pogorzans and Dolinians to the north, Ukrainians to the east, the name Lemko derives from the common expression Lem, which can mean but, only, or like in the Lemko dialect. This word is used in many dialects mainly around eastern Slovakia, Polish and Ukrainian border. Lemko came into use as an endonym after having been used as an exonym by the neighboring Lyshaks, Boykos and Hutsuls, the term in Slovak dialects would be Lemko, in Rusyn dialect it is Lemkiv, in Polish Lemkwich. In the late 19th and continuing into the early 20th century, some Lemkos have accepted the ethnonym, but many consider themselves to be a distinct ethnicity, while some continue to identify themselves as Rusyns. The ethnogenesis of the Lemkos is still being discussed by scholars, according to one theory, the Lemkos are descendants of the White Croats. Some Polish scholars claim that they developed from a Vlach/Romanian migration in the 14th and 15th centuries, there is also a view that they are refugees from Rus who moved to the Western side of the Carpathian Mountains in the 14th century to escape the Mongol invasion. Some scholars suggest that settlers from Rus may have arrived earlier to the area inhabited by Lemkos. Analysis of population genetics shows statistical differences between Lemkos and other Slavic or European populations, Lemkivshchyna became part of Poland in medieval Piast times. Lemkos became a minority as part of the Austria province of Galicia in 1772. Mass emigration from this territory to the Western hemisphere for economic reasons began in the late 19th century and it is estimated that about 130,000 to 140,000 Lemkos were living in the Polish part of Lemkivshchyna in 1939. Some 50,000 Lemkos live in the western and northern parts of Poland, among those,5,863 people identified themselves as Lemko in the 2002 census
8. Zdynia – Zdynia is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Uście Gorlickie, within Gorlice County, Lesser Poland Voivodeship, in southern Poland, close to the border with Slovakia. It lies approximately 12 kilometres east of Uście Gorlickie,21 km south-east of Gorlice, the village has a population of 220. Zdynia is the site of a festival of Lemko culture. The village is located between mountains of Beskid Niski on the way of walking and cycle paths and it is also a place of one of the largest in Poland motorcycle gatherings