The Candelaria Caves are a large natural cave system in the highland-lowland transition of Alta Verapaz in Guatemala between the municipalities of Chisec and Raxruha. The caves are famous for its peculiar karst phenomena and significance to the Mayan history, amongst the attractions of its huge karst caverns are speleothems like stalactites, stalagmites and flowstone drapes. Pit caves, caused by collapse of the ceiling, light the inside of the caves, the main gallery has a length of 22 km, of which 12.5 km follows the underground passage of the Candelaria River. The total length of the system, including coulisses, secondary. The Great Western Trade Route of the Classic Maya, which connected the Guatemalan highlands to the Petén lowlands, pottery artefacts evidence the use of the caves for ceremonies. The Popol Vuh of the Kiche people considers the Candelaria Caves an entrance to the underworld, the government of Guatemala declared the Candelaria Caves national park in 1999. After long battles with the government the local Qeqchi people gained the management of tourism in the caves through their “Association Maya Qeqchi Development and Tourism of Candelaria-Camposanto”
Bar Pot is one of the entrances to the Gaping Gill cave system being located about 340 metres south of Gaping Gill Main Shaft, on Ingleborough in the Yorkshire Dales. It is an entrance into the system, being one of the easiest, driest. It lies within the designated Ingleborough Site of Special Scientific Interest, a descending passage at the base of the large rocky shakehole leads to a 13-metre pitch, which is restricted at the top. Below the pitch a step down leads to the top of the Greasy Slab, at the bottom of the boulder slope Horrocks Way on the left leads into a further set of descending chambers. At the bottom of these are the two pitches into South-East Passage of Gaping Gill, the main pitch is straight ahead and can be reached by traversing round the ledge on the left, or by crawling forward from the bottom of the slope. An alternative route to the Big Pitch is accessed from the bottom of the entrance pitch, a wide bedding passage leads to the right. Across the other side a 3-metre climb leads to a 10-metre pitch, at the bottom of this a thin rift drops into a low bedding which soon enlarges and morphs into Whitehall, a high rift passage.
At the bottom left to arrive at the back of the platform overlooking the Big Pitch. Other passages of note, A small passage to the left at the base of the pitch drops into the top of Bridge Hall. Veering right after the pit in the wide bedding leading off from the base of the entrance leads to Small Mammal House. A passage to the right at the bottom of Bridge Hall leads into Whitehall, a traverse round to the right of Bridge Hall leads into the Graveyard Inlet which almost reaches the surface. A climb in the Bridge Hall Aven leads into Violet Ground Beetle Passage, a rope climb above the start of the traverse to the normal descent of the Big Pitch enters Horrocks-Stearn Crawl which leads into Flood Entrance Pot near the top of the main pitch. Small Mammal Pot may be found in a patch of clints 5 metres from the top of the path down into the Bar Pot shakehole, a 3-metre climb down enters a passage which almost immediately drops down a 19-metre pitch into Bar Pots Small Mammal House. Small Mammal House was named after the piles of small mammal found on the floor when it was first explored.
Stile Pot is in the shakehole below Small Mammal Pot near the wall-stile, a steeply descending passage and tight in places, emerges through the floor of Small Mammal House. The cave was first entered in 1949 by members of the British Speleological Association, the original route to the Big Pitch was through the bedding below the entrance pitch, down the 10-metre pitch, and through Whitehall. Bob Leakey discovered the route from Bridge Hall to Whitehall, wild Cat Rift was explored by members of the Northern Cave Club from below in 1969. The alternative entrance of Small Mammal Pot was opened up from below by Mike Wooding, the alternative entrance of Stile Pot was opened up by John Gardner, John Sellers, Dave Checkley and Phil Johnstone in 2008
The Abercrombie Caves, contained within the Abercrombie Karst Conservation Reserve, are a series of limestone arch caves that are located in the Central West region of New South Wales, Australia. The caves are renowned for their karst qualities, namely the formation that has been eroded by water action that has developed from a sinkhole to become a blind valley, several good examples of crayback formations exist in both entrances. The 1, 434-hectare reserve is situated 75 kilometres south of Bathurst and 125 kilometres north of Goulburn, the caves are registered as a natural heritage site on the Register of the National Estate for its large diversity of karst morphological and sedimentological features. Camping in the reserve is permitted, with sixty campground sites, the caves are open seven days a week during school holidays, and closed on Monday and Tuesday during school terms. The most popular feature of the Abercrombie Caves is the The Archway – the largest natural arch in the southern hemisphere, other caves within the reserve are King Solomons Temple, Cathedral Cave, Grove Cave, and the Bushrangers Cave.
It is believed that a tourist party visited the caves in 1834, Surveyor Wells discovered the Koh-i-noor, Long Tunnel, and Cathedral caves and the Hall of Terpsichore in 1843. Explorer William Wentworth and Governor Charles Fitzroy visited Abercrombie Caves in 1844 and it is believed that various bushrangers used the caves as a hideout during the 1800s. The earliest known is the Ribbon Gang who used the caves in 1830, gold was discovered in the area in 1854. A gold exploration community was established at Mount Gray, just above the caves, miners from many of the surrounding communities would often visit the caves for recreation. The caves were known as Burragylong Caverns and during the mining period they became known as Abercrombie caves. Vandalism occurred in the days when many pieces of white marble were carted away by the visitors as souvenirs. Some graffiti name carvings can still be seen inside the caves from the 19th century period, list of caves in New South Wales Protected areas of New South Wales Abercrombie Caves.
Historic Abercrombie Caves & Trunkey Creek
The Boho Caves are a selection of caves centred on the village of Boho, County Fermanagh on the northern slopes of Belmore Mountain. They encompass the main Boho Cave and the smaller Waterfall Cave, the Boho Cave system is the sixth-longest cave system in Northern Ireland, is designated an Area of Special Scientific Interest and is the only example of joint-controlled caves in Northern Ireland. The rock strata at Boho Caves date from the Asbian substage of the Carboniferous period, the Dartry Limestone is, in turn, overlain by the Meenymore Formation and the Glenade Sandstone. The caves are formed within the Dartry Limestone, the main cave contains typical karst features such as stalactites, cave curtains and flowstone. The water flowing through the Boho Caves originates from Aghanaglack River, after dry weather, the river sinks in the streambed well upstream of the caves and does not emerge until far downstream past the ravine. In wetter conditions, water flows into the system via several routes including the Main Sink entrance.
It exits the cave at the usual downstream resurgences, as well as the Upper and Lower Ravine caves and in high floods. The caves at Boho have been known locally for hundreds of years, by 1870 it was quite the norm for tourists to arrange a guided tour with a local resident, as William Wakeman described in his guide book of that year. Boho quarry, in there are a number of entrances to the cave, was active until the mid-1950s and many local people would have explored short sections of the cave during. The Yorkshire Ramblers explored Boho Caves in 1907 but it was not until the mid-1960s that a survey of this system was attempted by Dublin cavers. The system was extensively resurveyed by the Reyfad Group in the 1980s, Boho is a cave much used by guided educational parties studying the local environment and by casual visitors, but exploration should never be undertaken lightly. In wet weather the narrow passages flood quickly and at times the cave is extremely dangerous. Heavy flood pulses have been known to inundate the cave up to 24 hours after heavy rain has ceased, and it is recommended that the Upper Ravine area downstream of Boho quarry should NOT be visited under any circumstances because of roosting bats.
The main biospeleological interest in the Boho area is the population of approximately 50 Daubentons or Water Bats which roost in the Upper Ravine Cave, lass of Nottingham University made extensive faunal collections in Boho Caves which included the identification of the troglobitic Collembolan. Phil Chapman cites the collection of a stickleback from Boho and the Field Shake Holes, the strong draughts may bring trogloxenes into the cave on which this population thrives. The record of the beetle, Agabus biguttatus, was of some interest at the time as there had been few Irish records of this spring and cave-dwelling species. Caves of the Tullybrack and Belmore hills List of caves in the United Kingdom List of caves Jones, Gaby, Tim, John. The Caves of Fermanagh and Cavan
Originally on a private property, the Ashford Caves are now part of the Kwiambal National Park. A basic camping ground called Lemon Tree Flat is located within a 10-kilometre radius of the cave entrance, the large arch-shaped opening was made to access the phosphate resources for use as fertilizer, which has been quite profitable. Prospects of mining limestone at this location have been explored, a colony of Eastern Bent-wing Bats inhabits the cave system and breeds from November through March. List of caves in New South Wales
Banwell Caves are a 1. 7-hectare geological and biological Site of Special Scientific Interest near the village of Banwell, North Somerset, England notified in 1963. The site comprises two caves, called Banwell Bone Cave and Banwell Stalactite Cave, which lie within the grounds of a large house, at the western end of Banwell Hill. The caves contain barite deposits, which are found in abundance and variety here than at any other site in the Mendip Hills. The site has several grottos and follies, including the Pebble summerhouse, Druids Temple, the first cave to be discovered was the Stalactite Cave in 1757. This was opened in 1824 as a cave to raise money for the local school. In an attempt to access easier, a tunnel was dug into the hill during which the bone cave was discovered in 1825. The bishop had paths and folly buildings created for visitors and built a small cottage, since the 1970s, preservation and restoration work has been undertaken. Banwell Bone Cave is 100 m long and 20 m deep, the Bone Cavern itself is 8 m high and wide and 20 m long.
It is approached through an early 19th-century archway and it contains an assemblage of bones of mammals from the Pleistocene era. The cave has a hole in the roof and is believed to have been used as a pitfall trap. The Bone Cave was discovered in 1824 during attempts to drive a horizontal passage into the Stalactite Cave, archaeological excavation was carried out by William Beard, with some of the bones being removed, but many being left in the cave in stacks. Banwell Stalactite Cave is 240 m long and 75 m deep, although no stream now runs through the cave, there is a deep lake in one of the chambers. The Stalactite Cave was entered by miners in 1757, and was a cave between about 1824 and 1864. The 18-metre high, three-stage tower, which is known as the Banwell Monument or Banwell Pepperpot, was built in 1840 from local lias stone with some decoration in Bath stone. During World War II, it was used as a tower by the Home Guard. By the 1960s it was in a state of repair. Local conservation groups undertook conservation work, and it was reopened to the public in 1996 and it is a Grade II listed building.
Banwell Ochre Caves Caves of the Mendip Hills www. banwellcaves. org - site maintained by the Banwell Caves Heritage Group Mendip Cave Registry and Archive - Banwell Caves
The Amboni Caves are the most extensive limestone caves in East Africa. They are located 8 km north of Tanga City in Tanzania off the Tanga-Mombasa road, the caves were formed about 150 million years ago during the Jurassic age. It covers an area of 234 km², according to researchers the area was under water some 20 million years ago. There are altogether ten caves but only one is used for guided tours, Amboni Limited, a company which was operating sisal plantations in Tanga Region acquired the area in 1892. The company notified the British colonial government about the caves who in turn declared the caves a conservation area in 1922. It is not known when the caves were discovered but reports indicate that ethnic groups such as the Segeju, Bondei. In 1963, the government of Tanganyika handed over the caves to the Department of Antiquities. The cave attracts tourist as well as students for their geography lessons, the attractions include, Popo flight -. Many of them live in the caves, every evening at sunset they fly out of the cave entrance.
Rocks in the shape of, a sofa, a ship, a crocodile, an elephant, map of Africa, Statue of Liberty and a head of a male lion
Bracken Cave is the summer home to the largest colony of bats in the world. An estimated 20 million Mexican Free-tailed Bats roost in the cave from March to October making it the largest known concentration of mammals, the cave is located in southern Comal County, outside the city of San Antonio. The 100-foot-wide crescent shaped opening to the lies at the bottom of a sinkhole. Bat Conservation International bought the initial 697 acres from the Marbach family, access to the cave is restricted to protect the habitat of the resident bats. Bat Conservation International offers evening guided tours to the cave to watch the bats emerge from the cave, despite its protected nature, Bracken Cave has been featured in the media several times since its discovery. National Geographic Wild HD channel included Bracken Cave in its Worlds Weirdest Series, the Bracken Cave is the destination every March or April of over 20,000,000 Mexican Free-tailed bats. These bats fly as much as 1,000 miles from Mexico to this cave, after arriving in the cave, the migrant mothers give birth to pups.
An astounding 500 pups have been recorded clinging to one foot of the cave walls—an ingenious way for keeping warm. The bats consume several tons of insects per night, which according to research conducted in 2006, while the Bracken Cave bat roost is often estimated at 20 million, the true number of bats is unknown due to unreliable counting methods. Bracken Bat Cave at Bat Conservation International
Cave of the Mounds
Cave of the Mounds, a natural limestone cave located near Blue Mounds, United States, is named for two nearby hills called the Blue Mounds. It is located in the slope of the east hill. The caves beauty comes from its many varieties of mineral formations called speleothems, the Chicago Academy of Sciences considers the Cave of the Mounds to be the significant cave of the upper Midwest because of its beauty, and it is promoted as the jewel box of major American caves. In 1987, the United States Department of the Interior and the National Park Service designated the cave as a National Natural Landmark, the limestone from which the cave was carved began forming approximately 488 million years ago, during the Ordovician Period. During this time, much of North America was covered with warm, over millions of years, calcium carbonate shells from tiny marine organisms accumulated on the sea floor, forming enormous quantities of limestone. The type of limestone in which the cave was formed is called galena dolomite because of its concentration of the lead ore galena.
The cave began forming about a million to a million and a half years ago, a large crack in the surface of the rock, called the caves lifeline, allowed rain water to seep into the stone. In the air, rain combines with carbon dioxide to form a weak carbonic acid, though this acid is not very strong, it is strong enough to dissolve away the limestone after it seeps in through the lifeline. Over time, large cavities were dissolved in the stone and as the water table dropped, the water drained out and this is a very gradual process, usually taking 50 to 150 years to form one cubic inch of material, and continues to this day. The area around the Blue Mounds, Dane County, was first settled in 1828 by Ebenezer Brigham and he had traveled to Wisconsin to join in the lead rush of the late 1820s. After arriving, he set up operations just north of where the cave lies today, ebenezers house became a trading post, an inn, a stagecoach stop, and the first post office in Dane County. Ebenezer Brigham became a colonel and helped build and command Fort Blue Mounds during the Blackhawk War and he died after a long life, not knowing that a beautiful cave existed beneath his Brigham Farm.
On August 4,1939, Cave of the Mounds was discovered accidentally when limestone quarry workers blasted a section of the quarry, work at the quarry immediately stopped and was never continued. Soon after, the cave was closed to prevent damage from curious souvenir seekers who removed pieces of stalactites and stalagmites to take home, there are still foot-sized holes in the flowstone left by these early explorers. The cave was reopened in May,1940, after lights, since then, the wooden walkways have been replaced with concrete ones to accommodate the many visitors. Theatrical lighting has installed to further highlight the colors. In 1987, the cave was designated a National Natural Landmark by the United States Department of the Interior, to be considered a NNL, a site must be one of the best examples of a natural regions characteristic biotic or geologic features. Cave of the Mounds is home to varieties of speleothems
A cave is a hollow place in the ground, specifically a natural underground space large enough for a human to enter. Caves form naturally by the weathering of rock and often extend deep underground, the word cave can refer to much smaller openings such as sea caves, rock shelters, and grottos. A cavern is a type of cave, naturally formed in soluble rock with the ability to grow speleothems. Speleology is the science of exploration and study of all aspects of caves, visiting or exploring caves for recreation may be called caving, potholing, or spelunking. The formation and development of caves is known as speleogenesis, which can occur over the course of millions of years, caves are formed by various geologic processes and can be variable sizes. These may involve a combination of processes, erosion from water, tectonic forces, pressure. Isotopic dating techniques can be applied to cave sediments, in order to determine the timescale when geologic events may have occurred to help form and it is estimated that the maximum depth of a cave cannot be more than 3,000 metres due to the pressure of overlying rocks.
For karst caves the maximum depth is determined on the basis of the limit of karst forming processes. Most caves are formed in limestone by dissolution, solutional caves or karst caves are the most frequently occurring caves and such caves form in rock that is soluble. Most occur in limestone, but they can form in other rocks including chalk, marble, salt. Rock is dissolved by acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes, joints. Over geological epochs cracks expand to become caves and cave systems, the largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3, the dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation and these include flowstones, stalagmites, soda straws and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems, the portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.
Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S gas rising from below, where reservoirs of oil give off sulfurous fumes and this gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4. The acid dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, caves formed at the same time as the surrounding rock are called primary caves