Category:Lords Protector of England
Pages in category "Lords Protector of England"
The following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 8 pages are in this category, out of 8 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. England – England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west, the Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east, the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain in its centre and south, and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly, and the Isle of Wight. England became a state in the 10th century, and since the Age of Discovery. The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the worlds first industrialised nation, Englands terrain mostly comprises low hills and plains, especially in central and southern England. However, there are uplands in the north and in the southwest, the capital is London, which is the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland through another Act of Union to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the name England is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means land of the Angles. The Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages, the Angles came from the Angeln peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea. The earliest recorded use of the term, as Engla londe, is in the ninth century translation into Old English of Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars, it has been suggested that it derives from the shape of the Angeln peninsula, an angular shape. An alternative name for England is Albion, the name Albion originally referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus, specifically the 4th century BC De Mundo, in it are two very large islands called Britannia, these are Albion and Ierne. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, the word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins. Albion is now applied to England in a poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England, Lloegr, the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago, Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
2. Oliver Cromwell – Oliver Cromwell was an English military and political leader and later Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Cromwell was born into the gentry, albeit to a family descended from the sister of King Henry VIIIs minister Thomas Cromwell. Little is known of the first 40 years of his life as only four of his letters survive alongside a summary of a speech he delivered in 1628. He became an Independent Puritan after undergoing a conversion in the 1630s. He was a religious man, a self-styled Puritan Moses. He was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in 1628 and for Cambridge in the Short and he entered the English Civil War on the side of the Roundheads or Parliamentarians. Cromwell was one of the signatories of King Charles Is death warrant in 1649 and he was selected to take command of the English campaign in Ireland in 1649–1650. Cromwells forces defeated the Confederate and Royalist coalition in Ireland and occupied the country, during this period, a series of Penal Laws were passed against Roman Catholics, and a substantial amount of their land was confiscated. Cromwell also led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650 and 1651, as a ruler, he executed an aggressive and effective foreign policy. He died from natural causes in 1658 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, the Royalists returned to power in 1660, and they had his corpse dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. In a 2002 BBC poll in Britain, Cromwell, sponsored by military historian Richard Holmes was selected as one of the ten greatest Britons of all time. However, his measures against Catholics in Scotland and Ireland have been characterised as genocidal or near-genocidal, Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599 to Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. Katherine married Morgan ap William, son of William ap Yevan of Wales, Henry suggested to Sir Richard Williams, who was the first to use a surname in his family, that he use Cromwell, in honour of his uncle Thomas Cromwell. They had ten children, but Oliver, the child, was the only boy to survive infancy. Jasper was the uncle of Henry VII and great uncle of Henry VIII, Cromwells paternal grandfather Sir Henry Williams was one of the two wealthiest landowners in Huntingdonshire. Cromwells father Robert was of modest means but still a part of the gentry class, as a younger son with many siblings, Robert inherited only a house at Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes, Cromwell himself in 1654 said, I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity. He was baptised on 29 April 1599 at St Johns Church and he went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, then a recently founded college with a strong Puritan ethos
3. Richard III of England – Richard III was King of England from 1483 until his death in 1485, at the age of 32, in the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of the House of York and the last of the Plantagenet dynasty and his defeat at Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the subject of the historical play Richard III by William Shakespeare, when his brother King Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edwards son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. As the young king travelled to London from Ludlow, Richard met and escorted him to lodgings in the Tower of London, on 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed the claims. The following day, Richard III began his reign, and he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes were not seen in public after August, and accusations circulated that the boys had been murdered on Richards orders, there were two major rebellions against Richard. The first, in October 1483, was led by allies of Edward IV and Richards former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor, Henry Tudor landed in southern Wales with a small contingent of French troops and marched through his birthplace, Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henrys force engaged Richards army and defeated it at the Battle of Bosworth Field in Leicestershire, Richard was struck down in the conflict, making him the last English king to die in battle on home soil and the first since Harold Godwinson. Henry then ascended the throne as Henry VII, after the battle Richards corpse was taken to Leicester and buried without pomp. His original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the Reformation, in 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on a city council car park on the site once occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church. Richards remains were reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015 and they returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton and participated in the coronation of Richards eldest brother as King Edward IV in June 1461. At this time Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made a Knight of the Garter and Knight of the Bath, by the age of seventeen, he had an independent command. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, while at Warwicks estate, he probably met Francis Lovell, a strong supporter later in his life, and Warwicks younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match, during Warwicks lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the kings permission. George joined his father-in-laws revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward, in 1468, Richards sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, and the brothers could expect a welcome there. Although only eighteen years old, Richard played crucial roles in the battles of Barnet, during his adolescence, Richard developed idiopathic scoliosis. Following a decisive Yorkist victory over the Lancastrians at the Battle of Tewkesbury, Richard married Anne Neville, by the end of 1470 Anne had previously been wedded to Edward of Westminster, only son of Henry VI, to seal her fathers allegiance to the Lancastrian party
4. Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York – Richard of York, 3rd Duke of York KG, was a leading English magnate, a great-grandson of King Edward III through his father, and a great-great-great-grandson of the same king through his mother. He inherited vast estates and served in offices of state in Ireland, France, and England. Richard eventually attempted to take the throne, but was dissuaded, but within a few weeks of securing this agreement, he died in battle. Although Richard never became king himself, he was the father of King Edward IV, Anne Mortimer was the great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, the second surviving son of King Edward III. On his fathers side, Richard had a claim to the throne in a male line of descent from his grandfather Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York. Although the Earls title was forfeited, he was not attainted, Richard had an only sister, Isabel of Cambridge, who became Countess of Essex upon her second marriage in 1426. Within a few months of his fathers death, Richards childless uncle, Edward of Norwich, after some hesitation, King Henry V allowed Richard to inherit his uncles title and the lands of the Duchy of York. The lesser title but greater estates of the Earldom of March also descended to him on the death of his maternal uncle Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, however, during his lifetime, Mortimer remained a faithful supporter of the House of Lancaster. The Valor Ecclesiasticus shows that Yorks net income from Mortimer lands alone was £3,430 in the year 1443–44, as he was an orphan, Richards income became the property of, and was managed by, the crown. Ralph Neville had fathered an enormous family and had many daughters needing husbands, as was his right, in 1424 he betrothed the 13-year-old Richard to his daughter Cecily Neville, then aged 9. In October 1425, when Ralph Neville died, he bequeathed the wardship of York to his widow, by now the wardship was even more valuable, as Richard had inherited the Mortimer estates on the death of the Earl of March. These manors were concentrated in Wales, and in the Welsh Borders around Ludlow, little is recorded of Richards early life. On 19 May 1426 he was knighted at Leicester by John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford, in October 1429 his marriage to Cecily Neville took place. On 6 November he was present at the coronation of King Henry VI in Westminster Abbey. He then followed Henry to France, being present at his coronation as king of France in Notre Dame on 16 December 1431, finally, on 12 May 1432, he came into his inheritance and was granted full control of his estates. In May 1436, a few months after Bedfords death, York was appointed to succeed him as Lieutenant in France. Yorks appointment was one of a number of stop-gap measures after the death of Bedford to try to retain French possessions until the young King Henry VI could assume personal rule, the fall of Paris led to his army being redirected to Normandy. Working with Bedfords captains, York had some success, recapturing Fecamp and holding on to the Pays de Caux, while establishing good order and justice in the Duchy of Normandy
5. Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester – Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, 1st Earl of Pembroke, KG was an English nobleman. Mettled and courageous, he was a foil for the beautiful Jacqueline of Hainaut and his learned, widely read, scholarly approach to the early renaissance cultural expansion demonstrated the quintessential well-rounded princely character. He was an exemplar for Oxford, accomplished, diplomatic, with political cunning, unlike his brothers, he was not naturally brave, but opinionated, fervent and judgmental. He exaggerated his own achievements, but idolized his brother Henry V and he was the youngest in a powerful quadrumvirate of brothers, who were very close companions, on 20 March 1413, Henry and Humphrey had been at their dying fathers bedside. Thomas, John and Humphrey had all been knighted in 1399 and they joined the Order of the Garter together in 1400. The place of his birth is unknown, but he was named after his grandfather, Humphrey de Bohun. During the reign of Henry IV, Humphrey received a scholars education, following his fathers death he was created Duke of Gloucester in 1414, and Chamberlain of England, and he took his seat in Parliament. In 1415 he became a member of the Privy Council, before embarking for France, the army camped at Southampton, where the Earl of Cambridge failed in an assassination plot to kill the king. Humphrey and his brother, the Duke of Clarence, led an Inquiry of Lords to try Lords Cambridge, during Henry Vs campaigns in France, Humphrey gained a reputation as a successful commander. His knowledge of warfare, gained from his classical studies. During the Battle of Agincourt Humphrey was wounded, as he fell, the king sheltered his body, for his services, Humphrey was granted offices including Constable of Dover, Warden of the Cinque Ports on 27 November, and Kings Lieutenant. His tenure in government was peaceful and successful and this period commenced with Emperor Sigismunds peace mission. At Paris in March 1416, the Emperor was arrested on the beach by Duke Humphrey, the Treaty of eternal friendship signed at Canterbury on 15 August served only to anticipate renewed hostility from France. Upon the death of his brother in 1422, Humphrey became Lord Protector to his young nephew Henry VI and he also claimed the right to the regency of England following the death of his elder brother, John, Duke of Bedford. Humphreys claims were contested by the lords of the kings council. Henry Vs will, rediscovered at Eton College in 1978, actually supported Humphreys claims, in 1436 Philip, Duke of Burgundy, attacked Calais. Duke Humphrey was appointed garrison commander, the Flemings assaulted from the landward but the English resistance was stubborn. Humphrey marched the army to Baillieul, taking the English to safety, Humphrey was consistently popular with the citizens of London and the Commons
6. John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford – After his fathers accession to the throne of England as Henry IV, John of Lancaster began to accumulate lands and lucrative offices. He was knighted on 12 October 1399 at his fathers coronation, between 1403 and 1405 grants of the forfeited lands from the House of Percy and of the alien priory of Ogbourne, Wiltshire, considerably increased his income. He was appointed master of the mews and falcons in 1402, Constable of England in 1403 and he was created Earl of Kendal, Earl of Richmond and Duke of Bedford in 1414 by his brother, King Henry V. When Henry V died in 1422, Bedford vied with his brother, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester. Bedford was declared Regent but focused on the war in France. Bedford defeated the French several times, most notably at the Battle of Verneuil, until the arrival of Joan of Arc rallied the opposition, in 1431, Bedford had Joan tried and executed at Rouen, then arranged a coronation for the young Henry VI at Paris. Bedford had been Governor in Normandy between 1422–1432 where the University of Caen was founded under his auspices and he was an extremely important commissioner of illuminated manuscripts, both from Paris and England. This last is signed in two places by Herman Scheere, all are lavishly decorated and famous examples of the style of the period. Johns first marriage was to Anne, daughter of John the Fearless on 13 May 1423 in Troyes, The couple were happily married, Anne died of the plague in Paris in 1432. Johns second marriage was to Jacquetta of Luxembourg and this marriage was also childless, though Jacquetta went on to have more than a dozen children in her second marriage. In addition, out of wedlock he had a daughter named Mary, who married Pierre de Montferrand, son of the lord of Langoiran, Soudan de la Trau, and had issue, and a son, Richard. John died in 1435 during the Congress of Arras at his Castle of Joyeux Repos in Rouen and was buried at Rouen Cathedral and he had no legitimate surviving issue. He appears in William Shakespeares plays Henry IV, Part 1 and Henry IV, Part 2 as John of Lancaster, georgette Heyers novel My Lord John deals with his life from when he was four to about twenty. In the 2011 Philippa Gregory novel, The Lady of the Rivers, John features as the first husband of main character, in Tony Milnes play bloody bedford, he is the protagonist, facing Joan of Arc. The play focuses on his role as the last English Regent of France, as a son of the sovereign, John bore the Royal arms of his father King Henry IV, differenced by a label of five points per pale ermine and France. It is possible that the yale was painted in silver which has tarnished black, the shield is surrounded with a pair of banners gules which reverse in argent with the motto repeated four times, A vous entier. The Hours were supposedly produced as a present from John to his wife, Anne. Johns second wife, Jacquetta of Luxembourg, cousin to the Emperor, was mother to Elizabeth Woodville who may be this queen, Elizabeth Woodvilles right to inherit these armorial supporters would seem dubious if they belong to her mothers first husband or to his first wife
7. Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset – Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset KG was Lord Protector of England from 1547 until 1549 during the minority of his nephew, King Edward VI. He was the eldest brother of Queen Jane Seymour, the wife of King Henry VIII. Edward Seymour was born circa 1500, the son of Sir John Seymour by his wife Margery Wentworth, in 1514 aged about 14 he received an appointment in the household of Mary Tudor. When Edwards sister Jane Seymour married King Henry VIII in 1536, he was created Viscount Beauchamp on 5 June 1536 and he became Warden of the Scottish Marches and continued in royal favour after his sisters death on 24 October 1537. Upon the death of Henry VIII, Seymours nephew became king as Edward VI. Henry VIIIs will named sixteen executors and these executors were supplemented by twelve men of counsail who would assist the executors when called on. The final state of Henry VIIIs will has occasioned controversy, some historians suggest that those close to the king manipulated either him or the will itself to ensure a shareout of power to their benefit, both material and religious. In this reading, the composition of the Privy Chamber shifted towards the end of 1546 in favour of the Protestant faction, in addition, two leading conservative Privy Councillors were removed from the centre of power. Stephen Gardiner was refused access to Henry during his last months, whatever the case, Henrys death was followed by a lavish hand-out of lands and honours to the new power group. Henry VIIIs will did not provide for the appointment of a Protector and it entrusted the government of the realm during his sons minority to a Regency Council that would rule collectively, by majority decision, with like and equal charge. Nevertheless, a few days after Henrys death, on 4 February, thirteen out of the sixteen agreed to his appointment as Protector, which they justified as their joint decision by virtue of the authority of Henrys will. Seymour may have done a deal with some of the executors and he is known to have done so with William Paget, private secretary to Henry VIII, and to have secured the support of Sir Anthony Browne of the Privy Chamber. Hertfords appointment was in keeping with historical precedent, and his eligibility for the role was reinforced by his successes in Scotland. In March 1547, he secured letters patent from King Edward granting him the almost monarchical right to appoint members to the Privy Council himself, in the words of historian G. R. Elton, from that moment his autocratic system was complete. He proceeded to rule largely by proclamation, calling on the Privy Council to do more than rubber-stamp his decisions. Somersets takeover of power was smooth and efficient, wriothesley, a religious conservative, objected to Somerset’s assumption of monarchical power over the Council. He then found himself dismissed from the chancellorship on charges of selling off some of his offices to delegates. Somerset faced less manageable opposition from his younger brother Thomas, who has described as a worm in the bud. As King Edwards uncle, Thomas Seymour demanded the governorship of the king’s person, Somerset tried to buy his brother off with a barony, an appointment to the Lord Admiralship, and a seat on the Privy Council—but Thomas was bent on scheming for power
8. Lord Protector – Lord Protector is a title that has been used in British constitutional law for head of state. It is also a title for the British heads of state in respect to the established church. It is sometimes used to refer to holders of temporary posts, for example. The title of The Lord Protector was originally used by princes or other nobles exercising an individual regency while the English monarch was still a minor or otherwise unable to rule. The title was held by Oliver Cromwell and subsequently his son, the replacement constitution of 1657, the Humble Petition and Advice, gave His Highness the Lord Protector the power to nominate his successor. Cromwell chose his eldest surviving son, the politically inexperienced Richard and this was a non-representative and de facto dynastic mode of succession, with royal connotations in both styles awarded, and many other monarchic prerogatives, such as that of awarding knighthoods. Since the Restoration the title has not been used in either of the above manners, george, Prince of Wales, appointed to the regency in 1811, was referred to as His Royal Highness the Prince Regent. George exercised the powers of the monarchy, just as Lords Protector had, in Mary Shelleys novel The Last Man, 21st-century England is a republic, which elects a Lord Protector as the head of state and head of government every three years. The references especially come into play in Heartfire, the book in the series. While the title is not the same, the character Denethor in The Lord of the Rings conducts the same role as Steward of Gondor, due to the absence of the line of kings. Alan BStard on the episode of UK sitcom The New Statesman, after winning the general election. By the end of the episode, the technologically advanced society was governed by the Central Protectorate. In the MicroProse videogame Sid Meiers Civilization II, the term Lord Protector is applied to the leader of the English civilisation under the Fundamentalism type of government, trinidadian calypsonian Patrick Jones, or Chinee Patrick, was also known by the names Lord Protector and Oliver Cromwell. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh
9. Richard Cromwell – On his fathers death Richard became Lord Protector, but lacked authority. He attempted to mediate between the army and civil society, and allowed a Parliament which contained a number of disaffected Presbyterians. Suspicions that civilian councilors were intent on supplanting the army were brought to a head by an attempt to prosecute a major-general for actions against a Royalist. The army made a show of force against Richard, and may have had him in detention. Without a king-like figure, such as Cromwell, as head of state the government lacked coherence, monck then presided over the Restoration of 1660. Richard Cromwell subsisted in straitened circumstances after his resignation, he went abroad and he eventually returned to his English estate, dying in his eighties. None of his children had offspring of their own and he has no descendants, Cromwell was born in Huntingdon on 4 October 1626, the third son of Oliver Cromwell and his wife Elizabeth. Little is known of his childhood and he and his three brothers were educated at Felsted School in Essex close to their mothers family home. There is no record of his attending university, in May 1647, he became a member of Lincolns Inn. He may have served as a captain in Thomas Fairfaxs lifeguard during the late 1640s, in 1649 Cromwell married Dorothy Maijor, daughter of Richard Maijor, a member of the Hampshire gentry. He and his wife moved to Maijors estate at Hursley in Hampshire. During the 1650s they had nine children, five of whom survived to adulthood, Cromwell was named a Justice of the Peace for Hampshire and sat on various county committees. Better than idleness, or mere outward worldly contents and these fit for public services, for which a man is born. He fought in none of the English civil wars, Oliver Cromwell had risen from unknown member of Parliament in his forties to being commander of the New Model Army, which emerged victorious from the English Civil War. A Puritan regime strictly enforced the Sabbath, and banned almost all form of public celebration, in 1653, Cromwell was passed over as a member of Barebones Parliament, although his younger brother Henry was a member of it. Under the Protectorates constitution, Oliver Cromwell was required to nominate a successor and he was present at the second installation of his father as Lord Protector in June, having played no part in the first installation. In July he was appointed chancellor of Oxford University, and in December was made a member of the Council of State, Oliver Cromwell died on 3 September 1658, and Richard was informed on the same day that he was to succeed him. Richard was faced by two immediate problems, the first was the army, which questioned his position as commander given his lack of military experience