This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
Pages in category "Luck"
The following 41 pages are in this category, out of 41 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
The following 41 pages are in this category, out of 41 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Luck – Yet the author Max Gunther defines it as events that influence ones life and are seemingly beyond ones control. It is the sense that people mean when they say they do not believe in luck. In the descriptive sense, people speak of luck after events that they find to be fortunate or unfortunate, Therefore, cultural views of luck vary from perceiving luck as a matter of random chance to attributing to such explanations of faith or superstition. For example, the Romans believed in the embodiment of luck as the goddess Fortuna, Carl Jung viewed luck as synchronicity, which he described as a meaningful coincidence. Lucky symbols are popular worldwide and take many forms, the English noun luck appears comparatively late, during the 1480s, as a loan from Low German luk, a short form of gelucke. Compare to old Slavic word lukyj - appointed by destiny and old Russian luchaj - destiny and it likely entered English as a gambling term, and the context of gambling remains detectable in the words connotations, luck is a way of understanding a personal chance event. Luck has three aspects which make it distinct from chance or probability, Luck can be accident or chance. Luck applies to a sentient being, some examples of luck, Finding a valuable object or money. Winning an event despite negative logical assumptions and you correctly guess an answer in a quiz which you did not know. Luck is interpreted and understood in different ways. Luck refers to that which happens to a person beyond that persons control and this view incorporates phenomena that are chance happenings, a persons place of birth for example, but where there is no uncertainty involved, or where the uncertainty is irrelevant. Within this framework, one can differentiate between three different types of luck, Constitutional luck, that is, luck with factors that cannot be changed, place of birth and genetic constitution are typical examples. Circumstantial luck—with factors that are brought on. Accidents and epidemics are typical examples, ignorance luck, that is, luck with factors one does not know about. Examples can be identified only in hindsight, another view holds that luck is probability taken personally. A rationalist approach to luck includes the application of the rules of probability, the rationalist thinks that the belief in luck is a result of poor reasoning or wishful thinking. In general, A happens and then B happens, Therefore, in the rationalist perspective, probability is only affected by confirmed causal connections. The gamblers fallacy and inverse gamblers fallacy both explain some reasoning problems in common beliefs in luck and they involve denying the unpredictability of random events, I havent rolled a seven all week, so Ill definitely roll one tonight
2. Barnstar – They have no structural purpose, but may be considered lucky, akin to a horseshoe mounted over a doorway. They are especially common in Pennsylvania and frequently seen in German-American farming communities, Barnstars were meant to represent the mark of the builder, but became more frequently used for aesthetic purposes and were added to the building after construction was complete. Enthusiasts have traced a number of wooden barnstars to individual builders in the Pennsylvania area, Barnstars were used in the United States during the 18th century and as late as 1870 in Pennsylvania, where their popularity increased greatly following the Civil War. Their regular use preceded that time, however, and stars were commonplace on large buildings, particularly factories, in pre-war Richmond, Barnstars remain a popular form of decoration, and modern houses are sometimes decorated with simple, metal, five-pointed stars which the makers describe as barn-stars. They are often deliberately distressed or rusted, alluding to the traditional decoration, strictly speaking, they are defined apart from barnstars and visually bear only passing resemblance, but the two are often confused and their names are even regarded as interchangeable. Some hex signs incorporate star shapes, while others may take the form of a rosette or contain pictures of birds, the term barnstar has been incorrectly applied to star-shaped anchor plates that are used for structural reinforcement, particularly on masonry buildings from the 18th and 19th centuries. These are made of cast iron and are used as tie plates serving as the washers for tie rods, the tie-rod-and-plate assembly serves to brace the masonry wall against tilting or lateral bowing. Some Wiki-based communities give their users an award called a barnstar, the practice originated on MeatballWiki and was adapted by Wikipedia in 2003. The image that is used for this purpose is actually a photo of one of the structural tie plates described above. Barnstars Pentagram Hex sign Pow-wow, Pennsylvania Dutch folk magic Star Wikipedia, Barnstars The dictionary definition of barnstar at Wiktionary
3. Black cat – A black cat is a domestic cat with black fur that may be a mixed or specific breed. The Cat Fanciers Association recognizes 22 cat breeds that can come with black coats. The Bombay breed is exclusively black, all-black fur pigmentation is slightly more prevalent in male cats than female cats. Their high melanin pigment content causes most black cats to have yellow eyes, any cat whose fur is a single color, including black, is known as a solid or self. A solid black cat may be black, grayish black. Most solid-colored cats result from a gene that suppresses the tabby pattern. Sometimes the tabby pattern is not completely suppressed, faint markings may appear in certain lights, a cat having black fur with white roots is known as a black smoke. Black cats can also rust in sunlight, the coat turning a lighter brownish shade, in addition to the Bombay, the Cat Fanciers Association allows solid black as a color option in 21 other breeds. The color description for those breeds is, Black, dense coal black, free from any tinge of rust on the tips. The exceptions are, Oriental – Ebony, dense coal black, free from any tinge of rust on tips or smoke undercoat. One level tone from nose to tip of tail, the folklore surrounding black cats varies from culture to culture. The Scots believe that a strange black cats arrival to the home signifies prosperity, in Celtic mythology, a fairy known as the Cat Sìth takes the form of a black cat. Black cats are considered good luck in the rest of Britain. Furthermore, it is believed that a lady who owns a cat will have many suitors. In Western history, black cats have often looked upon as a symbol of evil omens, specifically being suspected of being the familiars of witches. Most of Europe considers the cat a symbol of bad luck, particularly if one walks across the path in front of a person. In Germany, some believe that black cats crossing a path from right to left, is a bad omen. But from left to right, the cat is granting favorable times, in the United Kingdom it is commonly considered that a black cat crossing a persons path is a good omen
4. Chain letter – A typical chain letter consists of a message that attempts to convince the recipient to make a number of copies of the letter and then pass them on to as many recipients as possible. In reality, the chain is actually a geometrically progressing pyramid that cannot be sustained indefinitely, Chain letters started as actual letters that one received in the mail. Today, chain letters are no longer actual letters. They are sent through email messages, postings on social network sites, there are two main types of chain letters, Hoaxes - Hoaxes attempt to trick or defraud users. A hoax could be malicious, instructing users to delete a file necessary to the system by claiming it is a virus. It could also be a scam that convinces users to send money or personal information, phishing attacks could fall into this. Urban legends - Urban legends are designed to be redistributed and usually warn users of a threat or claim to be notifying them of important or urgent information. Another common form are the emails that promise users monetary rewards for forwarding the message or suggest that they are signing something that will be submitted to a particular group, Urban legends usually have no negative effect aside from wasted time. In the United States, chain letters that request money or other items of value, however, it is often difficult to distinguish chain letters from genuine correspondence. The oldest known channel for chain letters is written, or printed and these might be exchanged hand-to-hand or distributed through the mail. One notorious early example was the Prosperity Club or Send-a-Dime letter and this letter started in Denver, Colorado in 1935, based on an earlier luck letter. It soon swamped the Denver post office with hundreds of thousands of letters before spilling into St. Louis, Chain letters take religious perspectives especially relating to Christianity. Often these letters originate from photocopy centers, claiming to have originated from the Pope, messages sometimes include phony promises from companies or wealthy individuals promising a monetary reward to everyone who receives the message. They may also be motivated, such as Save the Scouts. Some, like the Hawaiian Good Luck Totem which has spread in thousands of forms, platforms like Facebook and YouTube can host chain letters playing with users emotions. They may also be in the form of a warning, such as stories of escaped convicts et cetera which urge the reader to pass the message on. One chain letter distributed on MSN Hotmail began, Hey its Tara and John the directors of MSN. another common form of email chain letter is the virus hoax and a form of cyberbullying. Chain letters within social media became widespread on Myspace and YouTube as well as on Facebook through messages or applications
5. Crossed fingers – To cross ones fingers is a hand gesture commonly used to wish for luck. Occasionally it is interpreted as an attempt to implore God for protection, the gesture is referred to by the common expressions cross your fingers, keep your fingers crossed, or just fingers crossed. Some people, mostly children, also use the gesture to excuse their telling of a white lie, by extension, a similar belief is that crossing ones fingers invalidates a promise being made. The origin of the gesture traces back to the biblical Kingdom of Israel, courts of Mosaic law would often render verdicts with the phrase May God have mercy upon your soul in order to reaffirm Gods supreme authority over the law. Most judges felt that while they could pass a sentence of death upon a person, they personally did not have the authority to destroy souls and that only God had the authority to do that. As a result, some judges would cross their fingers whenever they said the phrase as a result of concern for the soul as they said it as a prayer. Common usage of the gesture traces back to the centuries of the Catholic Church. Common use of crossed fingers is found in the Christians who would cross their fingers in order to invoke the power associated with Christs cross for protection, when faced with evil. Moreover, Christians, when persecuted by the Romans, used the symbol of crossed fingers in order to one another. It became a custom everywhere, for Christians when meeting, to make the sign of a cross by crossing their fingers. In 16th century England, people continued to cross fingers or make the sign of the cross in order to ward off evil and this superstition thus became popular among many early European Christian cultures. In some places, a comrade or well-wisher placed his finger over the index finger of the person making the wish. The one person makes the wish, the other empathizes and supports, over centuries, the custom was simplified, so that a person could wish on his own, by crossing his index and middle fingers to form an X. But traces remain—two people hooking index fingers as a sign of greeting or agreement is still common in some circles today, a wish made on a cross was a way of anchoring the wish at the intersection of the cross until the wish was fulfilled. In Vietnam the gesture is considered rude, especially to another person, referring to female genitals, it is comparable to the finger in western culture. In German-speaking countries the gesture is known for vitiating oaths. Wishing for luck is gestured by pressing thumbs, the same gesture is used in many Slavic countries such as Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria and ex-Yugoslav republics. Benediction God bless you Orans Sacramentals Sign of the Cross
6. Epimenides – Epimenides of Knossos was a semi-mythical 7th or 6th century BC Greek seer and philosopher-poet. While tending his fathers sheep, Epimenides is said to have fallen asleep for years in a Cretan cave sacred to Zeus. The only reward he would accept was a branch of the olive. Athenaeus also mentions him, in connection with the self-sacrifice of the erastes and eromenos pair of Cratinus and Aristodemus, even in antiquity there were those who held the story to be mere fiction. Diogenes Laërtius preserves a number of letters between Epimenides and Solon in his Lives of the Philosophers. Epimenides was also said to have prophesied at Sparta on military matters and he died in Crete at an advanced age, according to his countrymen, who afterwards honoured him as a god, he lived nearly three hundred years. According to another story, he was taken prisoner in a war between the Spartans and Cnossians, and put to death by his captors, because he refused to prophesy favourably for them. Pausanias reports that when Epimenides died, his skin was found to be covered with tattooed writing and this was considered odd, because the Greeks reserved tattooing for slaves. Some modern scholars have seen this as evidence that Epimenides was heir to the religions of Central Asia. The skin of Epimenides was preserved at the courts of the ephores in Sparta, Epimenides is also reckoned with Melampus and Onomacritus as one of the founders of Orphism. According to Diogenes Laertius, Epimenides met Pythagoras in Crete, Epimenides Cretica is quoted twice in the New Testament. Its only source is a 9th-century Syriac commentary by Ishodad of Merv on the Acts of the Apostles, in the poem, Minos addresses Zeus thus, The lie of the Cretans is that Zeus was mortal, Epimenides considered Zeus immortal. Cretans, always liars, with the same intent as Epimenides. The fourth line is quoted in Acts of the Apostles, chapter 17, the second line is quoted, with a veiled attribution, in the Epistle to Titus, chapter 1, verse 12, to warn Titus about the Cretans. The prophet in Titus 1,12 is identified by Clement of Alexandria as Epimenides, in this passage, Clement mentions that some say Epimenides should be counted among the seven wisest philosophers. Chrysostom gives an alternative fragment, For even a tomb, King, of you They made, who never died and it is not clear when Epimenides became associated with the Epimenides paradox, a variation of the liar paradox. Epimenides himself does not appear to have intended any irony or paradox in his statement Cretans, always liars. In the epistle to Titus, there is a warning that One of themselves, even a prophet of their own, said, in the Middle Ages, many forms of the liar paradox were studied under the heading of insolubilia, but these were not associated with Epimenides
7. Fortune cookie – A fortune cookie is a crisp cookie usually made from flour, sugar, vanilla, and sesame seed oil with a piece of paper inside, a fortune, on which is an aphorism, or a vague prophecy. The message inside may also include a Chinese phrase with translation and/or a list of numbers used by some as lottery numbers. Fortune cookies are served as a dessert in Chinese restaurants in the United States and other Western countries. The exact origin of fortune cookies is unclear, though various immigrant groups in California claim to have popularized them in the early 20th century and it was most likely brought over from Japanese immigrants in the late 19th or early 20th century. The Japanese version did not have the Chinese lucky numbers and was eaten with tea. The Japanese version of the cookie differs in ways, they are a little bit larger, are made of darker dough. They contain a fortune, however, the slip of paper was wedged into the bend of the cookie rather than placed inside the hollow portion. This kind of cookie is called tsujiura senbei and is sold in some regions of Japan. It is also sold in the neighborhood of Fushimi Inari-taisha shrine in Kyoto, the fortune cookies were made by a San Francisco bakery, Benkyodo. David Jung, founder of the Hong Kong Noodle Company in Los Angeles, has made a claim that he invented the cookie in 1918. San Franciscos Court of Historical Review attempted to settle the dispute in 1983, during the proceedings, a fortune cookie was introduced as a key piece of evidence with a message reading, S. F. A federal judge of the Court of Historical Review determined that the cookie originated with Hagiwara, subsequently, the city of Los Angeles condemned the decision. Seiichi Kito, the founder of Fugetsu-do of Little Tokyo in Los Angeles, Kito claims to have gotten the idea of putting a message in a cookie from Omikuji which are sold at temples and shrines in Japan. According to his story, he sold his cookies to Chinese restaurants where they were greeted with enthusiasm in both the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas. Thus Kitos main claim is that he is responsible for the cookie being so strongly associated with Chinese restaurants, up to around World War II, fortune cookies were known as fortune tea cakes—likely reflecting their origins in Japanese tea cakes. Fortune cookies moved from being a confection dominated by Japanese-Americans to one dominated by Chinese-Americans sometime around World War II and this gave an opportunity for Chinese manufacturers. Fortune cookies before the early 20th century were all made by hand, however, the fortune cookie industry changed dramatically after the fortune cookie machine was invented by Shuck Yee from Oakland, California. Rumors that fortune cookies were invented in China are seen as false, in 1989, fortune cookies were reportedly imported into Hong Kong and sold as genuine American fortune cookies
8. Four-leaf clover – The four-leaf clover is a rare variation of the common three-leaf clover. Clovers can have more than four leaves, five-leaf clovers are less commonly found naturally than four-leaf clovers, however, they, too, have been successfully cultivated. Some four-leaf clover collectors, particularly in Ireland, regard the five-leaf clover, known as a rose clover, in exceptionally rare cases, clovers are able to grow with six leaves and more in nature. The most leaves ever found on a single stem is 56 and was discovered by Shigeo Obara of Hanamaki City, Iwate, Japan. It is debated whether the leaf is caused genetically or environmentally. Its relative rarity suggests a possible recessive gene appearing at a low frequency, alternatively, four-leaf clovers could be caused by somatic mutation or a developmental error of environmental causes. They could also be caused by the interaction of genes that happen to segregate in the individual plant. It is possible all four explanations could apply to individual cases and this means that multiple four-leaf clovers could be found in the same clover plant. Researchers from the University of Georgia have reported finding the gene that turns ordinary three-leaf clovers into the coveted four-leaf types, white clover has many genes that affect leaf color and shape, and the three in the study were very rare. These traits can be attractive, particularly if combined with others. There are some cultivars of white clover which regularly produce more than three leaflets, including purple-leaved T. repens Purpurascens Quadrifolium and green-leaved T. repens Quadrifolium, trifolium repens Good Luck is a cultivar which has three, four, or five green, dark-centered leaflets per leaf. Other plants may be mistaken for, or misleadingly sold as, four-leaf clovers, for example, other species that have been sold as four-leaf clovers include Marsilea quadrifolia. Italian automobile maker Alfa Romeo used to paint a four-leaf clover, or quadrifoglio and this tradition started in the 1923 Targa Florio race, when driver Ugo Sivocci decorated his car with a green clover on a white background. Los Angeles-based space exploration company SpaceX includes a four-leaf clover on each space mission embroidered patch as a luck charm. Celtic Football Club, a team from Glasgow, Scotland, have used the four leaf clover as the clubs official badge for over 40 years. Former Japanese game developer studio Clover Studio used a four-leaf clover as their logo, several businesses and organisations use a four-leaf clover in their logos to signify Celtic origins. The global network of youth organizations 4-H uses a green clover with a white H on each leaf. Some folk traditions assign a different attribute to each leaf of a clover, the first leaf represents hope, the second stands for faith, the third is for love and the fourth leaf brings luck to the finder
9. Friday the 13th – Friday the 13th is considered an unlucky day in Western superstition. It occurs when the 13th day of the month in the Gregorian calendar falls on a Friday and it occurs at least once every year, and up to three times a year. In 2017, it twice, on January 13 and October 13. There will be two Friday the 13ths per year until 2020, where 2021 will have just one occurrence. While there is evidence of both Friday and the number 13 being considered unlucky, there is no record of the two items being referred to as especially unlucky in conjunction before the 19th century. It is possible that the publication in 1907 of Thomas W. Lawsons popular novel Friday, in the novel, an unscrupulous broker takes advantage of the superstition to create a Wall Street panic on a Friday the 13th. A suggested origin of the superstition—Friday,13 October 1307, the date Philip IV of France arrested hundreds of the Knights Templar—may not have been formulated until the 20th century, in Spanish-speaking countries, instead of Friday, Tuesday the 13th is considered a day of bad luck. The Greeks also consider Tuesday an unlucky day, Tuesday is considered dominated by the influence of Ares, the god of war. In addition, in Greek the name of the day is Triti meaning the third, adding weight to the superstition, Tuesday the 13th occurs on a month starting on Thursday. In Italian popular culture, Friday the 17th is considered a day of bad luck, the origin of this belief could be traced in the writing of number 17, in Roman numerals, XVII. By shuffling the digits of the one can easily get the word VIXI. In fact, in Italy,13 is generally considered a lucky number, however, due to Americanization, young people consider Friday the 13th unlucky as well. The 2000 parody film Shriek If You Know What I Did Last Friday the Thirteenth was released in Italy with the title Shriek – Hai impegni per venerdì17, Friday the 17th occurs on a month starting on Wednesday. Some people are so paralyzed by fear that they avoid their normal routines in doing business and its been estimated that $800 or $900 million is lost in business on this day. Despite this, representatives for both Delta Air Lines and now-defunct Continental Airlines have stated that their airlines do not suffer from any noticeable drop in travel on those Fridays. In years which begin on the day of the week and are of the same type. The following months for each year from 1900 to 2100 have a Friday the 13th, This sequence, given here for 1900–2099, the months with a Friday the 13th are determined by the Dominical letter of the year. Any month that starts on a Sunday contains a Friday the 13th, the shortest period that can occur with a Friday the 13th is just one month, from February to March in a common year starting on Thursday
10. Good luck charm – Good luck charm is a charm that is believed to bring good luck. An example of this is a blessing that a minister or a priest gives at the end of a ceremony, later on, people assumed that spoken words were temporary whereas a solid object is more permanent. Objects that have extraordinary significance such as the believed to be from the cross of Jesus Christ were substituted for the original spoken or sung charms. Almost any object can be used as a charm, coins and buttons are good examples. Little things that are given to you very good lucky charms. It is because of the associations they make. Many souvenir shops have a range of items that may be used as good luck charms. Good luck charms are usually worn on the body there are exceptions. The “lucky rabbit charm” was passed on and incorporated into American culture by African slaves that were brought to the Americas, the lucky bag or the “Mojo” is another borrowed idea from African culture. It is used in ceremonies to carry several lucky objects or spells. The concept is that objects placed in the bag and charged will create a supernatural effect for the bearer. Even today, mojo bags are still used, europe also contributed to the concept of lucky charms. Adherents of St. Patrick, adopted the Four leaf clover as a symbol of Irish luck because clovers are abundant in the hills of Ireland, a four-leaf clover was consistently believed to be a lucky charm. This very old Irish verse describes why, One leaf is for fame, And one leaf is for wealth, And one is for a lover, And one to bring you glorious health
11. Horse brass – A horse brass is a brass plaque used for the decoration of horse harness gear, especially for shire and parade horses. They became especially popular in England from the century until their general decline alongside the use of the draft horse. Phalera is the term for equivalent disks, which were popular in Iron Age Europe. There are a great deal of die-hard, unfounded myths surrounding these decorations such as their usage as amulets to ward off the evil eye. The most popular size is 3 × 3½ inches of flat brass with a hanger by which the brass is threaded onto a horse harness strap, known as a Martingale. In England many of these items of harness found their way into country houses as the era of the heavy horse declined. By the late 19th century heavy horses were decorated with brasses of all kinds, during this era working horse parades were popular throughout the British Isles and prize or merit awards were given, some by the Royal Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Horse brasses were often prized by the carters, who decorated their horse with them. Other horse brass subjects include advertising, royalty commemoration, and in years, souvenir brasses for places and events, many of which are still being made. The writing about such items also commenced c. 1890s and was dominated by much Victorian romanticism surrounding the supposed, esoteric origin and ancient, unbroken lineage of these decorations. Unlike their cast cousins, stamped brasses were not made in moulds, due to the ease of their manufacture, many thousands of these stamped types were produced, but there are some that are very rare. The National Horse Brass Society of England has members all over the world and provides publications for members and swap meets
12. Jin Chan – The Jin Chan, also called Chan Chu or Zhaocai Chan Chu, is most commonly translated as Money Toad or Money Frog. It represents a popular Feng Shui charm for prosperity and this mythical creature is said to appear during the full moon, near houses or businesses that will soon receive good news. According to one Chinese legend, the Jin Chan was the wife of one of the Eight Immortals. The Jin Chu is usually depicted as a bullfrog with red eyes, flared nostrils and only one leg, sitting on a pile of traditional Chinese cash. On its back, it often displays seven diamond spots symbolizing the Big Dipper, or the Plough, the toad is often shown in the company of Liu Hai, a fabled 10th-century Chinese alchemist who learned the secret of immortality from the Chan Chu, and became a xian. In Japanese, Liu Hai is known as Gamma Sennin, there is a body of mythology about the pair, and they are sometimes included among the Eight Immortals, or depicted with members of this group. According to Feng Shui beliefs, Jin Chan helps attract and protect wealth, because it symbolizes the flow of money, Feng Shui lore insists that a Jin Chan statue should not be positioned facing the main door. It also should never be kept in the bathroom, bedroom, maneki Neko Sennin Ch’an Chu, The Lucky Money Toad, The Anthropology of Money in Southern California
13. Joe Btfsplk – Joe Btfsplk was a character in the satirical comic strip Lil Abner by cartoonist Al Capp. He is well-meaning, but is the worlds worst jinx, bringing disastrous misfortune to everyone around him, a small, dark rain cloud perpetually hovers over his head to symbolize his bad luck. Hapless Btfsplk and his ever-present cloud became one of the most iconic images in Lil Abner, one storyline in the early 1970s features him trapping his cloud in a special anti-pollutant jar. Joe becomes romantically involved with a gal for the first time—until her crazed ex-boyfriend shows up to kill him, Joe reluctantly opens the jar and releases his cloud in order to take care of the boyfriend, and wistfully realizes that he wasnt meant for any other kind of life. As he returns to his normal, loner existence, his once again in tow. In addition to the comic effect, Capp often used Joe Btfsplk as a deus ex machina to produce miraculous rescues or to effect plot twists. Joe was later licensed for use in a series of animated TV commercials for Head & Shoulders, how else would you pronounce it. According to Al Capp, btfsplk is a rude sound, during public lectures, Capp demonstrated this sound by closing his lips, leaving his tongue sticking out, and then blowing out air, which is colloquially called a raspberry or Bronx cheer
14. Kitchen witch – There is some debate over the exact country in which the kitchen witch originated, some claiming Norway and others Germany, but consensus points to it stemming from older European customs. The poppet is supposed to depict a good witch who inspires productivity and safety in a kitchen and it is considered good luck to give a kitchen witch to a friend or family member. They believe she has the power to keep roasts from burning, pots from boiling over, in England Although largely unknown in modern England, the Kitchen Witch was known in England during Tudor times. Amulet Good luck charm Apotropaic magic Folk religion European folklore Also see, Murphy-Hiscock, the Way of the Hedge Witch, Rituals and Spells for Hearth and Home
15. Money tree (myth) – Chinese legend has it that the money tree is a kind of holy tree, which can bring money and fortune to the people, and that it is a symbol of affluence, nobility and auspiciousness. It can be traced back to primitive societies when the adoration of a tree was prevalent. Whilst Money trees may be derived from the Sun tree myth associated with paradise, there also exists a holy tree named Chinese Hibiscus in Chinese mythology. According to the historical narratives, the concept of the money tree is derived at the latest from the Han Dynasty. Cast-bronze money trees are a feature of Han tombs in Sichuan. Money trees have been excavated by archaeologists from Han tombs in western China in and near Sichuan Province and they are made from bronze and green-glazed earthenware. One folk tale tells of a sculptor who placed fake money on a tree in order to trick villagers into cutting it down for him. But so many believed the tree to be sacred that it became sacred. At the end of the story the sculptor is bribed not to harm the tree, also, if you touch the leaf, you will have good fortune. It was thought that the emitted light, or that the coins guided the deceased. These coins could also be plucked for needs on the journey from earth to the realm of immortals, the Money tree regains popularity during the Chinese New Year. According to custom, money trees are made of a pine or cypress branch nestled inside a porcelain pot filled with rice grains. Melon seeds and pine nuts are sprinkled over the top of the rice, decorating the branches are gold and silver coin garlands made of paper. Symbols of long life also embellish the tree, which is topped by the genie of wealth, Liu Hai. In Malaysia the Chinese put out Money Trees on the day of the celebrations of the Chinese New Year. Pachira aquatica Money tree, in, Abe, Stanley K, ordinary images, University of Chicago Press, pp.35 sq. ISBN 0-226-00044-3
16. Okiagari-koboshi – Okiagari-koboshi or Okiagari-kobōshi is a Japanese traditional doll. The toy is made from papier-mâché and is designed so that its weight causes it to return to a position if it is knocked over. Okiagari-kobōshi is considered a good-luck charm and a symbol of perseverance and resilience, the makers of the earliest okiagari-kobōshi likely modeled them after a Chinese toy called Budaoweng that is similarly weighted. Okiagari-kobōshi has long been popular among Japanese children, ima ni ototsan no ōtoto no o-kaeri ni Ame ya, o-kwashi ya, hii-hii ya, Gara-gara, nagureba fuito tatsu Okiagarikoboshi. Translated, it says, Sleep, sleep, sleep, little one, why does the child continue to cry. Is the milk deficient. — is the rice deficient, okiagari-koboshi are popular in the Aizu region of Fukushima Prefecture. There, the dolls are sold in red and blue varieties, people buy the dolls during the Tokaichi held each 10 January. Shoppers typically throw several okiagari-koboshi down at the time, those that stand back up are supposedly the lucky ones. Tradition mandates the purchase of one okiagari-koboshi for each member of the plus one extra in the hope that the family will grow over the coming year. One kind of Daruma doll works on the principle as okiagari-kobōshi and is sometimes referred to by that name, whenever it is thrown down. This depiction of the Buddhist monk Bodhidharma likely arose in connection with a legend says that he once meditated for nine years. A 17th-century childrens song shows that the okiagari-kobōshi Daruma dolls of the time were almost identical to their modern equivalents, ever the red-hooded Daruma Heedlessly sits up again. Paper mache Daruma dolls without eyes are bought by those who have a goal in mind, the left eye is drawn in at the beginning of the quest, the right upon achieving it. For example, those hoping for recovery from an illness, or others wishing for their recovery would buy one for that purpose, boston, Massachusetts, Little, Brown, and Company. Feminine Motifs in Bodhidharma Symbology in Japan, asian Folklore Studies, Vol.45, No.2
17. Penny – A penny is a coin or a unit of currency in various countries. Borrowed from the Carolingian denarius, it is usually the smallest denomination within a currency system, presently, it is the formal name of the British penny and the informal name of one American cent as well as the informal Irish designation of 1 cent euro coin. It is the name of the cent unit of account in Canada. The name is used in reference to various historical currencies also derived from the Carolingian system, such as the French denier. It may also be used to refer to any similar smallest-denomination coin. The Carolingian penny was originally a. 940-fine silver coin weighing 1/240 pound, the British penny remained a silver coin until the expense of the Napoleonic Wars prompted the use of base metals in 1797. Despite the decimalization of currencies in the United States and, later, throughout the British Commonwealth, no penny is currently formally subdivided, although farthings, halfpennies, and half cents have previously been minted and the mill remains in use as a unit of account in some contexts. Penny is first attested in a 1394 Scots text, a variant of Old English peni, a development of numerous variations including pennig, penning, and pending. The etymology of the penny is uncertain, although cognates are common across almost all Germanic languages and suggest a base *pan-, *pann-. Recently, it has proposed that it may represent an early borrowing of Punic PN. Following decimalization, the British and Irish coins were marked new penny until 1982 and 1985, the regular plural pennies fell out of use in England from the 16th century, except in reference to coins considered individually. The informal name for the American cent seems to have spread from New York, in British English, prior to decimalization, values from two to eleven pence and of twenty pence are often written and spoken as a single word, as twopence, threepence, &c. Where a single coin represented a number of pence, it was treated as a single noun, thus, a threepence would be single coin of that value whereas three pence would be its value and three pennies would be three penny coins. In British English, divisions of a penny were added to such combinations without a conjunction, as sixpence-farthing, adjectival use of such coins used the ending -penny, as sixpenny. The British abbreviation d. derived from the Latin denarius and it followed the amount after a space. It has been replaced since decimalization by p, usually written without a space or period, from this abbreviation, it is common to speak of pennies and values in pence as p. In North America, it is common to abbreviate cents with the currency symbol ¢, elsewhere, it is usually written with a simple c. The medieval silver penny was modeled on similar coins in antiquity, such as the Greek drachma, the Carthaginian shekel, forms of these seem to have reached as far as Norway and Sweden
18. Red envelope – Outside of China, similar customs exist across parts of South East Asia and many other countries with a sizable ethnic Chinese population. In 2014, the Chinese mobile app WeChat popularized the distribution of red envelopes via mobile payments over the Internet, red envelopes are gifts presented at social and family gatherings such as weddings or holidays such as Chinese New Year. The red color of the envelope symbolizes good luck and is a symbol to ward off evil spirits, the act of requesting red packets is normally called tao hongbao or yao lishi, and in the south of China, lai see. Red envelopes are usually given out by married couples to single people, regardless of age, or by older to younger ones during holidays and festivals. The amount of money contained in the envelope usually ends with a digit, in accordance with Chinese beliefs. The exception being the number 9 as it pronounciation of nine is homophonus to the long and is the largest digit. Still in some regions of China and in its diaspora community, at weddings, the amount offered is usually intended to cover the cost of the attendees as well as signify goodwill to the newlyweds. During the Chinese New Year, in Southern China, red envelopes are typically given by the married to the unmarried, students and future students in the sciences are typically rewarded handsomely. The amount of money is usually notes to avoid heavy coins and it is traditional to put brand new notes inside red envelopes and also to avoid opening the envelopes in front of the relatives out of courtesy. Red packets are also used to deliver payment for service to lion dance performers, religious practitioners, teachers. Adoption of WeChat Pay saw an increase following the launch. Analysts estimated that over 100 billion digital red envelopes would be sent over the New Year holiday in 2017, in China, during the Qin Dynasty, the elderly would thread coins with a red string. The money was referred to as money warding off evil spirits and was believed to protect the person of younger generation from sickness, red envelopes continue to be referred to by such names today. There are several legends as to how the red envelope came to be, one story depicts a village where a demon was terrorizing the people at night, in most cases children were the victims. The belief was that the demon was touching the childrens heads while they were asleep, as the theory continued to linger within the village, a worried couple decided to protect their new born child by praying to their god for protection. In return, their god sent eight fairies to protect the new born child from the demon, in order to trick the demon, the fairies disguised themselves as eight coins and were placed under the childs pillow at night to protect the child. At night the demon supposedly approached to touch the child on the head when the eight coins began to shine so bright that it prohibited the demon to see, frightened from what had just happened, the demon ran away in terror. After hearing this story, the villagers began spreading the word, at first the red envelopes were only given to children during the Spring Festival, but as time progress they were given to anyone
19. Serendipity – Serendipity means a fortunate happenstance or pleasant surprise. It was coined by Horace Walpole in 1754, in a letter he wrote to a friend, Walpole explained an unexpected discovery he had made by reference to a Persian fairy tale, The Three Princes of Serendip. The princes, he told his correspondent, were always making discoveries, by accidents and sagacity, in June 2004, a British translation company voted the word to be one of the ten English words hardest to translate. However, due to its use, the word has since been exported into many other languages. The first noted use of serendipity in the English language was by Horace Walpole, the name comes from Serendip, an old name for Sri Lanka, from Old-Tamil Cherantivu, which means Island of Cheras referring to the ancient Naga people. Parts of Sri Lanka were under the rule of Tamil kings for extended periods of time in history, Kings of Kerala, India, were called Chera Kings and divu, tivu or dheep, which means island. The island belonging to the Chera King was called Cherandeep, hence Sarandib by Arab traders. Serendipity is not just a matter of an event, nor can it be taken simply as a synonym for a happy accident, finding out things without being searching for them. The chance is an event, serendipity a capacity, the Nobel Prize laureate Paul Flory suggests that significant inventions are not mere accidents. Successful researchers can observe scientific results with careful attention to analyzing a phenomenon under the most diverse and they can question themselves on assumptions that do not fit with empirical observations. Various thinkers discuss the role that luck can play in science, indeed, the scientific method, and the scientists themselves, can be prepared in many other ways to harness luck and make discoveries. Serendipity is postulated by Napier and Vuong as an advantage with which a firm can tap its potential creativity. Serendipity is a key concept in competitive intelligence because it is one of the tools for avoiding blind spots, the book is a study in sociological semantics and the sociology of science, as the subtitle of the book declares. It further develops the idea of serendipity as scientific method, william Boyd coined the term zemblanity to mean somewhat the opposite of serendipity, making unhappy, unlucky and expected discoveries occurring by design. A zemblanity is, effectively, an unpleasant unsurprise and it derives from Novaya Zemlya, a cold, barren land with many features opposite to the lush Sri Lanka. On this island Willem Barents and his crew were stranded while searching for a new route to the east, bahramdipity is derived directly from Bahram Gur as characterized in the The Three Princes of Serendip. It describes the suppression of serendipitous discoveries or research results by powerful individuals, browse Chance Coincidence Insight Lateral thinking Multiple discovery Remer, Theodore G. ed. Serendipity and the Three Princes, from the Peregrinaggio of 1557. Edited, with an Introduction and Notes, by Theodore G. Remer, LCC 65-10112 Merton, Robert K. Barber, Elinor
20. Spilling salt – A European superstition holds that spilling salt is an evil omen. One widespread explanation of the belief that it is unlucky to spill salt is that Judas Iscariot spilled the salt at the Last Supper, leonardo da Vincis The Last Supper depicts Judas Iscariot having knocked over a salt-cellar. A more simple explanation is that used to be extremely expensive. Another explanation may be that salt makes the soil barren for a long time and this may not be the actual explanation, salt was a valuable commodity in ancient times, and as such a symbol of trust and friendship. A German proverb held that whoever spills salt arouses enmity, according to Charles Nodier, among savages, the action of spilling salt. Indicates among them the refusal of protection and hospitality from such strangers as they may have reason to suspect are thieves, salt is also a religious symbol. Salt is used to make holy water in the Roman Catholic Church rite, the meals served at the witches sabbath were thought to be salt-free as a consequence. Salt is a symbol of the value of sanctity in Jesus reference to the salt of the earth. As an emblem of sanctity and protection, its inadvertent loss may be more than a natural misfortune, a variety of methods are used to avert the evil omen of spilt salt. The most common contemporary belief requires you to toss a pinch of the spilt salt over your left shoulder, into the face of the Devil who lurks there. A 17th-century report discusses the folk belief that wine is a lucky sign. The belief in the ill luck that comes from spilt salt is quite old, the 1556 Hieroglyphica of Piero Valeriano Bolzani reports that alt was formerly a symbol of friendship, because of its lasting quality. For it makes substances more compact and preserves them for a time, hence it was usually presented to guests before other food. Wherefore many consider it ominous to spill salt on the table, some have scoffed at the omen
21. Sweater curse – In an alternative formulation, the relationship will end before the sweater is even completed. The belief is widely discussed in knitting publications, and some claim to have experienced it. In a 2005 poll, 15% of active knitters said that they had experienced the sweater curse firsthand, several plausible mechanisms for the sweater curse have been proposed, but it has not been studied systematically. Knitting a sweater takes a time, and the relationship dies of natural causes during its making. The knitter senses subconsciously that the relationship is about to end, giving or receiving a significant gift such as a sweater may cause either the giver or receiver to evaluate the relationship. For example, the gift may seem too intimate, too domestic or too binding to the significant other and it can be seen as a signal that makes them realize that the relationship is not reciprocal, prompting them to end the relationship before it involves obligations. The significant other may not want to wear anything hand-knit. A hand-knit sweater can also subject them to ridicule, either because the sweater looks bad or conveys overly domestic connotations, the knitter loves their sweater a little too much, and pesters the significant other about the sweater. Alternatively, the knitter loves to knit too much, and spends too much time with their knitting instead of with the significant other, for many knitters, making a hand-knit gift is an emotional experience, an extended affectionate meditation on the person receiving the gift. A metaphor commonly used by knitters is, I knit my love into every stitch, many knitters wait until marriage before making a sweater for a significant other, or ask their affianced to sign a pre-knitual agreement. Common-sense advice to knitters is that they should determine whether the recipient would wear a hand-knitted sweater. Knitters have also advised to involve the significant other in designing the sweater and follow their suggestions. Several books offer practical advice for avoiding the sweater curse
22. Touch piece – A touch piece is a coin or medal believed to cure disease, bring good luck, influence peoples behaviour, carry out a specific practical action, etc. What most touch pieces have in common is that they have to be touched or in physical contact for the power concerned to be obtained and/or transferred. Once this is achieved, the power is present in the coin. Coins which had given at Holy Communion could be rubbed on parts of the body suffering from rheumatism. Medallions or medalets showing the Devil defeated were specially minted in Britain and distributed amongst the poor in the belief that they would reduce disease and sickness. The tradition of touch pieces goes back to the time of Ancient Rome and this coin, an Edward I groat, still held by the family, has a triangular-shaped stone of a dark red colour set into it. The coin is kept in a box given by Queen Victoria to General Lockhart. It can supposedly cure rabies, haemorrhage, and various animal ailments, the coin was exempted from the Church of Scotlands prohibition on charms and was lent to the citizens of Newcastle during the reign of King Charles I to protect them from the plague. A sum of between £1,000 and £6,000 was pledged for its return, the legend of the Lee Penny gave rise to Sir Walter Scotts novel The Talisman. The amulet was placed in water, which was drunk to provide the cure. No money was taken for its use. In 1629 Isobel Young, burned as a witch later that same year, the family of Lockart of Lee would not lend the stone in its silver setting, however, they gave flagons of water in which the coin had been steeped. In France it was called the Mal De Roi, William the Lion, King of Scotland is recorded in 1206 as curing a case of scrofula by his touching and blessing a child who had the ailment. Charles I touched around 100 people shortly after his coronation at Holyrood in 1630, rarely fatal, the disease was naturally given to spontaneously cure itself after lengthy periods of remission. Many miraculous cures were recorded, and failures were put down to a lack of faith in the sufferer, the original Book of Common Prayer of the Anglican Church contained this ceremony. The divine power of kings was believed to be descended from Edward the Confessor, the custom lasted from the time of Edward the Confessor until Annes reign, although her predecessor, William III refused to believe in the tradition and did not practice the ceremony. James II and James Francis Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, is known to have carried out the rite in 1745 at Glamis Castle during the time of his rebellion against George II and also in France after his exile. Finally, Henry Benedict Stuart, the brother of Charles, performed the ceremony until his death in 1807, all the Jacobite Stuarts produced special touch-piece medalets, with a variety of designs and inscriptions
23. Tycho Brahe days – In the folklore of Scandinavia, Tycho Brahe days are days judged to be especially unlucky, especially for magical work, and important business transactions and personal events. Tycho Brahe was a Danish astronomer, astrologer, and alchemist and as such achieved some acclaim in popular folklore as a sage, the idea that certain calendar dates are lucky or unlucky is of ancient origin, going back as far as the Mesopotamian civilizations. Tables that identify lucky and unlucky days are known by the German label of Tagwählerei. The Coligny calendar also identifies certain calendar dates as lucky or unlucky, contemporary North America preserves a tradition that Friday the 13th is an unlucky day. It has been called a form of divination that is found in all societies which regulate their days. However, no mention of the Tycho Brahe days is actually found in the work of Tycho Brahe and they nevertheless are often referenced in almanacs and recur in Scandinavian folklore. Some versions claim that Tycho Brahe also identified several days as particularly lucky, January 26 February 9 and 10 June 15 Some lists omit certain days, or add others, there is no standard list. One should also note that Denmark was on the Julian calendar until 1700, when it switched to the Gregorian calendar