Category:Lutheran Eucharistic theology
Pages in category "Lutheran Eucharistic theology"
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 22 pages are in this category, out of 22 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Eucharist in Lutheranism – The Eucharist in the Lutheran Church refers to the liturgical commemoration of the Last Supper. Martin Luther saw the main basis for the Eucharist to be found in Matthew 26, 26–28, Mark 14, 22–24, Luke 22, 19-20, the Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence is also known as the sacramental union. This theology was first formally and publicly confessed in the Wittenberg Concord and it has also been called consubstantiation but most Lutheran theologians reject the use of this term as it creates confusion with an earlier doctrine of the same name. Some Lutherans do believe in consubstantiation, for Lutherans the Eucharist is not considered to be a valid sacrament unless the elements are used according to Christs mandate and institution. This was first formulated in the Wittenberg Concord of 1536 in the formula, to remove any scruple of doubt or superstition, the reliquiæ traditionally are either consumed, poured into the earth, or reserved. Today, many Lutheran churches offer the Eucharist weekly, while others offer it less often, weddings and funerals sometimes include the celebration of the Eucharist in Lutheran churches. At the ordinations of pastors/priests and the consecration of bishops, the Eucharist is always offered, for Lutherans in general, confession and absolution are considered proper preparation for receiving the sacrament. However, the practice among Lutherans of preparation by private confession and absolution is rarely found in American Lutheran congregations. For this reason, often an order or corporate rite of confession and absolution is included at the beginning of Lutheran liturgies. Most other ELCA congregations offer First Communion instruction to children in the 5th grade, in other Lutheran churches, the person must have receive confirmation before receiving the Eucharist. Infants and children who havent received the instruction may be brought to the Eucharistic distribution by their parents to be blessed by the pastor. The manner of receiving the Eucharist differs throughout the world, the congregation departs and may make the sign of the cross. In other Lutheran churches, the process is much like the Post-Vatican II revised rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the eucharistic minister and his assistants line up, with the eucharistic minister in the center holding the hosts and the two assistants on either side holding the chalices. The people process to the front in lines and receive the Eucharist standing, following this, the people make the sign of the cross and return to their places in the congregation. The bread is commonly a thin unleavened wafer, but leavened wafers may also be used, some parishes use intinction, the dipping of the host into the chalice. Placing the host in the hand of the communicant is commonly practiced, the wine is commonly administered via a chalice, but many congregations use individual cups. These may be either prefilled or filled from the chalice during the distribution of the Eucharist, some ELCA congregations make grape juice available for children and those who are abstaining from alcohol and some will accommodate those with an allergy to wheat or grapes. Lutheran Eucharistic adoration is not commonly practiced, but when it occurs it is only from the moment of consecration to reception
2. Blessed Sacrament – In the Byzantine Rite, the terms Holy Gifts and Divine Mysteries are used to refer to the consecrated elements. This belief is based on interpretations of scripture and sacred tradition. The Catholic understanding has been defined by numerous ecumenical councils, including the Fourth Lateran Council and the Council of Trent, the capital city of California, Sacramento, is named for the Blessed Sacrament. The largest Portuguese feast in the world is held in New Bedford, the Blessed Sacrament may be received by Catholics who have undergone First Holy Communion as part of the Liturgy of the Eucharist during Mass. Catholics believe that the soul of the receiving the Eucharist must be in a state of grace at the time of reception. The Blessed Sacrament can also be exposed on an altar in a monstrance, rites involving the exposure of the Blessed Sacrament include Benediction and eucharistic adoration. According to Catholic theology, the host, after the Rite of Consecration, is no bread, but Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ. Catholics believe that Jesus is the sacrificial Lamb of God prefigured in the Old Testament Passover, unless the flesh of that passover sacrificial lamb was consumed, the members of the household would not be saved from death. As the Passover was the Old Covenant, so the Eucharist became the New Covenant. and Reception of the Blessed Sacrament in the Anglican Communion, devotions to the Blessed Sacrament vary. Individuals will genuflect or bow in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament and its presence is usually indicated by a lamp suspended over or placed near the tabernacle or aumbry. Except among Anglo-Catholics, the use of a monstrance is rare and this is in keeping with the Article XXV of the Thirty-Nine Articles that the Sacraments were not ordained of Christ to be gazed upon, or to be carried about, but that we should duly use Them. In some parishes, when the Blessed Sacrament is moved from the tabernacle, sanctus bells are rung, in most Lutheran churches, a person must have had catechetical training prior to a First Communion to receive the Eucharist. Recently, more liberal churches allow all who are baptized to receive it, similar to the Anglican teaching, Lutherans are also taught to genuflect or bow in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament, which is normally located on an altar. In the Lutheran churches that celebrate the Feast of Corpus Christi, like the Catholic Church. Methodists practice an Open Table, in which all baptised Christians are invited to receive Holy Communion, Eucharist Feast of Corpus Christi Newadvent. org, The Blessed Eucharist as a Sacrament. Article from the Catholic Encyclopedia Savior. com New Bedfords Feast of the Blessed Sacrament Melkite Greek Catholic Rite of Benediction
3. Eucharist – The Eucharist /ˈjuːkərɪst/ is a Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches. Through the Eucharistic celebration Christians remember Christs sacrifice of himself on the cross, the elements of the Eucharist, bread and wine, are consecrated on an altar and consumed thereafter. Communicants may speak of receiving the Eucharist, as well as celebrating the Eucharist, Christians generally recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about exactly how, where, and when Christ is present. While all agree there is no perceptible change in the elements, Catholics believe that they actually become the body. Some Protestants view the Eucharist as an ordinance in which the ceremony is not as a specific channel of divine grace. Do this in remembrance of me, the term Eucharist is that by which the rite is referred by the Didache, Ignatius of Antioch and Justin Martyr. Today, the Eucharist is the still used by Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Catholics, Anglicans, Presbyterians. Other Protestant denominations rarely use this term, preferring either Communion, one remains hungry, another gets drunk. Communion or Holy Communion are used by some groups originating in the Protestant Reformation to mean the entire Eucharistic rite. The term Communion is derived from Latin communio, which translates Greek κοινωνία in 1 Corinthians 10,16, the bread which we break, is it not the communion of the body of Christ. The phrase appears five times in the New Testament in contexts which, according to some and it is the term used by the Plymouth Brethren. The Blessed Sacrament and the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar are common terms used by Catholics, Lutherans and some Anglicans for the consecrated elements, Sacrament of the Altar is in common use also among Lutherans. In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints the term The Sacrament is used of the rite. Among the many terms used in the Catholic Church are Holy Mass, the Memorial of the Passion, Death and Resurrection of the Lord, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. The term Mass is probably derived from the fact that the Roman rite celebrates the Eucharist with unleavened bread and this explains why the Eastern Catholic Liturgies are never referred to as the Mass. Eastern rite Liturgies are celebrated with leavened bread, although the prevailing theory is that it is derived from the Latin word missa, a word used in the concluding formula of Mass in Latin, Ite, missa est. The reverse is more likely. The word dismissal probably came about because the Mass signaled the time for the Catechumens to leave, thus, the term Misa came to imply a mission, because at the end of the Mass the congregation are sent out to serve Christ
4. Eucharistic adoration – Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic, Anglo-Catholic and some Lutheran traditions, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed and adored by the faithful. As a devotion, Eucharistic adoration, prayer, and meditation are more than merely looking at the Blessed Host, from a theological perspective, the adoration is a form of latria, based on the tenet of the real presence of Christ in the Blessed Host. Christian meditation performed in the presence of the Eucharist outside of Mass is called Eucharistic meditation and it has been practiced by such as Peter Julian Eymard, Jean Vianney and Thérèse of Lisieux. Authors such as the Venerable Concepcion Cabrera de Armida and Blessed Maria Candida of the Eucharist have produced large volumes of text based on their Eucharistic meditations, when the exposure and adoration of the Eucharist is constant, it is called Perpetual adoration. In a monastery or convent, it is done by the resident monks or nuns and, in a parish, in the opening prayer of the Perpetual chapel in St. Peter Basilica, Pope John Paul II prayed for a perpetual adoration chapel in every parish in the world. Pope Benedict XVI instituted perpetual adoration for the laity in each of the five sectors of the diocese of Rome, Eucharistic adoration may be performed both when the Eucharist is exposed for viewing and when it is not. In Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament, the Eucharist is displayed in a monstrance, typically placed on an altar, at times with a focused on it. The exposition usually occurs in the context of a service of Benediction or similar service of devotions to the Blessed Sacrament, Exposition also takes place in the context of perpetual adoration, where specific people attend the exposition for a certain period of time,24 hours a day. On 10 January 1969 Blessed Pope Paul VI issued a Letter to the Superior General, Father Roland Huot, S. S. S. Https, //www. ewtn. com/library/PAPALDOC/P6ADORE. HTM This concession is included in the revised Roman Ritual, Holy Communion, in many cases Eucharistic adoration is performed by each person for an uninterrupted hour known as the Holy Hour. The inspiration for the Holy Hour is Matthew 26,40 when in the Garden of Gethsemane the night before his crucifixion, Jesus asks Peter, So, could you men not keep watch with me for one hour. Pope John Paul II spent many hours in silent Eucharistic adoration, since the Protestant Reformation, some Christian denominations have criticized Eucharistic adoration, even considering it a form of idolatry. Many Anglicans, Catholics and Lutherans contend that it cannot be idolatry because Christ, whole, while the keeping of the Blessed Sacrament outside of Mass seems to have been part of the Eucharistic Christian practice from the beginning, the practice of adoration began somewhat later. One of the first possible references to reserving the Blessed Sacrament for adoration is found in a life of St. Basil, Basil is said to have divided the Eucharistic bread into three parts when he celebrated the Divine Liturgy in the monastery. One part he consumed, the part he gave to the monks. This is befitting the Eastern custom of veiling those things deemed sacred from human eyes, the Franciscan archives credit Saint Francis of Assisi for starting Eucharistic Adoration in Italy. This process then spread from Umbria to other parts of Italy by the Franciscans, Francis had a deep devotion to the Eucharist and Saint Bonaventure commented that Francis would be swept in ecstasy after receiving Communion. For Francis, the adoration of the Eucharist amounted to seeing Christ, the theological basis for the adoration was prepared in the 11th century by Pope Gregory VII, who was instrumental in affirming the tenet that Christ is present in the Blessed Host
5. First Communion – First Communion is a ceremony in some Christian traditions during which a person first receives the Eucharist. It is most common in the Latin Church tradition of the Catholic Church, as well as in parts of the Lutheran Church. In churches that celebrate First Communion, it occurs between the ages of seven and thirteen, often acting as a rite of passage. Catholics believe this event to be important, as the Eucharist occupies a central role in Catholic theology. First Communion is not celebrated in the Eastern Orthodox churches, the Oriental Orthodox churches, or the Assyrian Church of the East, some Anglicans allow infant communion, while others require the previous reception of confirmation, usually during the teenage years. Celebration of this ceremony is typically less elaborate in many Protestant churches. Roman Catholics and some Protestants believe that Christ is truly present in the Eucharist, other denominations have varying understandings, ranging from the Eucharist being a symbolic meal to a meal of remembering Christs last supper. The sacrament of First Communion is an important tradition for Catholic families, for Catholics, Holy Communion is the third of seven sacraments received. It occurs only after receiving Baptism, and once the person has reached the age of reason first confession must precede the first reception of the Eucharist, traditions of celebration surrounding First Communion usually include large family gatherings and parties to celebrate the event. The first communicant wears special clothing, the clothing is often white to symbolize purity, but not in all cultures. Girls often wear fancy dresses and an attached to a wreath of flowers or hair ornament. In other communities, girls commonly wear dresses passed down to them from sisters or mothers, boys may wear a suit, or tuxedo, or their Sunday best, or national dress. In many Latin American countries, boys wear military-style dress uniforms with gold braid aiguillettes, in Switzerland both boys and girls wear plain white robes with brown wooden crosses around their necks. In Spain, Germany, Luxembourg and Austria, girls are dressed up as, so to speak, in Scotland, boys traditionally wear kilts and other traditional Scottish dress which accompany the kilt. Gifts of a nature are usually given, such as rosaries and prayer books, in addition to religious statues, icons. Many families have formal professional photographs taken in addition to candid snapshots in order to commemorate the event, some churches arrange for a professional photographer after the ceremony. During the communist era, dominant societies initiation into the movement in communist countries that had large Catholic populations was an overt attempt to supplant the Catholic ritual. In all cases, a child at the age of seven to ten is initiated as a member of a group within which the individuals share certain values and culture
6. Mass (liturgy) – Mass often refers to the entire church service in general, but is specifically the sacrament of the Eucharist. The term mass is called in the Catholic Church, Western Rite Orthodox churches and many Old Catholic, Anglican, as well as some Lutheran churches. Some Protestants employ terms such as Divine Service or service of worship, the English noun mass is derived from Middle Latin missa. The Latin word was adopted in Old English as mæsse, and was sometimes glossed as sendnes, the Latin term missa itself was in use by the 6th century. It is most likely derived from the concluding formula Ite, missa est, historically, however, there have been other explanations of the noun missa, i. e. as not derived from the formula ite, missa est. Already Du Cange reports various opinions on the origin of the noun missa mass, including the derivation from Hebrew matzah, here attributed to Caesar Baronius. The Hebrew derivation is learned speculation from 16th-century philology, medieval authorities did derive the noun missa from the verb mittere, but not in connection with the formula ite, missa est. Thus, De divinis officiis explains the word as a mittendo, quod nos mittat ad Deo, the Catholic Church sees the Mass or Eucharist as the source and summit of the Christian life, to which the other sacraments are oriented. The Catholic Church believes that the Mass is exactly the same sacrifice that Jesus Christ offered on the Cross at Calvary, after making the sign of the cross and greeting the people liturgically, he begins the Act of Penitence. This concludes with the prayer of absolution, which, however. The Kyrie, eleison, is sung or said, followed by the Gloria in excelsis Deo, the Introductory Rites are brought to a close by the Collect Prayer. On Sundays and solemnities, three Scripture readings are given, on other days there are only two. If there are three readings, the first is from the Old Testament, or the Acts of the Apostles during Eastertide, the first reading is followed by a psalm, either sung responsorially or recited. The second reading is from the New Testament, typically one of the Pauline epistles. A Gospel Acclamation is then sung as the Book of the Gospels is processed, sometimes with incense and candles, the final reading and high point of the Liturgy of the Word is the proclamation of the Gospel by the deacon or priest. At least on Sundays and Holy Days of Obligation, a homily, finally, the Creed is professed on Sundays and solemnities, and it is desirable that in Masses celebrated with the people the Universal Prayer or Prayer of the Faithful should usually follow. The congregation responds, May the Lord accept the sacrifice at your hands, for the praise and glory of his name, for our good, the priest then pronounces the variable prayer over the gifts. The Eucharistic Prayer, the centre and high point of the entire celebration, the priest continues with one of many Eucharistic Prayer thanksgiving prefaces, which lead to the reciting of the Sanctus acclamation
7. Corpus Christi (feast) – The Feast of Corpus Christi is a Latin Rite liturgical solemnity celebrating the belief in the body and blood of Jesus Christs Real Presence in the Eucharist. It emphasizes the joy of the institution of the Eucharist, the latter had previously been observed only on Maundy Thursday, in the somber atmosphere leading to Good Friday. It was reported in 2017, however, that Pope Francis had moved the feast from Thursday to the following Sunday, when it is celebrated in Italy. At the end of Holy Mass, there is often a procession of the Blessed Sacrament, the procession is followed by Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. The celebration of the feast was suppressed in Protestant churches during the Reformation, the Church of England abolished it in 1548 as the English Reformation progressed, but later reintroduced it. Guided by exemplary priests, they lived together, devoted to prayer and she always longed for a feast day outside of Lent in its honour. Her vita reports that this desire was enhanced by a vision of the Church under the appearance of the moon having one dark spot. In 1208, she reported her first vision of Christ in which she was instructed to plead for the institution of the feast of Corpus Christi, the vision was repeated for the next 20 years but she kept it a secret. When she eventually relayed it to her confessor, he relayed it to the bishop, juliana also petitioned the learned Dominican Hugh of St-Cher, and Robert de Thorete, Bishop of Liège. Hugh of St-Cher travelled to Liège as Cardinal-Legate in 1251 and, jacques Pantaléon of Troyes was also won over to the cause of the Feast of Corpus Christi during his ministry as Archdeacon in Liège. So many other functions took place on this day that the event was almost lost sight of. This is mentioned as the reason for the introduction of the new feast. For this reason, the Feast of Corpus Christi was established to create a feast focused solely on the Holy Eucharist. E. I,7 and represents the work of St. Thomas Aquinas following or during his residency at Orvieto from 1259 to 1265. The office can also be found in the 1343 codex Regimen Animarum and this liturgy may be used as a votive Mass of the Blessed Sacrament on weekdays in ordinary time. The hymn Aquinas composed for Vespers of Corpus Christi, Pange Lingua or another eucharistic hymn, is used on Holy Thursday during the procession of the Blessed Sacrament to the altar of repose. The last two verses of Pange Lingua are also used as a hymn, Tantum Ergo, which is sung at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. O Salutaris Hostia, another hymn sung at Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament, Aquinas also composed the propers for the Mass of Corpus Christi, including the sequence Lauda Sion Salvatorem. The epistle reading for the Mass was taken from Pauls First Epistle to the Corinthians, when Pope Pius V revised the General Roman Calendar, Corpus Christi was one of only two feasts of devotion that he kept, the other being Trinity Sunday
8. Marburg Colloquy – It took place between 1 October and 4 October 1529. The leading Protestant reformers of the time attended at the behest of Philipp I of Hessen, philipps primary motivation for this conference was political, he wished to unite the Protestant states in political alliance, and to this end, religious harmony was an important consideration. If Philip wanted the meeting to be a symbol of Protestant unity he was disappointed, both Luther and Zwingli fell out over the sacrament. Philip of Hesse had a political motivation to unify all the leading Protestants because he believed that as an entity they were vulnerable to Charles V. As a unified force, they would appear to be more powerful, religious harmony was vital amongst the Protestants for there to be a unification. In contrast, Zwingli believed that the service was a commemoration of Christ’s sacrifices. On this issue, they parted without having reached an agreement, underlying this disagreement was their theology of Christ. Luther believed that the body of Christ was ubiquitous and so present in the bread. This was possible because the attributes of God infused Christs human nature, Luther emphasized the oneness of Christs person. Near the end of the colloquy when it was clear an agreement would not be reached, the Marburg Articles, based on what would become the Articles of Schwabach, had 15 points, and every person at the colloquy could agree on the first 14. First war of Kappel Huldreich Zwingli, the Reformer of German Switzerland edited by Samuel Macauley Jackson et al, online from Google Books Phillip Cary. Luther, Gospel, Law and Reformation, Lecture 14,2004, The Teaching Company Limited Partnership
9. Andreas Musculus – Andreas Musculus was a German Lutheran theologian. The name Musculus is a Latinized form of Meusel, Musculus was born in Schneeberg, generally called only Musculus and educated in Leipzig and Wittenberg. He became professor at the university of Frankfurt an der Oder, as a theologian he was Gnesio-Lutheran and polemic against the Interim, Andreas Osiander the Elder, Franciscus Stancarus, Philipp Melanchthon and John Calvin. Musculus was one of the co-authors of the Formula of Concord and he was also one of the most remarkable defenders of Eucharistic adoration in early Lutheranism. His main work on subject is Propositiones de vera, reali et substantiali praesentia, Corporis & Sanguinis IESU Christi in Sacramento Altaris. He also edited books with the classical hymns for the adoration of the Sacrament. E. g. his Precationes ex veteribus orthodoxis included Lauda Sion and he died in Frankfurt an der Oder. Biography of Andreas Musculus Hartmut Lohmann
10. Sacramental union – In Protestant sacramental theology, sacramental union is the relationship between the outward substance or sign of a sacrament and the thing signified by the sacrament. Lutherans believe the sign and thing signified to be locally united, Reformed Christians believe the sign and thing signified to be inseparable, but to be united spiritually rather than locally and bodily. Lutherans maintain that what they believe to be the doctrine of the manducatio indignorum supports this doctrine as well as any other doctrine affirming the Real Presence. The manducatio indignorum is the contention that even unbelievers eating and drinking in the Eucharist really eat and drink the body and blood of Christ. Here, too, out of two kinds of objects a union has taken place, which I shall call a sacramental union, because Christ’s body and this is not a natural or personal union, as is the case with God and Christ. It is also perhaps a different union from that which the dove has with the Holy Spirit, and the flame with the angel and it is asserted in the Wittenberg Concord of 1536 and in the Formula of Concord. The Formula of Concord couples the term with the circumlocution used among Lutherans to further define their view, For the reason why, in addition to the expressions of Christ and St. The term consubstantiation has been associated with such a local inclusion of the Body and Blood of Christ in the sacramental bread, Martin Luther distinguished this doctrine from that of transubstantiation and impanation in this way. We do not make Christs body out of the bread, nor do we say that his body comes into existence out of the bread. We say that his body, which long ago was made and came into existence, is present when we say, for Christ commands us to say not, Let this become my body, or, Make my body there, but, This is my body. The Lutheran doctrine of the union is also distinct from the Reformed view. The Calvinistic view of Christs presence in the Lords Supper is that Christ is truly present at the meal and this is in line with their general belief that the finite is not capacious for the infinite. Lutherans, on the hand, describe the Personal Union of the two natures in Christ as sharing their predicates or attributes more fully. The doctrine of the union is more consistent with this type of Christology. Confession Concerning Christs Supper Crypto-Calvinism Eucharistic theologies contrasted Marburg Colloquy Martin Luther Real Presence Luther, D. Martin Luthers Werke, Kritische Gesamtausgabe. Weimar, Verlag Hermann Böhlaus Nochfolger, 1883-, pelikan, and Helmut T. Lehmann, gen. eds.55 vols. St. Louis, Concordia Publishing House, Philadelphia, Fortress Press, triglot Concordia, The Symbolical Books of the Ev
11. Sacramentarians – The Sacramentarians were Christians during the Protestant Reformation who denied not only the Roman Catholic transubstantiation but also the Lutheran sacramental union. Historically speaking, this term referred to Calvinist Protestants. The followers of the Swiss reformer Huldrych Zwingli, including Johannes Oecolampadius, Zwingli presented his own confession of faith at the Diet of Augsburg. The doctrinal standpoint was the same – an admission of a presence of Christ which the devout soul can receive and enjoy. In more modern times, an inversion of terms has led to the name Sacramentarians being applied to those who hold a high or extreme view of the efficacy of the sacraments. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh