Category:Lycée Condorcet alumni
Alumni of Lycée Condorcet, Paris, France.
Pages in category "Lycée Condorcet alumni"
The following 96 pages are in this category, out of 96 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Alumni of Lycée Condorcet, Paris, France.
The following 96 pages are in this category, out of 96 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Raymond Aron – Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron was a French philosopher, sociologist, journalist, and political scientist. Critic Roger Kimball suggests that Opium is a book of the twentieth century. Aron is also known for his friendship, sometimes fractious. He is also known for his 1973 book, The Imperial Republic, The United States and the World 1945-1973, Aron wrote extensively on a wide range of other topics. Born in Paris, the son of a secular Jewish lawyer, Aron studied at the École Normale Supérieure, where he met Jean-Paul Sartre and he was a rational humanist, and a leader among those who did not embrace existentialism. Aron took first place in the agrégation of philosophy in 1928, in 1930, he received a doctorate in the philosophy of history from the École Normale Supérieure. He had been teaching philosophy at the University of Toulouse for only a few weeks when World War II began. When France was defeated, he left for London to join the Free French forces, editing the newspaper, when the war ended Aron returned to Paris to teach sociology at the École Nationale dAdministration and at the Paris Institute of Political Studies. From 1955 to 1968, he taught at the Sorbonne, in 1953, he befriended the young American philosopher Allan Bloom, who was teaching at the Sorbonne. A lifelong journalist, Aron in 1947 became an influential columnist for Le Figaro, a position he held for thirty years until he joined LExpress and he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960. Aron died of an attack in Paris on 17 October 1983. In Berlin, Aron witnessed the rise to power of the Nazi Party, in 1938 he participated in the Colloque Walter Lippmann in Paris. Aron is the author of books on Karl Marx and on Carl von Clausewitz, in Peace and War he set out a theory of international relations. He argues that Max Webers claim that the State has a monopoly on the use of physical force does not apply to the relationship between States. In the field of relations, in the 1950s, Aron hypothesized that despite the advent of nuclear weapons, nations would still require conventional military forces. The usefulness of such forces would be necessary by what he called a nuclear taboo. La Sociologie allemande contemporaine, Paris, Alcan,1935, German Sociology, London, De la IVe à la Ve République, Paris, Calmann-Lévy,1959 Introduction. Essai sur le marxisme imaginaire, Paris, Gallimard,1969 De la condition historique du sociologue, Paris, Gallimard,1971 Études politiques, Paris, Gallimard,1972 République impérialeRaymond Aron – Raymond Aron (1966) by Erling Mandelmann
2. Gabriel Astruc – Born in Bordeaux, Astruc was the son of Élie Aristide Astruc, a rabbi, and began his career working for publisher Paul Ollendorff, and as a columnist from 1885 through 1895. As a regular at Montmartres prototypically bohemian Le Chat Noir cabaret, he befriended a young Erik Satie and wrote articles and theater pieces under the pen name Surtac. In 1897 he founded a publishing company with his father-in-law Wilhelm Enoch, by 1900 he had introduced the luxury magazine Musica. In this period he was the agent for Mata Hari. Astruc booked Hari into the Paris Olympia in August 1905, and would manage her appearances for the ten years. He also served as booking agent for Feodor Chaliapin, Arthur Rubinstein, and Wanda Landowska, but not Isadora Duncan, in 1913 Astruc tried to parlay his success by commissioning Auguste Perret to build the innovative Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in the Avenue Montaige. This building is a landmark of early reinforced concrete. After a brilliant and scandalous first season, climaxed by the riot at the May 29 premiere of The Rite of Spring. He was also the target of attacks from Léon Daudet. After World War I, he worked in the field of radio and advertising and his papers reside at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Dance Collection. This page translated from its equivalent on French Wikipedia accessed 9/22/2010Gabriel Astruc – Gabriel Astruc
3. Jean-Dominique Bauby – Jean-Dominique Bauby was a French actor, author and editor of the French fashion magazine ELLE. He had two children with Sylvie de la Rochefoucauld, a son named Théophile and a daughter named Céleste, on 8 December 1995 at the age of 43, Bauby suffered a massive stroke. When he woke up twenty days later, he found he was entirely speechless, called locked-in syndrome, this is a condition wherein the mental faculties remain intact but most of the body is paralyzed. In Baubys case, his mouth, arms, and legs were paralyzed, Bauby composed and edited the book entirely in his head, and dictated it one letter at a time. To make dictation more efficient, Baubys interlocutor, Claude Mendibil, the book was published in France on 7 March 1997. Bauby died suddenly from pneumonia two days after the publication of his book, and he is buried in a grave at the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris. Jean-Jacques Beineix directed a documentary film entitled Assigné à résidence about Baubys time at Berck-sur-Mer. The film features Bauby himself, as well as appearances by his interlocutor, Claude Mandibil, in 2007, painter-director Julian Schnabel released a film version of The Diving Bell and the Butterfly. It starred actor Mathieu Amalric as Bauby, the script written for the film has been criticized by Baubys closest circle of friends as not faithful to events and biased in favor of his ex-partner. His late-life partner Florence Ben Sadoun claims to have been a companion, visiting him frequently at Berck-sur-Mer. Bauby notes her visits in his memoir, Sylvie de la Rochefoucauld also claims to have visited him frequently at the hospital. French science fiction author Bernard Werbers novel LUltime Secret is known to be inspired by Bauby, the Diving Bell and the Butterfly Movie website The Diving Bell and the Butterfly The truth about The Diving Bell and the Butterfly Locked-in Syndrome at IMDB. comJean-Dominique Bauby – Jean-Dominique Bauby "dictating" his memoir to Claude Mendibil
4. Henri Bergson – Henri-Louis Bergson was a French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century and after WWII in continental philosophy. Bergson is known for his arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism. He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas, in 1930 France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion dhonneur. Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier in 1859 and his father, the pianist Michał Bergson, was of a Polish Jewish background. His great-grandmother, Temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry and his mother, Katherine Levison, daughter of a Yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. The Bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family of Polish descent, Henri Bergsons great-great-grandfather, Szmul Jakubowicz Sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław August Poniatowski, King of Poland from 1764 to 1795. Henri Bergsons family lived in London for a few years after his birth, before he was nine, his parents settled in France, Henri becoming a naturalized French citizen. Henri Bergson married Louise Neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust, Henri and Louise Bergson had a daughter, Jeanne, born deaf in 1896. Bergsons sister, Mina Bergson, married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and he then replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers, Bergson attended the Lycée Fontanes in Paris from 1868 to 1878. He had previously received a Jewish religious education, between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. While at the lycée Bergson won a prize for his work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen. His solution was published the year in Annales de Mathématiques. It was his first published work, after some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers. When he was nineteen, he entered the École Normale Supérieure, during this period, he read Herbert Spencer. He obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, and this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris, the same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, while teaching and lecturing in this part of his country, Bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free Will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle, the work was published in the same year by Félix AlcanHenri Bergson – Bergson in 1927
5. Tristan Bernard – Tristan Bernard was a French playwright, novelist, journalist and lawyer. Born Paul Bernard into a Jewish family in Besançon, Doubs, Franche-Comté, France and he left Besançon at the age of 14 years, relocating with his father to Paris, where he studied at the Lycée Condorcet, which was noted for its numerous literary alumni. In 1888 was born his son Jean-Jacques Bernard, also a dramatist and he studied law, but after his military service he started his career as the manager of an aluminium smelter. He reputedly introduced the bell to signify the last lap of a race, after his first publication in La Revue Blanche in 1891, he became increasingly a writer and adopted the pseudonym Tristan. His first play, Les Pieds Nickelés, was a success and was representative of the style of his later work. He became known especially for his writing for vaudeville-type performances, which were popular in France during that time. He also wrote novels and some poetry. Bernard is remembered mainly for witticisms, particularly from his play Les Jumeaux de Brighton, in 1932, he was a candidate for the Académie Française, but was not elected, receiving only 2 votes of a total of 39. He was interned during World War II at the Drancy deportation camp, when Gestapo agents were at his door he turned to his wife, who was crying, and said Don´t cry, we were living in fear, but from now on we will live in hope. Public protest of his imprisonment caused his release in 1943 and he died in Paris four years later, allegedly of the results of his internment, and was buried in Passy cemetery. A theater in Paris that he ran briefly as the Théâtre Tristan-Bernard in 1931 was later given the name permanently to honor him and his descendants have achieved some fame. His son Raymond Bernard became an influential French filmmaker while his son Jean-Jacques Bernard published a memoir of his father in 1955 titled Mon père Tristan Bernard, Tristan Bernards grandson Christian Bernard is the current Imperator of the Rosicrucian organization AMORC. One of his grand-nephews is Francis Veber, a screenwriter, director and playwright whose films have been frequently remade or adapted in HollywoodTristan Bernard – Tristan Bernard, drawn by Toulouse-Lautrec
6. Pierre Bonnard – Pierre Bonnard was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, the intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny. Identified as a practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color. Bonnard was born in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Hauts-de-Seine on 3 October 1867 and he led a happy and carefree youth as the son of a prominent official of the French Ministry of War. He studied classics during his baccalaureate, at the insistence of his father, Bonnard studied law, graduating and briefly practicing as a barrister in 1888. However, he had attended art classes at Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julian. His earlier work such as Woman in Checkered Dress shows the influence of Japanese prints, in 1891, he met Toulouse-Lautrec and began showing his work at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. In the same year Bonnard also began an association with La Revue Blanche, for which he, Bonnards talent was appreciated early in his career, Claude Roger-Marx remarked in 1893 that he catches fleeting poses, steals unconscious gestures, crystallises the most transient expressions. His first show was at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1896, in his twenties Bonnard was a part of Les Nabis, a group of young artists committed to creating work of symbolic and spiritual nature. Other Nabis include Vuillard and Maurice Denis, in addition to his paintings, he also became known for his posters and book illustrations, as well as for his prints and theater set designs. He left Paris in 1910 for the south of France, Bonnard was described, by his own friend and historians, as a man of quiet temperament and one who was unobtrusively independent. His life was free from the tensions and reversals of untoward circumstance. It has been suggested that, Like Daumier, whose life knew little serenity, Bonnard is known for his intense use of color, especially via areas built with small brush marks and close values. His often complex compositions—typically of sunlit interiors and gardens populated with friends, Bonnards fondness for depicting intimate scenes of everyday life, has led to him being called an Intimist, his wife Marthe was an ever-present subject over the course of several decades. She is seen seated at the table, with the remnants of a meal, or nude. He also painted several self-portraits, landscapes, street scenes, and many still lifes, Bonnard did not paint from life but rather drew his subject—sometimes photographing it as well—and made notes on the colors. He then painted the canvas in his studio from his notes, I have all my subjects to hand, he said, I go back and look at them. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream and he worked on numerous canvases simultaneously, which he tacked onto the walls of his small studioPierre Bonnard – Self-portrait (c. 1889), tempera on canvas, private collection
7. Marcel Brillouin – Louis Marcel Brillouin was a French physicist and mathematician. Born in Saint-Martin-lès-Melle, Deux-Sèvres, France, his father was a painter who moved to Paris when Marcel was a boy, there he attended the Lycée Condorcet. The Brillouin family returned to Saint-Martin-lès-Melle during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to escape the fighting, there he spent time teaching himself from his grandfathers philosophy books. After the war, he returned to Paris and entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1874, Brillouin then held successive posts as assistant professor of physics at universities in Nancy, Dijon and Toulouse before returning to the École Normale Supérieure in Paris in 1888. Later, he was Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Collège de France from 1900 to retirement in 1931, in 1911 he was one of only six French physicists invited to the first Solvay Conference. He was awarded the Prix La Caze for 1912, Brillouin was elected to the Académie des Sciences in 1921. He was an officer of the Legion of Honour, most notably he, built a new model of the Eötvös balance, wrote on Helmholtz flow and the stability of aircraft, worked on a theory of the tides. His son Léon Brillouin, also had a prominent career in physics, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography ed. by C. C. Propagation de lÉlectricité, Histoire et Théorie, leçons sur la Viscosité des Liquides et des Gaz. Jubilé de M. Brillouin pour son 80ème anniversaire, comptes Rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, vol. Biography at the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, ScotlandMarcel Brillouin – Marcel Brillouin in 1895
8. Julien Cain – Julien Cain was the general administrator of the Bibliothèque nationale de France before the Occupation of France by Nazi Germany. In the summer of 1939, before the occupation began, he saw the impending danger clearly enough to order the evacuation of many of the librarys most valuable items. Quite soon after the occupation began, Cain was removed from his post by the Vichy government because he was Jewish, in February,1941, Cain was denounced in Le Matin and arrested. He was detained in French prisons until January 1944, when he was sent to Buchenwald and he was freed by American forces in April,1945, when the camp was liberated. He resumed the administratorship of the Bibliothèque nationale, which he held until 1964, French Wikipedia article on Julien CainJulien Cain – Julien Cain.
9. Camille Matignon – Arthème Camille Matignon was a French chemist noted for his work in thermochemistry. He was a member of the Académie des Sciences, President of the French Chemical Society, Matignon was born in a small village of Saint-Maurice-aux-Riches-Hommes in Burgundy. He studied first at the school of St. François de Salles at Troyes and then at the Lycée Condorcet, after graduating in 1889 he became an assistant at the Collège de France. His experimental work in thermochemistry was summarised in a doctorate thesis, in 1893 Matignon became a lecturer at the University of Lille and in 1894 Director of bleaching, dyeing and finishing at the Institut Industriel du Nord. In 1898, he was appointed a lecturer at the Sorbonne and an assistant professor at the Collège de France and he was decorated as a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in 1908 and elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1926. Matignon became President of the French Chemical Society in 1932 and an honorary Fellow of the British Chemical Society in 1933, Matignon was a talented orator and writer, noted for his enthusiasm and extravagant dressing style. In his early years, Matignon studied heat of combustion for major gaseous hydrocarbons and standard enthalpy of formation for ethanol, formic acid, acetic acid and this led to such practical conclusions as nitric esters are more powerful explosives than nitro-derivatives. Those urea studies aimed to understand the processes occurring in living organisms and hinted that formic acid and urea should react at ambient conditions and form formylurea. This law can be applied to cases as sublimation and dissociation of calcium carbonate and can predict whether a chemical reaction will proceed. At the Sorbonne, Matignon mostly worked on rare earth elements and he was heating the metal oxide with magnesium to produce the pure metal in an atmosphere of a certain gas, and demonstrated that most rare earths easily react with nitrogen and absorb hydrogen. He also studied the chemistry of numerous rare-earth salts and revealed that samarium can have the valence of two in addition to the common 3+ state, for other metals, Matignon showed that technical-grade zinc, aluminium and ferromanganese powders always contain some nitrogen. World War I urged most chemists to work on urgent technological problems and he also worked on the stability of the ammonium carbonate-urea system, which was important for fertilizers, and discovered an iron-alumina catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia. By applying an oxidation reaction to a cargo of sugar spoiled by seawater he managed to convert it into oxalic acid, Matignon also tried to design recycling procedures for waste products of grape processing and brandy distillation. LÉlectrométallurgie des fontes, fers et aciers, Centenaire de Marcelin Berthelot, bio-bibliographie, fac-similés et portraits, discours et adresses à loccasion du Centenaire, etc. This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, journal of the Chemical Society,700Camille Matignon – Camille Matignon
10. Monique Canto-Sperber – Monique Canto-Sperber is a French philosopher. She was born on May 14,1954 and her works, translated in several languages, are focused on ethics and contemporary political issues. Monique Canto-Sperber was born in French Algeria and has been living in France since 1964, an alumnus of the Ecole normale supérieure de jeunes filles, she is Agrégée and holds a PhD in philosophy. After teaching at the universities of Rouen and Amiens, she became Research Director at the CNRS in 1993, between 2001 and 2004, she was a member of the Comité consultatif national déthique and served as its President from 2004 to 2007. She produces the radio programme Questions déthique on France Culture, broadcast every Monday evening and she is officier de la Légion dhonneur officier de lordre du Mérite et chevalier des Arts et des Lettres. Her work in ancient philosophy is centred on ethical theory and epistemology, she has published several commented translations of Plato and various books. She has also taken a part in the renewal of moral philosophy in France. Monique Canto-Sperber has been the head of the Ecole normale supérieure since 2005 and she has promoted the creation of a group of institutions called Paris Sciences et Lettres - Quartier latin. On February 2012, she was elected as the President of Paris Sciences et Lettres - Quartier latin, Paris Sciences et Lettres aims to rapidly become one of the worlds outstanding universities with a strong international presence and a common citation policy for its publications. PSL was chosen as an Excellence Initiative in July 2011 PSL* and was the beneficiary of a significant endowment, each has an identity that PSL wishes to respect, in order to maintain the performances in teaching and research that form the basis of their excellence. A specialist of ancient philosophy, Monique Canto-Sperber has worked on and she has also played an important role in the introduction in France of contemporary debates in Anglo-American philosophy. She has edited at the Presses Universitaires de France a Dictionnaire déthique et de morale, with numerous French and international specialists. During the last 15 years, Monique Canto-Sperber has also important works of political philosophy. In books such as Rules of Freedom or Does liberalism need to be saved and she offers an analysis of liberalism that attempt to give the notion a new legitimacy in progressive political thinking. Recent books such as LIdée de guerre juste and La Morale du monde offer her vision of international relations, Éthiques grecques,2001 LInquiétude morale et la Vie humaine,2002 Le Socialisme libéral. Une anthologie,2003 Les Règles de la liberté,2003 Le Bien, pour une morale internationale,2005 Faut-il sauver le libéralisme. Avec Nicolas Tenzer,2006 Le Libéralisme et la gauche,2008 Lidée de guerre juste,2010 La Morale du monde,2010 Le site de Monique Canto-Sperber Questions déthique sur le site de France CultureMonique Canto-Sperber – Monique Canto-Sperber in 2005
11. Henri Cartier-Bresson – Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French humanist photographer considered a master of candid photography, and an early user of 35 mm film. He pioneered the genre of photography, and conceived of photography as capturing a decisive moment. His work has influenced many photographers, Henri Cartier-Bresson was born in Chanteloup-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, France, the oldest of five children. His father was a textile manufacturer, whose Cartier-Bresson thread was a staple of French sewing kits. His mothers family were merchants and landowners from Normandy, where Henri spent part of his childhood. The Cartier-Bresson family lived in a neighborhood in Paris, Rue de Lisbonne, near Place de lEurope. His parents supported him financially so Henri could pursue photography more freely than his contemporaries, young Henri took holiday snapshots with a Box Brownie, he later experimented with a 3×4 inch view camera. He was raised in traditional French bourgeois fashion, and was required to address his parents with formal vous rather than tu and his father assumed that his son would take up the family business, but Henri was strong-willed and also feared this prospect. Cartier-Bresson attended École Fénelon, a Catholic school that prepared students for the Lycée Condorcet, a governess called Miss Kitty who came from across the Channel, instilled in him the love of - and competence in - the English language. The proctor caught him reading a book by Rimbaud or Mallarmé, Cartier-Bresson said, He used the informal tu, which usually meant you were about to get a good thrashing. But he went on, Youre going to read in my office, well, that wasnt an offer he had to repeat. After trying to learn music, Cartier-Bresson was introduced to oil painting by his uncle Louis, but the painting lessons were cut short when uncle Louis was killed in World War I. In 1927 Cartier-Bresson entered an art school and the Lhote Academy. Cartier-Bresson also studied painting with society portraitist Jacques Émile Blanche, during this period, he read Dostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Nietzsche, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel, Engels and Marx. Lhote took his pupils to the Louvre to study classical artists, Cartier-Bressons interest in modern art was combined with an admiration for the works of the Renaissance masters, Jan van Eyck, Paolo Uccello, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca. Cartier-Bresson regarded Lhote as his teacher of photography without a camera, in the 1920s, schools of photographic realism were popping up throughout Europe but each had a different view on the direction photography should take. The Surrealist movement, founded in 1924, was a catalyst for this paradigm shift, Cartier-Bresson began socializing with the Surrealists at the Café Cyrano, in the Place Blanche. He met a number of the leading protagonists, and was drawn to the Surrealist movements technique of using the subconsciousHenri Cartier-Bresson – Henri Cartier-Bresson
12. Roland Castro – Roland Castro is a French architect and political activist. Roland Castro was born on 16 October 1940 in Limoges, melp. helped to articulate the dissatisfaction of students in the lead-up to the protests of 1968. His thinking integrates political ideas with urban architecture and he belongs to the concrete utopia movement, which he describes as an attempt to rebuild and renovate politics around revolutionary values. He is also the father of Elizabeth Castro, alias Zazon, comedian, from 2008 to 2009, Roland Castro was appointed by the President of the Republic to lead a multidisciplinary team on the future of Greater Paris. He argues for the implementation of symbolic high places of the republic and of culture, media center, hotel and housing,115 rue de Bagnolet, Paris 20. He rejoined the Union des jeunesses communistes marxistes-léninistes the following year, maoist in the 1970s, in the movement Vive le Communisme, which soon after transformed itself into Vive la révolution, which he cofounded with Tiennot Grumbach. *After the dissolution of VLR in 1971, he met Lacan and began a psychoanalysis with him that lasted seven years, as a Mitterrandist in 1981, he created a structure of response and reflection on the suburbs called Banlieues 89. Journal Légende du siècle, la conspiration des égos with Jean-Paul Dollé, Jean-Pierre Le Dantec, five issues were published between 1987 and 1992. Resigned from the Socialist Party on the day that Bernard Tapie entered the government, back to the CPF under Robert Hue, member of the National Party. In response to the Chirac / Le Pen duel in the round of the 2002 presidential elections, in 2003 created with some friends including Eric Halphen s MUC. This is a new movement as a citizen, which he calls evolutionary. Announced his candidacy for the 2007 presidential election, in 2011, he announced support for the candidacy of Arnaud Montebourg in the Socialist primaries. The concrete utopia movement is a movement created by Roland Castro. This movement defends 89 proposals to restore social bonds, without revolution transforming society towards more republican equality and these proposals have arisen from the reflection of Roland Castro and his desire to advance concrete utopias and is evolutionary to give new meaning to politics. In August 2006, he toured from Saint-Tropez to Sarcelles by bus to promote the 89 proposals of the MUC, the candidacy of its leader to the presidential election of 2007 did not succeed. On 12 March 2007 he withdrew due to lack of adequate sponsorship, jaffirme, Manifeste pour une insurrection du sens. Roland Castro, Sophie Denissof, Jean-Pierre Le Dantec, faut-il passer la banlocatione au Kärcher. Site officiel de lagence Débat TV, « Intellectuels dans les médias, » Castro sur Archiguide Roland Castro répond aux gars de la Royal dans une vidéo politiqueRoland Castro – Castro in 2006
13. Jean Cocteau – Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French writer, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles, and the films Blood of a Poet, Les Parents Terribles, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus. Cocteau was born in Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, a town near Paris, to Georges Cocteau and his wife, Eugénie Lecomte and his father was a lawyer and amateur painter who committed suicide when Cocteau was nine. From 1900–1904, Cocteau attended the Lycée Condorcet where he met and he published his first volume of poems, Aladdins Lamp, at nineteen. Cocteau soon became known in Bohemian artistic circles as The Frivolous Prince, edith Wharton described him as a man to whom every great line of poetry was a sunrise, every sunset the foundation of the Heavenly City. In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with the writers Marcel Proust, André Gide, in 1912, he collaborated with Léon Bakst on Le Dieu bleu for the Ballets Russes, the principal dancers being Tamara Karsavina and Vaslav Nijinsky. During World War I Cocteau served in the Red Cross as an ambulance driver and this was the period in which he met the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, artists Pablo Picasso and Amedeo Modigliani, and numerous other writers and artists with whom he later collaborated. Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev persuaded Cocteau to write a scenario for a ballet and it was produced by Diaghilev, with sets by Picasso, the libretto by Apollinaire and the music by Erik Satie. The piece was expanded into a full opera, with music by Satie, Francis Poulenc. If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform, wrote Cocteau, with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and he denied being a Surrealist or being in any way attached to the movement. Cocteau wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinskys opera-oratorio Oedipus rex, which had its performance in the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt in Paris on 30 May 1927. An important exponent of avant-garde art, Cocteau had great influence on the work of others, in the early twenties, he and other members of Les six frequented a wildly popular bar named Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a name that Cocteau himself had a hand in picking. The popularity was due in no small measure to the presence of Cocteau, in 1918 he met the French poet Raymond Radiguet. They collaborated extensively, socialized, and undertook many journeys and vacations together, Cocteau also got Radiguet exempted from military service. Some contemporaries and later commentators thought there might have been a component to their friendship. Cocteau himself was aware of this perception, and worked earnestly to dispel the notion that their relationship was sexual in nature, there is disagreement over Cocteaus reaction to Radiguets sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned, despondent and prey to opium addiction. Opponents of that point out that he did not attend the funeral. Cocteau himself much later characterised his reaction as one of stupor and his opium addiction at the time, Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte Carlo OperaJean Cocteau – Jean Cocteau in 1923
14. Jacques Copeau – Jacques Copeau was an influential French theatre director, producer, actor, and dramatist born in Paris. He eventually organized a school attached to his theatre and thus influenced the development of theatre through the training of the actor. Twentieth century French theatre is marked by Copeaus outlook, According to Albert Camus, in the history of the French theatre, there are two periods, before Copeau and after Copeau. The child of a well-off middle-class family, Copeau was raised in Paris, at the Lycée Condorcet, he was a talented but nonchalant student whose interest in theatre already consumed him. His first staged play, Brouillard du matin, was presented on March 27,1897 at the Nouveau-Théâtre as part of the festivities of the association of the Lycée Condorcet. The former president of the French Republic, Casimir-Perier, and the playwright Georges de Porto-Riche both congratulated him on his work. During the same period when Copeau was preparing his baccalauréat exams, he met Agnès Thomsen and they first met on March 13,1896, and Copeau, then a seventeen-year-old high school student, quickly fell in love. Against his mothers wishes he married Agnès in June 1902 in Copenhagen and their first child, Marie-Hélène, was born on December 2,1902. In April 1903, the family made its way back to France where Copeau took up his duties as director of the familys factory in Raucourt in the Ardennes. He also reinserted himself into a literary coterie of friends, among them now. While living in Angecourt in the Ardennes, Copeau frequently travelled to Paris where he made a name for himself as theatre critic-at-large for several publications, in mid-April their second daughter, Hedwig was born. In July 1905, he took on a job at the Georges Petit Gallery where he assembled exhibits and he stayed at the Petit Gallery until May 1909. During this period he continued to write reviews and garnered a reputation as an astute. Liberated, as he said, from his duties at the gallery and from management concerns at the Raucourt factory, in 1910, he bought Le Limon, a piece of property in the Seine-et-Marne département, away from the distractions of Paris. He worked tirelessly on an adaptation of Dostoyevskys The Brothers Karamazov along with his school boy friend, Jean Croué. He was now ready to work in the theatre as a not only as critic. The play was staged in April 1911 under the direction of Jacques Rouché at the Théâtre des Arts, Charles Dullin, who played the role of Smerdiakov, was particularly singled out for a fine performance. A second staging of the adaptation the following October, with Louis Jouvet in the role of Father Zossima, in his opinion, even the venerated Comédie-Française, the House of Molière, had fallen prey to the artificiality that he considered an obstacle to real artistic creationJacques Copeau – Jacques Copeau
15. Marcel Dassault – Marcel Dassault born Marcel Bloch,22 January 1892 –17 April 1986, was a French aircraft industrialist. Bloch was born on 22 January 1892 in Paris, both of his parents were Jewish. He was educated at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, after studies in Electrical Engineering he graduated from the Breguet School and Supaéro. At the latter school Bloch was classmates with a Russian student named Mikhail Gurevich who would later be instrumental in the creating of the MiG aircraft series. Bloch worked at the French Aeronautics Research Laboratory during World War I, in 1928 Bloch founded the Société des Avions Marcel Bloch aircraft company which produced its first aircraft in 1930. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, in 1936 the company was nationalized as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Bloch agreed to become the administrator of the Minister for Air. During Nazi Germanys occupation of France, the aviation industry was virtually disbanded, other than the compulsory manufacturing, assembly. In October 1940, Bloch refused to collaborate with the Germans occupiers at Bordeaux-Aéronautique and was imprisoned by the Vichy government, in 1944 the Nazis deported Bloch to the Buchenwald concentration camp, while his wife was interned near Paris. Bloch was detained at Buchenwald until it was liberated on 11 April 1945 and he changed his name from Bloch to Bloch-Dassault and, in 1949, to simply Dassault. Dassault was the used by his brother, General Darius Paul Bloch, when he served in the French resistance. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation, in 1919, Bloch married Madeleine Minckes, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family of furniture dealers. They had two sons, Claude and Serge, as Dassault, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1950. Now, the building at no.7 has been occupied from 2002 by auction house Artcurial, while no.7 has been sold, no.9 continues to be occupied by the Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault. Marcel Dassault died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, in 1986 and was buried in the Passy Cemetery in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, Serge Dassault, Marcels son, became CEO of Avions Marcel Dassault, which was restructured as Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault, reflecting its broader interests. In 1990, the division was renamed Dassault Aviation. In 1991, the rond-point des Champs-Elysées was renamed the rond-point des Champs-Elysées-Marcel Dassault in his honor, societé des Avions Marcel Bloch Dassault Group Dassault Aviation The Talisman, the Autobiography of Marcel Dassault, Creator of the Mirage jet, translated by Patricia High Painton. Arlington House,1971 ISBN 0-87000-149-3 Marcel Dassault - Dassault Aviation siteMarcel Dassault – Marcel Bloch in 1914
16. Maurice Denis – Maurice Denis was a French painter and writer, and a member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. His theories contributed to the foundations of cubism, fauvism, Maurice Denis was born 25 November 1870, in Granville, Manche, a coastal town in the Normandy region of France. Waters and coastlines would remain favorite subject throughout his career. The Denis family was affluent, and young Maurice attended both the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian, where he studied with the French figure painter and theorist Jules Joseph Lefebvre. At the Académie, he met painters and future Nabi members including Paul Sérusier, Pierre Bonnard, through Bonnard he also met the future Nabis Édouard Vuillard, Ker-Xavier Roussel, in 1890, they formed The Nabis. They chose Nabi—Hebrew for Prophet—because they understood they would be creating new forms of expression, the group would split apart by the end of the decade, and would influence the later work of both Bonnard and Vuillard, as well as non-Nabi painters like Henri Matisse. After Les Nabis, Denis went on to focus on religious subjects, in 1922, he published his collected historical and theoretical work as Nouvelles théories sur l’art moderne, sur l’art sacré—that is, New Theories of Modern and Sacred Art. The subjects of his works include landscapes and figure studies, particularly of mother. Denis was among the first artists to insist on the flatness of the picture plane—one of the starting points for modernism. In 1898, he produced a theory of creation that found the source for art in the character of the painter, That which creates a work of art is the power and the will of the artist. The Ateliers dArt Sacré were founded on 5 November 1919 after World War I by Denis, the Ateliers created art for churches, particularly those devastated by the recent war. Denis said that he was against academic art because it sacrificed emotion to convention and artifice, above all he wanted beauty, which was an attribute of divinity. Denis, a Catholic tertiary, married his first wife, Marthe Meurier and they had seven children, and she would pose for numerous Denis works. Following her death in 1919, Denis painted a chapel dedicated to her memory, two years later, he married again, to Elisabeth Graterolle, and fathered two more children. Politically, he was close to the monarchist Action Française movement, Denis died in Paris of injuries resulting from an automobile accident in November 1943. In 1980, the Maurice Denis Museum was opened in the home in the Parisian suburb of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. A major retrospective was mounted at the Musée Des Beaux Arts de Montréal in 2007, a similar exhibition took place in 1995 at the UKs Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Leçons de l’Italie, d’après son journal | Lessons from Italy, based on his JournalMaurice Denis – Portrait of Maurice Denis by Odilon Redon
17. Paul Deschanel – Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel was a French statesman. He served as President of France from 18 February to 21 September 1920. Paul Deschanel, the son of Émile Deschanel, professor at the Collège de France and senator, was born in Brussels and he is one of only two French Presidents who were born outside France. Paul Deschanel studied law, and began his career as secretary to Deshayes de Marcère, in October 1885, he was elected deputy for Eure-et-Loir. From the first, he took an important place in the chamber, in January 1896, he was elected vice-president of the chamber, and henceforth devoted himself to the struggle against the Left, not only in parliament, but also in public meetings throughout France. In June 1898, he was elected president of the chamber, and was re-elected in 1901, nevertheless, he came forward brilliantly in 1904 and 1905 as a supporter of the law on the separation of church and state. He also gained a position on the Committee of Foreign Affairs and he was re-elected deputy in 1910, and on May 23,1912 was chosen to be the Presidency of the Chamber. In this role he played a part during World War I as the national orator. He served until he was elected President of France on 17 January 1920 by an overwhelming majority, having beaten Georges Clemenceau in the preliminary party ballot. Deschanel aspired to a more active role as president than had been de rigueur under the Third Republic. As president, his behaviour caused some consternation, on one occasion, after a delegation of schoolgirls had presented him with a bouquet. On another occasion he received the British Ambassador to France naked except for the decorations of his office. Soon afterwards, Deschanel walked out of a meeting, straight into a lake. His resignation was offered on 21 September 1920, and he was placed in an institution, nevertheless, he was narrowly elected to the senate in January 1921, serving until his death. He was the only French head of state during whose term in office no persons in France were executed until the penalty was abolished in 1981. Deschanel himself was a death penalty opponentPaul Deschanel – Paul Deschanel
18. Patrick Devedjian – Patrick Devedjian is a French politician of the Union for a Popular Movement party. Devedjian was born in Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne and he is the grandson of the Turkish-Armenian zoologist and Ottoman bureaucrat Karekin Deveciyan. His father was born in Sivas, Ottoman Empire and arrived in France after escaping the Armenian Genocide, Devedjian received his early education in an Armenian school in Sèvres. He continued his education at the Panthéon-Assas University, where he was a member of the far-right group Occident and he was admitted to the Paris Bar in 1970. He became a militant in the Gaullist movement in 1971 and took part in the foundation of the Rally for the Republic party in 1976, in 1983, Devedjian was elected Mayor of Antony, a position he would hold until 2002 with re-elections in 1989,1995 and 2001. In 1986, he became a Deputy in the National Assembly from the Hauts-de-Seine department and was re-elected six times in 1988,1993,1997,2002,2007 and 2012. He was member of the Assembly Committee on Finance, and was rapporteur of the General Agreement on Tariffs, in 1992, he was one of the few members of the RPR who voted to support the Maastricht Treaty. During the 1995 presidential campaign, he supported Édouard Balladur together with Nicolas Sarkozy and he became a close adviser to Nicolas Sarkozy, and came back into favour during the presidential campaign of 2002. As President Chirac had requested that ministers did not carry local executive powers and he was also replaced in Parliament by his substitute Georges Siffredi. When Nicolas Sarkozy became Minister of the Economy and Finance in 2004, in June 2005, new Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin did not include Patrick Devedjian in his government. As a result, Georges Siffredi resigned from Parliament in October in order for Devedjian to be reelected in the Hauts-de-Seine 13th constituency, Devedjian added a statement to the amendment that according to media would prevent any provocations and political demonstrations organized by a foreign country. When Nicolas Sarkozy resigned from Government and became President of the Union for a Popular Movement party, instead, Sarkozy chose Rachida Dati, the first woman of Northern African ancestry to hold a Ministry in France. Devedjian was not included in François Fillon’s government, on that occasion, Devedjian bitterly remarked, I am in favour of a government open to a wide range of people—even to Sarkozists. The joke earned him the 2007 Prize for Political Humour, instead, Devedjian took the presidency of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council on 1 June, becoming head of the richest département in France. He left the UMP leadership to Xavier Bertrand on 8 December, governmental functions Minister of Economic Recovery Plan, 2008-2010. Elected in 1986, reelected in 1988,1993,1997,2002,2005,2007 and 2012, General Council President of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Since 2007 Vice-president of Hauts-de-Seine General Council, 2004-2007. Municipal Council Mayor of Antony, Hauts-de-Seine, 1983-2002, elected in 1983, reelected in 1989,1995,2001. Municipal councillor of Antony, Hauts-de-Seine, 1983-2005, Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Hauts de Bièvre, 2002-2005Patrick Devedjian – Patrick Devedjian, October 2009
19. Jacques Dutronc – Jacques Dutronc is a French singer, songwriter, guitarist, composer, and actor. He has been married to singer Françoise Hardy since 30 March 1981 and he also has been a longtime songwriting collaborator with Jacques Lanzmann. Some of Dutronc best known hits include Il est cinq heures, Paris séveille, Le Responsable, Dutronc played guitar in the rock group El Toro et les Cyclones. He wrote successful songs for Françoise Hardy in the 1960s before moving on to pursue a solo career. His music incorporated traditional French pop and French rock as well as such as psychedelic rock. He later branched out into acting, starting in 1973. He earned a Cesar for Best Actor for the role in Van Gogh. Jacques Dutronc was born on 28 April 1943 at 67 Rue de Provence in the 9th arrondissement of Paris and his father was a manager for the state-run Office of Coal Distribution. Jacques was educated at Rocroy-Saint-Léon elementary school, the de la Rue Blanche and then at the École Professionnelle de Dessin Industriel. In 1960, Dutronc formed a band with himself as guitarist, schoolfriend Hadi Kalafate as bassist, Charlot Bénaroch as drummer and they auditioned in 1961 for Jacques Wolfsohn, an artistic director at Disques Vogue, who signed them and gave them the name El Toro et les Cyclones. The group released two singles, LOncle John and Le Vagabond, but disbanded when Dutronc was obliged to undertake military service. After being discharged from the army in 1963, Dutronc briefly played guitar in Eddy Mitchells backing band and was given a job at Vogue as Jacques Wolfsohns assistant. In this capacity, he co-wrote songs for such as ZouZou, Cléo. Wolfsohn asked Dutronc to work with Jacques Lanzmann, a novelist and editor of Lui magazine, Benjamin released an EP in 1966, featuring songs written with Dutronc and a Lanzmann-Dutronc composition, Cheveux longs. However, Wolfsohn was disappointed by Benjamins recording of a song titled Et moi, et moi, a second version was recorded, with Dutroncs former bandmate Hadi Kalafate on vocals. Wolfsohn then asked Dutronc if he would be interested in recording his own version, the single reached number 2 in the French charts in September 1966. For Portis, Dutronc marks a break with the tradition of French chanson in his creative use of the sounds, rather than just the syntax. A second single, Les play boys, spent six weeks at number one, Dutronc was one of the most commercially successful French music stars of the late 1960s and early 1970sJacques Dutronc – Dutronc singing in Lorient, France in January 2010
20. Thomas Fersen – Thomas Fersen is a French singer-songwriter. During his childhood, he was part of a group before playing the piano in café-theatres. He released his first album in 1993, it gave him immediate name recognition and his deep and gravelly smokers voice gives a particular tone to his songs, which belong to different musical styles depending on the album. The stage name Thomas Fersen comes from the names of Thomas Boyd, a Scottish footballer and he was one of the first singers to join the label Tôt ou tardThomas Fersen – Thomas Fersen
21. Robert de Flers – Robert de Flers was a French playwright, opera librettist, and journalist. He entered the Lycée Condorcet in 1888 where he studied law with the ambition of entering diplomatic service. He met and befriended fellow student and writer Marcel Proust, Proust exposed Flers to art, literature, and music and his interests soon switched from law to writing, journalism, and literature. The two men enjoyed a lifelong friendship, after completing his studies, he toured throughout Asia in the mid-1890s. The event inspired his earliest writings, the novel La Courtisane Taïa et son singe vert, the short story Ilsée, princesse de Tripoli, upon returning to Paris, he was approached by composer Edmond Audran to write the libretto for his operetta La reine des reines. The worked premiered on 14 October 1896 at the Théâtre de lEldorado in Strasbourg and his next libretto was for Gaston Serpettes vaudeville-operetta Shakspeare. Which premiered at the Théâtre des Bouffes Parisiens on 23 November 1899, in 1901 de Flers married Geneviève Sardou, the daughter of Victorien Sardou. He continued to be active writing librettos and his third opera libretto, Les travaux dHercule, marked his first collaboration with fellow playwright Gaston Arman de Caillavet and composer Claude Terrasse. Most of his librettos were written with Caillavet, often for Terrasse who was their most frequent musical collaborator. Other composers for which the two men wrote librettos include André Messager, and Gabriel Pierné, the two men also wrote a French translation of Franz Lehárs The Merry Widow in 1905 which was used throughout France during the first half of the 20th century. Their last opera collaboration was for Alfred Bruneaus 1923 opera Le jardin du paradis, de Flers also wrote the librettos for Reynaldo Hahns Ciboulette with playwright Francis de Croisset, and Joseph Szulcs Le petit choc. He later worked frequently with playwright Francis de Croisset, producing works as Les Vignes du seigneur, Les Nouveaux Messieurs. Although a number of his operas were successful in his day, de Flers was a member of the Académie française from 1920 up until his death in 1927. He spent the last six years of his life as editor of Le Figaro. He also served as the Conseiller Général of Lozère during his latter yearsRobert de Flers – Robert de Flers
22. Serge Gainsbourg – Serge Gainsbourg was a French singer, songwriter, pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director. His lyrical work incorporated a vast amount of word play to hoodwink the listener, often for humorous, provocative. Common types of play in his songs include mondegreen, onomatopoeia, rhyme, spoonerism, dysphemism, paraprosdokian. Through the course of his career, Gainsbourg wrote over 550 songs, since his death, Gainsbourgs music has reached legendary stature in France. He has also gained a following in the English-speaking world. Born in Paris, France, Gainsbourg was the son of Jewish Ukrainian migrants, Joseph Ginsburg and Olga, who fled to Paris after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Joseph Ginsburg was a trained musician whose profession was playing the piano in cabarets and casinos, he taught his children - Gainsbourg. Gainsbourgs childhood was affected by the occupation of France by Germany in World War II. The identifying yellow star Jews were required to wear haunted Gainsbourg, during the occupation, the Jewish Ginsburg family was able to make their way from Paris to Limoges, traveling under false papers. Limoges was in the Zone libre under the administration of the collaborationist Vichy government, after the war, Gainsbourg obtained work teaching music and drawing in a school outside of Paris, in Mesnil-Le-Roi. The school was set up under the auspices of local rabbis, here Gainsbourg heard the accounts of Nazi persecution and genocide, stories that resonated for Gainsbourg far into the future. Before he was 30 years old, Gainsbourg was a disillusioned painter, Gainsbourg changed his first name to Serge, feeling that this was representative of his Russian background and because, as Jane Birkin relates, Lucien reminded him of a hairdressers assistant. He chose Gainsbourg as his last name, in homage to the English painter Thomas Gainsborough and he married Elisabeth Lize Levitsky on 3 November 1951 and divorced in 1957. He married a second time on 7 January 1964, to Françoise-Antoinette Béatrice Pancrazzi and he divorced Béatrice in February 1966. In late 1967 he had a short but ardent love affair with Brigitte Bardot, to whom he dedicated the song, in mid-1968 Gainsbourg fell in love with the younger English singer and actress Jane Birkin, whom he met during the shooting of the film Slogan. Their relationship lasted over a decade, in 1971 they had a daughter, the actress and singer Charlotte Gainsbourg. Although many sources state that they were married, according to their daughter Charlotte this was not the case. Birkin remembers the beginning of her affair with Gainsbourg, he first took her to a nightclub, then to a transvestite club, Birkin left Gainsbourg when pregnant with her third daughter Lou by the film director Jacques DoillonSerge Gainsbourg – Serge Gainsbourg in 1981
23. Prince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky – Prince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky was the natural son of Alexander II of Russia by his mistress Catherine Dolgorukov. The marriage of Georges parents eight years after his birth, on 6 July 1880, Georges mother Catherine Dolgorukov met Tsar Alexander II when he visited the Smolny Institute in the autumn of 1864. She became his mistress in July 1866, despite early resistance and their affair caused great scandal at court, with Alexanders heir the Tsarevich in particular protesting, though it was to be in vain. The tsar was devoted to Catherine and promised to marry her as soon as he was free, meaning when his estranged and sickly wife Tsarina Maria Alexandrovna finally died. George was the first child of Catherine and Alexander and was born in the study on 12 May 1872. Alexander had ordered that if the called for it, Catherine, and not the child, must be saved. I praised God, in tears I thank Him, three more siblings later followed, Olga, Boris, and Catherine. Their births further tied the couple together, the devotion Alexander showed to his mistress and children concerned all around him, many feeling that the relationship damaged his reputation irreparably. The tsar had believed he was in danger of assassination, and was consequently in favor of a speedy remarriage, the marriage was heavily criticized, with one source speculating that it deprived image of both the moral and cultural attributes that had come to justify autocratic power. Catherine took the title Princess Romanovskaia-Yurevskaia and the status of Serene Highness, all the children began using the patronymic Aleksandovich, causing fears that despite the morganatic status of the marriage, the tsar was contemplating giving them dynastic rights. Georges birth had caused concern among the Imperial family, because he was viewed as a threat to the true heir. Rumours were constantly circulating that George would be the tsarevichs replacement and it was well known that Alexander regarded George as a true Russian, remarking in 1881 of George, This is a real Russian, in him at least there flows only Russian blood. Furthermore, although the order of the succession had been clear in a law of 1797. One incident that caused concern occurred at a reception, when Alexander playfully asked his son, Tell us Goga. George replied, My name is Prince Georgy Alexandrovich Yuryevsky, to which the tsar declared, and wouldnt you like to become a grand duke, young man. This conversation was the tsars barely concealed attempt to test his relatives reactions, were he to legally adopt and make his son and daughters a grand duke, the princess however renounced all succession rights on behalf of her son, who was eight years old at the time. The morganatic nature of the marriage meant that not only did Catherine not automatically become tsarina, the newly married Princess Yuryevsky and her son made their first official appearance on 4 October during a military review of the Cossacks, with George wearing a Cossack uniform. Alexander begged his heir to accept her into the family, and introduced him to George as his eldest brother whom he was to love and obey and by whom he would be looked afterPrince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky – George with his sisters Olga and Yekaterina
24. Norbert Goeneutte – Norbert Goeneutte was a French painter, etcher and illustrator, notably for the novel La Terre by Émile Zola. He was born into a family that had moved from Saint-Omer to Paris in 1850, following a long interruption by the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune, when he lived away from Paris, he graduated in 1871 and his father found him a place in an attorneys office. His father died shortly thereafter and Norbert persuaded his mother that he was not suited for that sort of work and she agreed, so he entered the École des Beaux-arts and began studies with Isidore Pils. When Pils died in 1875, he was replaced by Henri Lehmann and they wrote to Édouard Manet, asking him to take Lehmanns place, but he declined. Some students remained, but Goeneutte left to set up his own studio and he frequented the Père Lathuille, a famous cabaret, where he met Manet and was introduced to the artistic circle at the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes. He soon began exhibiting at the Salon but, despite his friendship with many notable Impressionists, in 1879, he married Eva Gonzalès, one of Manets models. With the financial support of his brother, he travelled abroad, including trips to London. He also travelled extensively in France and these visits produced a multitude of landscapes and cityscapes. In 1889, he one of the founders of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français, together with his friends Henri Guérard. That same year, he exhibited at the Exposition Universelle, two years later, he found himself at odds with the Société when it refused admission to Camille Pissarro, who was not born in France. In 1891, doctor Paul Gachet, a supporter of the arts. Gachet was able to him a house near his own in Auvers-sur-Oise, called the Villa Musette. Once there, he involved with a group of artists associated with Charles-François Daubigny. Three years later, he died of complications from what had turned out to be a lung disease and he is buried there, near the grave of Vincent van Gogh, who had also been treated by Gachet during his final illness. Norbert Goeneutte @ Zibelius Fine Art Norbert Goeneutte blogNorbert Goeneutte – Norbert Goeneutte (1881); from L’Album Artistique et Biographique du Salon
25. Jean Hugo – Jean Hugo was a painter, illustrator, theatre designer and author. He was born in Paris and died in his home at the Mas de Fourques, near Lunel, brought up in a lively artistic environment, he began teaching himself drawing and painting and wrote essays and poetry from a very early age. His artistic career spans the 20th century, from his sketches of the First World War, through the creative ferment of the Parisian interwar years. Jean Hugo was the great-grandson of the poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights activist and exponent of the Romantic movement in France, Victor Hugo. Jean Hugo was married twice, first in 1919 to Valentine Hugo and then in 1949 to Lauretta Hope-Nicholson, Jean Hugo and Lauretta had seven children, several of whom have gone on to establish successful careers in the arts. Jean Hugos half-brother François Hugo designed limited-edition jewellery interpretations for Pablo Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Ernst, pierre Hugo – son of François Hugo – is also a jewellery designer and has written a book about the artistic legacy of the Hugo family, Les Hugo – Un Temoignage. Hugo is predominantly known for his sketches and oil or gouache paintings and he also illustrated books, designed theatre sets and costumes and produced ceramics, murals, textile designs and stained glass windows. Hugo designed the sets and costumes for Carl Theodor Dreyers film The Passion of Joan of Arc and he showed an interest in forest scenes and religious themes. LImposteur and La Baie des Trépassés were produced in the same period and his painting were based on the sketchbooks that he had with him at all times. He used to say that Inspiration comes naturally but one has to arrange meetings with it. LImposteur concludes Hugos first artistic period, which coincides with his move from Paris to the property at the Mas de Fourques, Lunel, France. The subject of the painting evokes the discomfort of the catechumen in the midst of the faithful, the painting is set in the countryside around Lunel, with its vineyards and low scrubland. The tense and complex composition of the work is well executed. No element, line, motif, nuance of colour or object is secondary, each element contributes to the pictorial vision. The delicate volumes are bathed in an intense luminosity and stand out from the background, the figures are fixed in the space by superimposed connections, in the Florentine manner. In the middle of the 1930s, he began using oil paints to create his larger compositions while continuing to paint with tempera, Le Mangeur au chandail rayé shows the artist in his home at the Mas de Fourques. The motif of the contrasts with the neat contours of the table, the chimney. In this homely setting, the figure seems surrounded by mystery, although Hugo does not draw greatly on De Chirico, this work evokes the feeling of isolation and mystery that characterises the production of the latterJean Hugo – Autoportrait, 1918
26. Guy La Chambre – Guy La Chambre was a French politician. He was born into a family with roots in Brittany. Guy La Chambre was educated at the Lycée Condorcet and the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, in 1916 he enlisted as a volunteer in the French Army and served for the remainder of the First World War, being awarded the Croix de guerre 1914–1918 for his services. In the aftermath of the German defeat La Chambre served with the Allied occupation forces in the Rhineland, after completing his legal studies and being admitted to the bar, La Chambre was employed working in the private office of Prime Minister Aristide Briand. At the 1928 general election, he stood successfully in Saint-Malo and he was Minister of Merchant Marine from 30 January 1934 –9 February 1934. Biography de Ladoucette, Michel, Guy La Chambre, un Malouin illustre, homme de cœur et de devoir, Dieppe, La VigieGuy La Chambre – Guy La Chambre.
27. Jules Laforgue – Jules Laforgue was a Franco-Uruguayan poet, often referred to as a Symbolist poet. Critics and commentators have pointed to Impressionism as a direct influence. His parents, Charles-Benoît Laforgue and Pauline Lacollay, met in Uruguay where his father worked first as a teacher, Jules was the second of eleven children in the family, the eldest child being Jules brother Émile, who was to become a sculptor of note. In 1876 Juless father took the family to Paris, in 1877 his mother died of pneumonia, three months after a miscarriage, and Jules, never a good student, failed his baccalaureate exams. He failed again in 1878, and then a third time, in 1879 his father became sick and returned to Tarbes, but Jules stayed behind in Paris. He published his first poem in Toulouse, by the end of the year, he had published several poems and was noticed by well-known authors. In 1880 he moved in the circles of the capital and became a protégé of Paul Bourget. Much happened to Laforgue in 1881, he attended a course of Taines lectures and developed a great interest in painting, charles Ephrussi, a rich collector, one of the first collectors of Impressionist art, took Laforgue on as his secretary. The direct influence of Impressionism on Laforgues early development as a poet is a topic in Laforgue studies. In 1881 Laforgue wrote a novel, Stephane Vassiliew and prepared a collection of poems entitled The Tears of the Earth, also in 1881 his sister left him alone in Paris to tend to their father who was seriously ill in Tarbes. Around that time, he began to frequent Le Chat Noir. The origins of this can be found in Willettes panel cartoon, launched in the Parisian cabaret, when his father died, Laforgue did not attend his fathers funeral. From November 1881 until 1886, he lived in Berlin, working as the French reader for the Empress Augusta and he was well paid and could pursue his interests very freely. In 1885, he wrote LImitation de Notre-Dame la Lune, widely regarded as his masterpiece, in 1886 he returned to France and married Leah Lee, an Englishwoman. That year, his poetry was published in La Vogue alongside the work of Arthur Rimbaud and his poem LHiver Aui Vient was one of these poems, which he believed set the tone for his work to come. While he was able to publish some experiemental writings there, his most creative and original work and he died the next year of tuberculosis, his wife following him shortly thereafter. When he died, he left a book of free verse, Des Fleurs de Bonne Volonté. Influenced by Walt Whitman, Laforgue was one of the first French poets to write in free verse, in fact, his translations of Whitmans poetry, which were published by La Vogue, are believed to have influenced Laforgues compatriot Gustave KahnJules Laforgue – Portrait of Laforgue, 1885
28. Maxime Le Forestier – Maxime Le Forestier is a French singer. Bruno Le Forestier was born on 10 February 1949 in Paris to an English father and he had two older sisters, Anne and Catherine. His musical training started on the violin and he attended the Lycée Condorcet, where he studied literature. In 1965, he formed a duo with his sister Catherine, playing at cabaret venues on Paris Left Bank, the pair met and formed a friendship with Georges Moustaki. They were amongst the first artists to cover a number of songs by Moustaki – including Ma Liberté, in 1968, Catherine joined Moustaki as a backing singer. Le Forestier began to focus on songwriting and composed Ballade pour un traître which was recorded and released by the French/Italian singer and actor, Le Forestier continued as part-time singer/songwriter during his military service with a parachute regiment. He recorded two songs, Cœur de Pierre, Face de Lune, and La Petite Fugue and his military service ending September 1970, Le Forestier refocused on his musical career. He developed a style which was enormously popular in the 1970s and 1980s. He and his sister spent the summer of 1971 living in the Castro District of San Francisco at the invitation of his friend, the experience, and meeting Allen Ginsberg, was the inspiration of a popular song, San Francisco. His first album Mon Frère, released in 1973, contains pieces that have entered French folklore, including the title song Mon frère, San Francisco, Comme un arbre. He toured extensively, both in France and abroad, in 1976, he toured in 14 cities in the USSR. Recently he has gained acclaim for his reworkings of the songs of Georges Brassens. San Francisco, one of his best known songs, begins with the line, in 1971, the young singer was living in a hippie commune, called Hunga Dunga, in a blue house situated at 3841 18th Street in San Francisco. The anthemic song was written as a tribute to Maxime Le Forestier’s housemates and hippie friends. These include Phil Polizatto, who recalls with great affection Le Forestier’s stay in the house, in a critically acclaimed book entitled “Hunga Dunga. Maxime Le Forestier is a member of the Les Enfoirés charity ensemble since 1995. 1972, Mon frère 1973, Le Steak 1974, Enregistrement public 1975, Saltimbanque 1976, Hymne à Sept Temps 1979, Chante Brassens 1980, Les rendez-vous manqués 1978, N°51981, Dans ces histoiresMaxime Le Forestier – Maxime Le Forestier at Les Enfoirés 2013
29. Jean-Luc Marion – Jean-Luc Marion is a French postmodern philosopher. Marion is a student of Jacques Derrida whose work is informed by patristic and mystical theology, phenomenology. Much of his work has dealt with Descartes and phenomenologists like Martin Heidegger and Edmund Husserl. Marion was born in Meudon, Hauts-de-Seine, on 3 July 1946, from 1972 to 1980 he studied for his doctorate and worked as an assistant lecturer at the Sorbonne. After receiving his doctorate in 1980, he began teaching at the University of Poitiers, from there he moved to become the Director of Philosophy at the University Paris X – Nanterre, and in 1991 also took up the role of professeur invité at the Institut Catholique de Paris. In 1996 he became Director of Philosophy at the University of Paris IV, Marion became a visiting professor at the University of Chicago Divinity School in 1994. He was then appointed the John Nuveen Professor of the Philosophy of Religion and Theology there in 2004, on 6 November 2008, Marion was elected as an immortel by the Académie française. Marion now occupies seat 4 an office previously held by Cardinal Lustiger. His awards include, the Karl Jaspers Prize of the city and University of Heidelberg, the unexpected reaction that Réduction et donation provoked called for clarification and full development. Du surcroît provides a description of saturated phenomena. Marion claims that he has attempted to reduce the whole phenomenological project beginning with the primacy in it of givenness. What he describes as his one and only theme is the givenness that is required before phenomena can show themselves in consciousness—what shows itself first gives itself. The formulation common to both, Marion argues, So much appearance, so much Being, adopted from Johann Friedrich Herbart, in doing so, it leaves appearing itself undetermined, not subject to the reduction, and thus in a typically metaphysical situation. The Husserlian formulation, To the things themselves, is criticized on the basis that the things in question would remain what they are even without appearing to a subject—again circumventing the reduction or even without becoming phenomena. Appearing becomes merely a mode of access to objects, rendering the formulation inadequate as a first principle of phenomenology, Marion argues that while the Principle of all Principles places givenness as phenomenalitys criterion and achievement, givenness still remains uninterrogated. As much reduction, as much givenness states that givenness is what the reduction accomplishes, the more a phenomenon is reduced, the more it is given. Marion calls the formulation the last principle, equal to the first, in all, three types of phenomena can be shown, according to the proportionality between what is given in intuition and what is intended, Phenomena where little or nothing is given in intuition. Examples include the Nothing and death, mathematics and logic, Marion claims that metaphysics, in particular Kant, privileges this type of phenomenon. Phenomena where there is adequation between what is given in intuition and what is intended, Phenomena where what is given in intuition fills or surpasses intentionalityJean-Luc Marion – Jean-Luc Marion
30. Roger Martin du Gard – Roger Martin du Gard was a French novelist, winner of the 1937 Nobel Prize for Literature. Six parts of the novel were published between 1922 and 1929, after abandoning a seventh volume in manuscript, he published two more volumes in 1936 and 1940. Martin du Gard wrote several novels, including Jean Barois. During World War II, he resided in Nice, where he prepared a novel which remained unfinished at his death and it was posthumously published in 1983. His other works include plays and a memoir of André Gide, Roger Martin du Gard died in 1958 and was buried in the Cimiez Monastery Cemetery in Cimiez, a suburb of the city of Nice, France. Jean Barois Les Thibault Vieille France Notes sur André Gide Souvenirs du lieutenant-colonel de Maumort Claude Sicard, Les années dapprentissage littéraire, Champion,1976. Archived from the original on 4 July 2013Roger Martin du Gard – Roger Martin du Gard
31. Michel Maurice-Bokanowski – Michel Maurice-Bokanowski was a French politician. He was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications in 1960–62 and Minister of Industry in 1962–66 and he was a Senator from 1968 to 1995. Michel Maurice-Bokanowski was born on 6 November 1912 in Paris, the son of the politician Maurice Bokanowski and his mother was Marguerite Wolff, who married Maurice Bokanowski on 14 April 1908. He had a brother, Jean-Jacques Bokanowski, who became an advocate at the Court of Appeal of Paris. His father was killed on 2 September 1928 in an air accident when flying from Toul to a meeting in Clermont-Ferrand. Michel was authorized to take the name Maurice-Bokanowski by a decree of 30 August 1928, Maurice-Bokanowski married Hélène Kann on 16 March 1938. They had one son, Thierry Maurice-Bokanowski, during World War II Michel Maurice-Bokanowski belonged to the Free French forces. He was made Commander of the Legion of Honour, Croix de Guerre 1939–45, after the war he was a fervent Gaullist. He was secretary-general of the Rassemblement du Peuple Français for the Paris region from 1948 to 1951, Maurice-Bokanowski was elected a deputy in 1951. He was reelected a deputy for the 37th constituency of the Seine in November 1958 and he was Secretary of State for the Interior from 20 January 1959 to 4 February 1960 in the cabinet of Michel Debré, leaving his seat to his deputy Jacques Sanglier. Maurice-Bokanowski was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications from 5 February 1960 to 14 April 1962 and he was Minister of Industry from 15 April 1962 to 8 January 1966 in the cabinet of Georges Pompidou. He was reelected to the legislature in 1962, and was confirmed in his ministry and his deputy Emile Tricon took his seat. After leaving the legislature in 1966 he devoted his energy to the development of Asnières, Maurice-Bokanowski was president of the Spanish company Cofraes, and administrator of the Compagnie des plastiques Cosmos, the Société des eaux minérales dEvian and SEIMA. He was also director of the Société Boka-Nouveautés, Maurice-Bokanowski was elected to the Senate for Hauts-de-Seine on 22 September 1968, and was reelected on 25 September 1977 and 28 September 1986. He belonged to the Union des Démocrates pour la République and then from 1976 to the Rassemblement pour la République and he was a member of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Defence and Armed Forces, the Committee on Cultural Affairs and the Finance Committee. In 1976 he filed a bill to ban free newspapers, on 12 November 1974 Maurice-Bokanowski supported Interior Minister Michel Poniatowski, who had called the Communist Party of the party fascist, triggering a heated debate. He said that the Communists did not have the concept of democracy as his party. He suggested that the qualifier totalitarian used by Hannah Arendt would be more precise, Maurice-Bokanowski was a strong supporter of nuclear deterrence, but wrote a book titled La défense, Avant la bombe in which he warned against abandoning conventional weaponsMichel Maurice-Bokanowski – Michel Maurice-Bokanowski
32. Nadar (photographer) – Nadar was the pseudonym of Gaspard-Félix Tournachon, a French photographer, caricaturist, journalist, novelist, and balloonist. Photographic portraits by Nadar are held by many of the national collections of photographs. Nadar was born in April 1820 in Paris and his father, Victor Tournachon, was a printer and bookseller. After his fathers death, Nadar decided to quit his studies for economic reasons. Nadar started working as a caricaturist and novelist for various newspapers and he fell in with the Parisian bohemian group of Gérard de Nerval, Charles Baudelaire and Théodore de Banville. His friends picked a nickname for him, Tournadar, which later became Nadar and his work was published in Le Charivari for the first time in 1848. In 1849, he founded the Revue comique and the Petit journal pour rire, from work as a caricaturist, he moved on to photography, particularly portraits. He opened his studio in rue Saint Lazare in 1854. Nadar photographed a wide range of personalities, politicians, stage actors, writers, painters, portrait photography was going through a period of native industrialization and Nadar refused to use the traditional sumptuous decors, preferred natural daylight and despised useless accessories. In 1886, with his son Paul, he did what may be the first photo-report and it was published in Le Journal Illustré. He took his first photographs in 1853 and in 1855 opened a studio at 25 Boulevard des Capucines. He also pioneered the use of lighting in photography, working in the catacombs of Paris. He was the first person to photograph above ground with his balloons, as well as the first to photograph below ground, Le Géant was badly damaged at the end of its second flight, leading Nadar to the conviction that heavier-than-air machines would be more successful. Later, The Society for the Encouragement of Aerial Locomotion by Means of Heavier than Air Machines was established, with Nadar as president, Nadar was the inspiration for the character of Michael Ardan in Vernes From the Earth to the Moon. On his visit to Brussels with Le Géant, on 26 September 1864, crowd control barriers are still known in Belgium as Nadar barriers. In April 1874, he lent his studio to a group of painters to present the first exhibition of the Impressionists. He photographed Victor Hugo on his death-bed in 1885 and he is credited with having published the first photo-interview, and also took erotic photographs. From 1895 until his return to Paris in 1909, the Nadar photo studio was in Marseilles, Nadar died in 1910, aged 89Nadar (photographer) – Self-portrait circa 1860
33. Edmond Perrier – Jean Octave Edmond Perrier was a French zoologist born in Tulle. He is known for his studies of invertebrates and he was the brother of zoologist Rémy Perrier. On advice from Louis Pasteur, he studied sciences at the École Normale Supérieure, afterwards he was a schoolteacher for three years at the college in Agen. In 1869 he obtained his doctorate in sciences, later replacing Lacaze-Duthiers at the École normale supérieure. In 1876 he attained the chair of Natural History at the Muséum national dhistoire naturelle, in 1892 he became a member of the Académie des sciences, and even though he wasnt a doctor of medicine, he became a member of the Académie nationale de médecine. From 1900 to 1919 he was director of the museum of natural history, Perrier was deeply interested in the evolutionary theories of Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. In 1909 he was speaker at the inauguration of Lamarcks monument at the Muséum national dhistoire naturelle and he believed Lamarck to be the true founder in regards to the theory of evolution. Etudes sur lorganisation des Lombriciens terrestres,1874 – Studies on the organization of terrestrial earthworms, la Philosophie zoologique avant Darwin,1884 – Zoological philosophy prior to Darwin Les Coralliaires et les îles Madréporiques. 1887 – The Coralline islands and Madreporaria, Lamarck et le transformisme actuel,1893. Expéditions scientifiques du Travailleur et du Talisman pendant les années 1880,1881,1882,1883 – Scientific expeditions of the Travailleur, la Femme dans la nature, dans les moeurs dans la légende, dans la société,1910. Les Origines de la Vie et de lHomme,1920, France savante list of publications The Philosophy of Zoology Before Darwin Parts of this articles biography are based on a translation of an equivalent article at the French Wikipedia. Works by Edmond Perrier at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Edmond Perrier at Internet ArchiveEdmond Perrier – Edmond Perrier (1844-1921)
34. Marcel Proust – He is considered by critics and writers to be one of the most influential authors of the 20th century. Proust was born in Auteuil at the home of his great-uncle on 10 July 1871 and he was born during the violence that surrounded the suppression of the Paris Commune, and his childhood corresponded with the consolidation of the French Third Republic. Prousts father, Adrien Proust, was a prominent pathologist and epidemiologist, studying cholera in Europe and he wrote numerous articles and books on medicine and hygiene. Prousts mother, Jeanne Clémence Weil, was the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family from Alsace, literate and well-read, she demonstrated a well-developed sense of humour in her letters, and her command of English was sufficient to help with her sons translations of John Ruskin. Proust was raised in his fathers Catholic faith and he was baptized and later confirmed as a Catholic, but he never formally practiced that faith. He later became an atheist and was somewhat of a mystic, by the age of nine, Proust had had his first serious asthma attack, and thereafter he was considered a sickly child. Proust spent long holidays in the village of Illiers, in 1882, at the age of eleven, Proust became a pupil at the Lycée Condorcet, but his education was disrupted by his illness. Despite this he excelled in literature, receiving an award in his final year, thanks to his classmates, he was able to gain access to some of the salons of the upper bourgeoisie, providing him with copious material for In Search of Lost Time. As a young man, Proust was a dilettante and a social climber whose aspirations as a writer were hampered by his lack of self-discipline. His reputation from this period, as a snob and an amateur, contributed to his troubles with getting Swanns Way. It is through Mme Arman de Caillavet that he made the acquaintance of Anatole France, Proust had a close relationship with his mother. To appease his father, who insisted that he pursue a career, after exerting considerable effort, he obtained a sick leave that extended for several years until he was considered to have resigned. He never worked at his job, and he did not move from his parents apartment until after both were dead and his life and family circle changed markedly between 1900 and 1905. In February 1903, Prousts brother, Robert Proust, married and his father died in November of the same year. Finally, and most crushingly, Prousts beloved mother died in September 1905 and she left him a considerable inheritance. His health throughout this period continued to deteriorate, Proust spent the last three years of his life mostly confined to his bedroom, sleeping during the day and working at night to complete his novel. He died of pneumonia and an abscess in 1922. He was buried in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris, Proust was involved in writing and publishing from an early ageMarcel Proust – The novelist in 1900
35. Joseph Reinach – Joseph Reinach was a French author and politician. His two brothers Salomon Reinach and Théodore Reinach would later be known in the field of archaeology, after studying at Lycée Condorcet, he was called to the bar in 1887. He attracted the attention of Léon Gambetta by writing articles on Balkan politics for the Revue bleue, in Gambettas grand ministère, Reinach was his secretary and tried to obtain a partial revision of the constitution and list proportional representation. In the République française he waged a war against General Boulanger. Between 1889 and 1898, he sat for the Chamber of Deputies for Digne and he advocated complete freedom of the theatre and the press, the abolition of public executions, and denounced political corruption of all kinds. However, he was implicated in the Panama scandals through his father-in-law, as soon as he learned that he was benefiting by fraud. However, Reinach is best known as the champion of Alfred Dreyfus, at the time of the original trial, he attempted to secure a public hearing of the case, and, in 1897, he allied himself with Auguste Scheurer-Kestner to demand its revision. He denounced in the Siècle the Henry forgery and Esterhazys complicity and his articles in the Siècle aroused the fury of the anti-Dreyfus party, especially as Reinach was a Jew and was accused by some of taking up Dreyfuss defence on racial grounds. He lost his seat in the Chamber of Deputies and, having refused to fight Henri Rochefort, finally, Dreyfus was pardoned, Reinach wrote a history of the case that was completed in 1905. In 1906, Reinach was re-elected for Digne, in that year, he became a member of the commission of the national archives, and the following year a member of the council on prisons. Reinach was a writer on political subjects. He published three volumes on Léon Gambetta in 1884 and also edited Gambettas speeches and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Reinach, JosephJoseph Reinach – Joseph Reinach
36. Salomon Reinach – Salomon Reinach was a French archaeologist. The brother of Joseph Reinach and Théodore Reinach, he was born at St Germain-en-Laye and he made valuable archaeological discoveries at Myrina near Smyrna in 1880-82, at Cyme in 1881, at Thasos, Imbros and Lesbos, at Carthage and Meninx, at Odessa and elsewhere. He received honours from the learned societies of Europe. In 1887 he obtained an appointment at the National Museum of Antiquities at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, in 1893 he became assistant curator, in 1903 he became joint editor of the Revue archéologique, and in the same year officer of the Legion of Honour. The lectures he delivered on art at the École du Louvre in 1902-3 were published by him under the title of Apollo and these were translated into most European languages, and became a standard handbook on the subject. Reinachs first published work was a translation of Arthur Schopenhauers Essay on Free Will and he compiled an important Répertoire de la statuaire grecque et romaine, also Répertoire de peintures du Moyen âge et de la Renaissance 1280-1580, Répertoire des vases peints grecs et étrusques. In 1905 he began his Cultes, mythes et religions, and in 1909 he published a sketch of the history of religions under the title of Orpheus. He also translated from the English HC Leas History of the Inquisition as Histoire de lInquisition au Moyen-âge, in 1936 his updated bibliography was published — Bibliographie de Salomon Reinach. It has been said his bibliography runs to 262 pages and includes more than ninety lengthy works, Salomon Reinach died in 1932 and was buried in the Cimetière de Montmartre in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris. Répertoire de la Statuaire Grecque et Romaine, Répertoire des Vases Peints Grecs et Étrusques. The Story of Art Throughout the Ages,1904, English translation of Apollo, Répertoire de Peintures du Moyen Âge et de la Renaissance 1280-1580. Apollo, an Illustrated Manual of the History of Art Throughout the Ages Charles Scribners, the so-called Asiatic Terracotta Groups, Charles Scribners sons. Orpheus, A General History of Religions, W. Heinemann, cults, Myths and Religions, English translation of Cultes, mythes et religions. A Short History of Christianity, G. P and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Reinach, Joseph. Works by Salomon Reinach at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Salomon Reinach at Internet Archive Salomon ReinachSalomon Reinach – Salomon Reinach
37. Louis Renault (industrialist) – Louis Renault was a French industrialist, one of the founders of Renault and a pioneer of the automobile industry. Renault built one of Frances largest automobile manufacturing concerns, which bears his name to this day, during World War I his factories contributed massively to the war effort notably so by the creation and manufacture of the first effective tank, the Renault FT tank. Accused of collaborating with the Germans during World War II, he died while awaiting trial in liberated France toward the end of 1944 under uncertain circumstances and his company was seized and nationalized by the provisional government of France although he died before he could be tried. His factories were the only ones permanently expropriated by the French government, the fourth of six children born into the bourgeois Parisian family of Alfred and Berthe Renault, Louis Renault attended Lycée Condorcet. Renault called his car the Voiturette, on 24 December 1898, he won a bet with his friends that his invention with an innovative crankshaft could beat a car with a bicycle-like chain drive up the slope of Rue Lepic in Montmartre. As well as winning the bet, Renault received 13 definite orders for the vehicle, seeing the commercial potential, he teamed up with his two older brothers, Marcel and Fernand, who had business experience from working in their fathers button and textiles firm. They formed the Renault Frères company on 25 February 1899, initially, business and administration was handled entirely by the elder brothers, with Louis dedicating himself to design and manufacturing. Marcel was killed in the 1903 Paris-Madrid motor race, and in 1908, on 26 September 1918 Renault, then aged 40, married the 21-year-old Christiane Boullaire, sister of French painter Jacques Boullaire. The Chateau fronted on more than 3 km of the Seine, at Renaults request and expense, the small town hall of Herqueville was moved. Renaults personnel entered the residence via an underground tunnel, locations of Chateau Herqueville, 49°14′31. 66″N 1°15′24. Identical methods were used by Andre Citroen in his own factory. Over 600 French 75mm guns were destroyed by explosions in 1915. Louis Renault was decorated with the Grand Cross of the Légion dhonneur after the war for the contribution of his factories to the war effort. During the interwar period his right-wing opinions became well known, leading to cases of labour unrest with proletarian avant-garde workers at the Boulogne Billancourt plant. He pleaded for a union between European nations. In 1938, Renault visited Adolf Hitler, and by 1939 he had become an important supplier for the French army, at the time Hitlers Wehrmacht invaded France in 1940, Louis Renault was in the U. S. sent by his government to ask for tanks. He returned to find the Franco-German armistice in place and he put his factories at the service of Vichy France, which meant that he was also assisting the Nazis. Over a period of four years, Renault manufactured 34,232 vehicles for the Germans, Renault argued that by continuing operations he had saved thousands of workers from being transported to GermanyLouis Renault (industrialist) – Renault in 1926
38. Jules Romains – Jules Romains, born Louis Henri Jean Farigoule, was a French poet and writer and the founder of the Unanimism literary movement. His works include the play Knock ou le Triomphe de la médecine, and he was nominated for the Nobel prize in literature sixteen times. Jules Romains was born in Saint-Julien-Chapteuil in the Haute-Loire but went to Paris to attend first the lycée Condorcet and he received his agrégation in philosophy in 1909. In 1927, he signed a petition against the law on the organization of the nation in time of war, abrogating all intellectual independence. His name on the petition appeared with those of Lucien Descaves, Louis Guilloux, Henry Poulaille, Séverine. and his novel The Boys in the Back Room appeared in English in 1937. A writer on many varied topics, Jules Romain was elected to the Académie française on 4 April 1946 and he served as President of PEN International, the worldwide association of writers from 1936 to 1941. In 1964, Jules Romains was named citizen of honor of Saint-Avertin, following his death in Paris in 1972, his place in the Académie française was taken by Jean dOrmesson. Romains originally considered unanimism to mean an opposition to individualism or to the exaltation of individual particularities, universal sympathy with life, existence, sussex Academic Press,2016, Jules-Romains, Lise, Les vie inimitables, Souvenirs, Paris, Flammarion,1985. Poems by Jules Romains PEN International This article incorporates information from the equivalent article on the French WikipediaJules Romains – Jules Romains photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1936
39. Guy de Rothschild – Baron Guy Édouard Alphonse Paul de Rothschild was a French banker and member of the Rothschild family. He owned the bank Rothschild Frères from 1967 to 1979, when it was nationalized by the French government and he was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1985. Baron Guy de Rothschild was born in Paris, the son of Baron Édouard de Rothschild and his wife, guys elder brother, Édouard Alphonse Émile Lionel, died at the age of four of appendicitis, he also had two younger sisters, Jacqueline and Bethsabée. Half of his great-grandparents were Rothschilds and he was a great-great grandson of the German patriarch of the Rothschild family Mayer Amschel Rothschild, who founded the familys banking in the 18th century in Frankfurt, Germany. He grew up at his parents townhouse on the corner of the rue de Rivoli and he was educated at the Lycée Condorcet and Lycée Louis-le-Grand in Paris, and by private tutors. He undertook military service with the cavalry at Saumur, and played golf for France and he won the Grand Prix de Sud-Ouest in 1948. Guy de Rothschild married twice, In 1937, he married a distant cousin, Alix was the former wife of Kurt Krahmer and the younger daughter of Baron Philipp Schey von Koromla, the first Hungarian Jew to be made an Austrian noble. They had one child, David René de Rothschild, Rothschild also raised his wifes daughters from her prior marriage to Krahmer, Lili and Bettina. In 1957, he married Baroness Marie-Hélène van Zuylen van Nyevelt, marie-Hélènes first marriage to Count François de Nicolay—with whom she had one son, Philippe de Nicolay—had been dissolved in 1956. Like his first wife, she was a distant cousin, though in this case and they had one child, Baron Édouard de Rothschild. After his second marriage, Guy de Rothschild renovated the Château de Ferrières, using it to put on lavish balls in the early 1970s, the same year, he bought the Hôtel Lambert on the Île Saint-Louis in Paris, the top floors of which became his Paris residence. In 1940, as a result of the German occupation of France in World War II, Guy de Rothschilds parents and sister Bethsabée fled France and made their way to safety in New York City. Guy de Rothschild had enlisted in the French Army and was a commander in the 3rd Light Mechanised Division during the Battle of France in early 1940. After fighting the Nazis at Carvin, he was part of the French Army that was forced to retreat to Dunkirk and he was awarded the Croix de Guerre for his actions on the beaches at Dunkirk, from where he was evacuated to England. He immediately returned to France, landing at Brest, and taking charge of the office at La Bourboule. Under the Vichy government, his father and uncles were stripped of their French nationality, removed from the register of the Légion dhonneur, Rothschild managed to persuade the buyers to grant options under which he would later be able to buy the familys interests back. He left France again, via Spain and Portugal, to join his parents in New York City and he joined the Free French Forces and boarded the cargo ship, Pacific Grove, to travel back to Europe. His ship was torpedoed and sunk in March 1943, and he was rescued after spending 12 hours in the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, in England, he joined the staff of General Koenig at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force near PortsmouthGuy de Rothschild – Guy de Rothschild
40. Ker-Xavier Roussel – Ker-Xavier Roussel was a French painter associated with Les Nabis. In 1888, he enrolled in the École des Beaux-Arts, and soon began frequenting the Académie Julian where Maurice Denis and he is best known for paintings of French landscapes usually depicting women, children, nymphs, and fauns in bucolic settings. In 1899, Roussel, Vuillard, and his close friend, Pierre Bonnard, traveled to Lake Como, Venice. Roussel is mentioned in Gertrude Steins Autobiography of Alice B, there she recounts an exchange he had with Theodore Duret in Vollards shop at an uncertain date after 1904. Roussel complained of the lack of recognition that he and the other Nabi painters had to contend with, Duret consoled him by pointing out his incompatibility with the manners and fashions of the bourgeois world and the differences between art and official art. In 1926, Ker-Xavier Roussel won the Carnegie Prize for art, Ker-Xavier Roussel died in 1944 at his home in LÉtang-la-Ville, Yvelines. Frèches-Thory, Claire, & Perucchi-Petry, Ursula, edKer-Xavier Roussel – Ker-Xavier Roussel (left), Édouard Vuillard, Romain Coolus, and Félix Vallotton, 1899
41. Jacques Sadoul (politician) – Jacques Numa Sadoul, commonly known as Captain Sadoul, was a French lawyer, communist politician, and writer, one of the founders of the Communist International. He began his career in the French Section of the Workers International in Vienne, and, by the time of World War I, was serving under Albert Thomas, the Minister of Armaments. A French Army Captain, he was Thomas envoy to the Russian Republic, keeping contact with the socialist circles, after the October Revolution, he maintained close contacts with the Bolsheviks, pledging them his support against the Central Powers during the crisis of 1917–1918. Opting not to return to France during the Russian Civil War, Sadoul co-founded the French Communist Group in Russia, fighting for control of it against Pierre Pascal and Henri Guilbeaux. Helping to set up the Red Army, he was sent to the Ukraine, where he instigated mutinies among the French intervention troops, and then to Germany, where he set up communist cells. Sadoul also mediated between the International and the SFIOs left-wing, attracting members for what became the French Communist Party, a French military court sentenced him to death in absentia, while the SFIO presented him, symbolically, as a candidate in the 1919 elections. Finally moving back to France in 1924, and acquitted upon retrial and he joined the PCF, but failed to win any elections, and was generally marginalized by the party leadership. A Stalinist apologist and Izvestia correspondent in the 1930s, he helped the Soviet Union maintain contacts with the French establishment, and represented Soviet interests in France. He was pressured into collaborationism with Vichy France during World War II, but openly returned to communism in 1944, the son of a magistrate, Sadoul was born in Paris on May 22,1881. He was an alumnus of Lycée Condorcet, while studying there, he met and befriended Eugène Schueller, future founder of the LOréal cosmetics empire. Together with Marcel Cachin, they founded a socialist peoples university in the settlement of La Chapelle, in 1903, Sadoul registered with the bar association and worked for the Court of Appeal of Paris. A provincial lawyer assigned to the court of Poitiers, and a reserve officer, Sadoul married Yvonne Mezzara. Their son, Ary, was born in 1908, Jacques soon entered party politics, joining the SFIO. He was its secretary in Vienne during the 1910s, and also served as head of the local Confederation of Labor, in August 1912, the SFIO selected him to run for a vacated National Assembly seat in Montmorillon. He won some 3,900 votes, but lost to the Radical Party candidate and he ran a second time in the legislative election of May 1914—the last vote before the outbreak of World War I later that summer. For the next three years, he stood on the SFIOs center, but was sympathetic to its far-left wing, in 1916, Albert Thomas, the SFIO Minister of Armaments, appointed Sadoul as his Undersecretary of State for Artillery. Thomas obtained that Sadoul be assigned to General Henri Niessels French Military Mission in Petrograd and he reached Russia by way of Scotland and Sweden, crossing in at Tornio. The Thomas–Sadoul link remained especially strong, to the point where observers called him Thomas personal informant or Thomas creature, other Frenchmen also joined Sadoul in his diplomatic effort, including Lieutenant Pierre PascalJacques Sadoul (politician) – Sadoul during his 1925 trial
42. William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate – Air Commodore William Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate, DSO, DFC, PC was a British Liberal politician who later joined the Labour Party. A decorated Royal Air Force officer, he was Secretary of State for India between 1929-1931 and Secretary of State for Air between 1945-46 and he was the father of Tony Benn and the grandfather of Hilary Benn. Born in Hackney, Benn was the son of Sir John Benn. He was given the name Wedgwood because his mother, Elizabeth Pickstone, was linked to Josiah Wedgwood of the pottery family. Benn was educated at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris and at University College, in 1906 Benn was elected as a Liberal Member of Parliament for the St Georges division of Tower Hamlets in east London, a seat he held until 1918. He served under H. H. Asquith as a Lord of the Treasury between 1910 and 1915, in 1918 he was elected for Leith in Scotland. He sat until March 1927, when he resigned from the Liberal Party, in 1928 Benn re-entered Parliament as Labour member for Aberdeen North. MacDonald recognised his talent offering the possibility of promotion and he was Secretary of State for India between 1929 and 1931 in Ramsay MacDonalds second government and was sworn of the Privy Council in 1929. However, he refused to follow MacDonald into the National Government coalition with the Conservatives and he returned to parliament in 1937 when he was elected for Gorton near Manchester. In 1942 Benn was raised to the peerage as Viscount Stansgate, two years later he was appointed Vice President of the Allied Control Commission which was charged with reconstructing a democratic government in Italy. In 1945 he became Secretary of State for Air in Clement Attlees Labour government and he then sat as a backbench Labour peer until his death fourteen years later. Although aged 37 at the time World War I broke out, on 8 December 1914, on 12 May 1916, he was appointed an observer flying officer in the Royal Flying Corps. On 8 July 1916, he was appointed as the officer of a seaplane observer squadron. Seeing service at Gallipoli, he was seconded to the Royal Naval Air Service on 17 May 1917 and he was awarded the DSO on 4 June 1917 He was promoted to lieutenant on 10 July 1917. On 12 July 1918, Benn transferred to the Royal Air Force, in September 1918, he was awarded the DFC. The citation read, A gallant observer of exceptional ability, after setting out on a bombing raid, the Scout machines assigned to act as an escort became separated, and it then became necessary for the bombing planes to proceed on their task without support. Captain Benns machine took the lead, followed by three bombers, and succeeded in dropping his bombs on an enemy aerodrome. On the return journey the bombing machines were attacked by enemy scoutsWilliam Wedgwood Benn, 1st Viscount Stansgate – Air Commodore The Right Honourable The Viscount Stansgate DSO DFC PC
43. Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Toulouse-Lautrec is among the best-known painters of the Post-Impressionist period, with Cézanne, Van Gogh and Gauguin. In a 2005 auction at Christies auction house, La Blanchisseuse, his painting of a young laundress, sold for US$22.4 million. The last part of his name means he was a member of an aristocratic family and his younger brother was born in 1867, but died the following year. After the death of his brother, Henris parents separated and a nanny ended up taking care of him, at the age of eight, Henri went to live with his mother in Paris where he drew sketches and caricatures in his exercise workbooks. The family quickly realised that Henris talents lay in drawing and painting, a friend of his father, René Princeteau, visited sometimes to give informal lessons. Some of Henris early paintings are of horses, a speciality of Princeteau, in 1875, Toulouse-Lautrec returned to Albi because his mother had concerns about his health. He took thermal baths at Amélie-les-Bains and his mother consulted doctors in the hope of finding a way to improve her sons growth, Toulouse-Lautrecs parents, the Comte and Comtesse, were first cousins, and he suffered from congenital health conditions sometimes attributed to a family history of inbreeding. At age 13, Toulouse-Lautrec fractured his right femur, at age 14, he fractured his left. The breaks did not heal properly, modern physicians attribute this to an unknown genetic disorder, possibly pycnodysostosis, or a variant disorder along the lines of osteopetrosis, achondroplasia, or osteogenesis imperfecta. Rickets aggravated by praecox virilism has also been suggested, afterwards, his legs ceased to grow, so that as an adult he was extremely short. He developed an adult-sized torso, while retaining his child-sized legs, additionally, he is reported to have had hypertrophied genitals. Physically unable to participate in many activities enjoyed by males his age and he became an important Post-Impressionist painter, art nouveau illustrator, and lithographer, and, through his works, recorded many details of the late-19th-century bohemian lifestyle in Paris. Toulouse-Lautrec contributed a number of illustrations to the magazine Le Rire during the mid-1890s, after initially failing college entrance exams, he passed his second attempt and completed his studies. Toulouse-Lautrecs mother had high ambitions and, with the aim of her son becoming a fashionable and respected painter and he was drawn to Montmartre, the area of Paris famous for its bohemian lifestyle and the haunt of artists, writers, and philosophers. Studying with Bonnat placed Toulouse-Lautrec in the heart of Montmartre, an area he rarely left over the next 20 years. After Bonnat took a new job, Toulouse-Lautrec moved to the studio of Fernand Cormon in 1882 and studied for a five years. At this time he met Émile Bernard and Vincent van Gogh, Cormon, whose instruction was more relaxed than Bonnats, allowed his pupils to roam Paris, looking for subjects to paint. During this period, Toulouse-Lautrec had his first encounter with a prostitute, which led him to paint his first painting of a prostitute in Montmartre, a woman rumoured to be Marie-CharletHenri de Toulouse-Lautrec – Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
44. Boris Vian – Boris Vian was a French polymath, writer, poet, musician, singer, translator, critic, actor, inventor and engineer. He is best remembered today for his novels and those published under the pseudonym Vernon Sullivan were bizarre parodies of criminal fiction, highly controversial at the time of their release. Vians other fiction, published under his name, featured a highly individual writing style with numerous made-up words, subtle wordplay. His novel LÉcume des jours is the best known of these works and one of the few translated into English, Vian was also an important influence on the French jazz scene. His own music and songs enjoyed popularity during his lifetime, particularly the anti-war song Le Déserteur, Vian was born in 1920 into an upper middle-class family in the wealthy Parisian suburb of Ville dAvray. His parents were Paul Vian, a rentier, and Yvonne Ravenez. From his father Vian inherited a distrust of the church and the military, Vian was the second of four children, the others were Lélio, Alain and Ninon. The family occupied the Les Fauvettes villa, the name Boris was chosen by Yvonne, an avid classical music lover, after seeing a performance of Mussorgskys opera Boris Godunov. Vian suffered from ill health throughout his childhood and had to be educated at home until the age of five, from 1926 to 1932 he studied first at a small lycée, then at Lycée de Sèvres. After the Wall Street Crash of 1929 the familys financial situation worsened considerably, shortly after Vians 12th birthday he developed rheumatic fever and after a while he also contracted typhoid. This combination led to health problems and left Vian with a heart condition that would ultimately lead to an early death. Vian gave an eyeblink to this condition in LÉcume des Jours, his most popular novel, featuring Chloë. From 1932 to 1937, Vian studied at Lycée Hoche in Versailles, in 1936, Vian and his two brothers started organizing what they called surprise-parties. They partook of mescaline in the form of a Mexican cacti called peyote and these gatherings became the basis of his early novels, Trouble dans les andains and particularly Vercoquin et le plancton. It was also in 1936 that Vian got interested in jazz, in 1937, Vian graduated from Lycée Hoche, passing baccalauréats in mathematics, philosophy, Latin, Greek and German. He subsequently enrolled at Lycée Condorcet, Paris, where he studied mathematics until 1939. Vian became fully immersed in the French jazz scene, for example, when WWII started, Vian was not accepted into the army due to poor health. He entered École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures in Paris and subsequently moved to Angoulême when the school moved there because of the war, in 1940, Vian met Michelle Léglise, who became his wife in 1941Boris Vian – Boris Vian
45. Abdoulaye Wade – Abdoulaye Wade is a Senegalese politician who was President of Senegal from 2000 to 2012. He is also the Secretary-General of the Senegalese Democratic Party and has led the party since it was founded in 1974, a long-time opposition leader, he ran for President four times, beginning in 1978, before he was elected in 2000. He won re-election in 2007 with a majority in the first round, Wade was born in Kébémer, Senegal, officially, he was born in 1926, although some claim he was born several years earlier, and the record-keeping of the time is not considered particularly reliable. He studied and taught law at the lycée Condorcet in France and he holds two doctorates in law and economics. He was also dean of the law and economics faculty at the University of Dakar in Senegal. At a summit of the Organization of African Unity in Mogadishu in 1974, Wade told President Léopold Sédar Senghor that he wanted to start a new party, the PDS was founded on 31 July 1974. Wade first ran for President in February 1978 against Senghor, taking 17. 38% of the vote, Senghor gave Wade the nickname Diombor. Also in 1978, Wade was elected to the National Assembly, subsequently he ran in the presidential elections of 1983 and 1988, taking second place each time, behind Senghors successor Abdou Diouf. Following the 1988 election, he was arrested due to protests against the results, subsequently he went to France, but returned in 1990. In April 1991, Wade and four other PDS members joined a national unity government together with the ruling Socialist Party, in October 1992, he and the other PDS ministers quit the government due to complaints about the manner in which the PS was said to control the government. In the February 1993 presidential election, Wade again took place, with 32% of the vote, behind Diouf. Following the May 1993 killing of Constitutional Council Vice-President Babacar Sèye, Wade, along with other PDS leaders, faced police questioning. On October 1, Wade, his wife, and two PDS members of the National Assembly, were charged with complicity in the murder, although they were not held in custody or put on trial. Following riots in February 1994, Wade was arrested along with others for allegedly threatening state security. The charge of complicity in Sèyes murder was dismissed in May 1994 and he and his co-defendants were released on July 4, and the remaining charges were dismissed on August 30,1994. Wade rejoined the government as Minister of State in March 1995, but he, Wade subsequently spent a year in France, returning to Senegal on October 27,1999. Wade won this round with 58. 49% of the vote, having received the support of candidates from the first round, Wade became President on April 1,2000 and appointed Niasse as his Prime Minister shortly afterwards. Wade initially cohabited with the PS, which held a majority in the legislature until the PDS, a new constitution was adopted in 2001, reducing presidential terms to five years following the completion of Wades seven-year term in 2007Abdoulaye Wade – Abdoulaye Wade
46. William Carlos Williams – William Carlos Williams was a Puerto Rican-American poet closely associated with modernism and imagism. His work has an affinity with painting, in which he had a lifelong interest. In addition to his writing, Williams had a career as a physician practicing both pediatrics and general medicine. He was affiliated with what was known as Passaic General Hospital in Passaic, New Jersey. The hospital, which is now known as St. Marys General Hospital, Williams was born in Rutherford, New Jersey. His grandmother, an Englishwoman deserted by her husband, had come to the United States with her son, remarried and her son, Williamss father, married a Puerto Rican woman of French Basque and Dutch Jewish descent. Williams received his primary and secondary education in Rutherford until 1897, upon leaving University of Pennsylvania, Williams did internships at both French Hospital and Childs Hospital in New York before going to Leipzig for advanced study of pediatrics. He published his first book, Poems, in 1909, Williams married Florence Herman in 1912, after he returned from Germany. They moved into a house in Rutherford, New Jersey, which was their home for many years. Shortly afterward, his book of poems, The Tempers, was published by a London press through the help of his friend Ezra Pound. Around 1914, Williams had his first son, William E. Williams, followed by his son, Paul H. Williams. His first son would grow up to follow Williams in becoming a doctor, although his primary occupation was as a family doctor, Williams had a successful literary career as a poet. In addition to poetry, he wrote short stories, plays, novels, essays. He practiced medicine by day and wrote at night, in 1920, Williams was sharply criticized by many of his peers when he published one of his most experimental books, Kora in Hell, Improvisations. Pound called the work incoherent and H. D. thought the book was flippant. Three years later, Williams published one of his books of poetry, Spring and All. However, in 1922, the year it was published, the appearance of T. S. Eliots The Waste Land became a literary sensation and overshadowed Williamss very different brand of poetic Modernism. In his Autobiography, Williams would later write, I felt at once that The Waste Land had set me back twenty years, instead, Williams preferred colloquial American EnglishWilliam Carlos Williams – William Carlos Williams passport photograph,1921