Category:Lycée Condorcet alumni
Alumni of Lycée Condorcet, Paris, France.
Pages in category "Lycée Condorcet alumni"
The following 104 pages are in this category, out of 104 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
Alumni of Lycée Condorcet, Paris, France.
The following 104 pages are in this category, out of 104 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Raymond Aron – Raymond Claude Ferdinand Aron was a French philosopher, sociologist, journalist, and political scientist. Critic Roger Kimball suggests that Opium is a book of the twentieth century. Aron is also known for his friendship, sometimes fractious. He is also known for his 1973 book, The Imperial Republic, The United States and the World 1945-1973, Aron wrote extensively on a wide range of other topics. Born in Paris, the son of a secular Jewish lawyer, Aron studied at the École Normale Supérieure, where he met Jean-Paul Sartre and he was a rational humanist, and a leader among those who did not embrace existentialism. Aron took first place in the agrégation of philosophy in 1928, in 1930, he received a doctorate in the philosophy of history from the École Normale Supérieure. He had been teaching philosophy at the University of Toulouse for only a few weeks when World War II began. When France was defeated, he left for London to join the Free French forces, editing the newspaper, when the war ended Aron returned to Paris to teach sociology at the École Nationale dAdministration and at the Paris Institute of Political Studies. From 1955 to 1968, he taught at the Sorbonne, in 1953, he befriended the young American philosopher Allan Bloom, who was teaching at the Sorbonne. A lifelong journalist, Aron in 1947 became an influential columnist for Le Figaro, a position he held for thirty years until he joined LExpress and he was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1960. Aron died of an attack in Paris on 17 October 1983. In Berlin, Aron witnessed the rise to power of the Nazi Party, in 1938 he participated in the Colloque Walter Lippmann in Paris. Aron is the author of books on Karl Marx and on Carl von Clausewitz, in Peace and War he set out a theory of international relations. He argues that Max Webers claim that the State has a monopoly on the use of physical force does not apply to the relationship between States. In the field of relations, in the 1950s, Aron hypothesized that despite the advent of nuclear weapons, nations would still require conventional military forces. The usefulness of such forces would be necessary by what he called a nuclear taboo. La Sociologie allemande contemporaine, Paris, Alcan,1935, German Sociology, London, De la IVe à la Ve République, Paris, Calmann-Lévy,1959 Introduction. Essai sur le marxisme imaginaire, Paris, Gallimard,1969 De la condition historique du sociologue, Paris, Gallimard,1971 Études politiques, Paris, Gallimard,1972 République impériale
2. Gabriel Astruc – Born in Bordeaux, Astruc was the son of Élie Aristide Astruc, a rabbi, and began his career working for publisher Paul Ollendorff, and as a columnist from 1885 through 1895. As a regular at Montmartres prototypically bohemian Le Chat Noir cabaret, he befriended a young Erik Satie and wrote articles and theater pieces under the pen name Surtac. In 1897 he founded a publishing company with his father-in-law Wilhelm Enoch, by 1900 he had introduced the luxury magazine Musica. In this period he was the agent for Mata Hari. Astruc booked Hari into the Paris Olympia in August 1905, and would manage her appearances for the ten years. He also served as booking agent for Feodor Chaliapin, Arthur Rubinstein, and Wanda Landowska, but not Isadora Duncan, in 1913 Astruc tried to parlay his success by commissioning Auguste Perret to build the innovative Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in the Avenue Montaige. This building is a landmark of early reinforced concrete. After a brilliant and scandalous first season, climaxed by the riot at the May 29 premiere of The Rite of Spring. He was also the target of attacks from Léon Daudet. After World War I, he worked in the field of radio and advertising and his papers reside at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts Dance Collection. This page translated from its equivalent on French Wikipedia accessed 9/22/2010
3. Jean-Dominique Bauby – Jean-Dominique Bauby was a French actor, author and editor of the French fashion magazine ELLE. He had two children with Sylvie de la Rochefoucauld, a son named Théophile and a daughter named Céleste, on 8 December 1995 at the age of 43, Bauby suffered a massive stroke. When he woke up twenty days later, he found he was entirely speechless, called locked-in syndrome, this is a condition wherein the mental faculties remain intact but most of the body is paralyzed. In Baubys case, his mouth, arms, and legs were paralyzed, Bauby composed and edited the book entirely in his head, and dictated it one letter at a time. To make dictation more efficient, Baubys interlocutor, Claude Mendibil, the book was published in France on 7 March 1997. Bauby died suddenly from pneumonia two days after the publication of his book, and he is buried in a grave at the Père-Lachaise cemetery in Paris. Jean-Jacques Beineix directed a documentary film entitled Assigné à résidence about Baubys time at Berck-sur-Mer. The film features Bauby himself, as well as appearances by his interlocutor, Claude Mandibil, in 2007, painter-director Julian Schnabel released a film version of The Diving Bell and the Butterfly. It starred actor Mathieu Amalric as Bauby, the script written for the film has been criticized by Baubys closest circle of friends as not faithful to events and biased in favor of his ex-partner. His late-life partner Florence Ben Sadoun claims to have been a companion, visiting him frequently at Berck-sur-Mer. Bauby notes her visits in his memoir, Sylvie de la Rochefoucauld also claims to have visited him frequently at the hospital. French science fiction author Bernard Werbers novel LUltime Secret is known to be inspired by Bauby, the Diving Bell and the Butterfly Movie website The Diving Bell and the Butterfly The truth about The Diving Bell and the Butterfly Locked-in Syndrome at IMDB. com
4. Henri Bergson – Henri-Louis Bergson was a French philosopher, influential especially in the first half of the 20th century and after WWII in continental philosophy. Bergson is known for his arguments that processes of immediate experience and intuition are more significant than abstract rationalism. He was awarded the 1927 Nobel Prize in Literature in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas, in 1930 France awarded him its highest honour, the Grand-Croix de la Legion dhonneur. Bergson was born in the Rue Lamartine in Paris, not far from the Palais Garnier in 1859 and his father, the pianist Michał Bergson, was of a Polish Jewish background. His great-grandmother, Temerl Bergson, was a well-known patroness and benefactor of Polish Jewry and his mother, Katherine Levison, daughter of a Yorkshire doctor, was from an English and Irish Jewish background. The Bereksohns were a famous Jewish entrepreneurial family of Polish descent, Henri Bergsons great-great-grandfather, Szmul Jakubowicz Sonnenberg, called Zbytkower, was a prominent banker and a protégé of Stanisław August Poniatowski, King of Poland from 1764 to 1795. Henri Bergsons family lived in London for a few years after his birth, before he was nine, his parents settled in France, Henri becoming a naturalized French citizen. Henri Bergson married Louise Neuberger, a cousin of Marcel Proust, Henri and Louise Bergson had a daughter, Jeanne, born deaf in 1896. Bergsons sister, Mina Bergson, married the English occult author Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, a founder of the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and he then replaced Gabriel Tarde in the Chair of Modern Philosophy, which he held until 1920. The public attended his open courses in large numbers, Bergson attended the Lycée Fontanes in Paris from 1868 to 1878. He had previously received a Jewish religious education, between 14 and 16, however, he lost his faith. While at the lycée Bergson won a prize for his work and another, in 1877 when he was eighteen. His solution was published the year in Annales de Mathématiques. It was his first published work, after some hesitation as to whether his career should lie in the sphere of the sciences or that of the humanities, he decided in favour of the latter, to the dismay of his teachers. When he was nineteen, he entered the École Normale Supérieure, during this period, he read Herbert Spencer. He obtained there the degree of licence ès lettres, and this was followed by that of agrégation de philosophie in 1881 from the University of Paris, the same year he received a teaching appointment at the lycée in Angers, the ancient capital of Anjou. Two years later he settled at the Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, while teaching and lecturing in this part of his country, Bergson found time for private study and original work. He crafted his dissertation Time and Free Will, which was submitted, along with a short Latin thesis on Aristotle, the work was published in the same year by Félix Alcan
5. Tristan Bernard – Tristan Bernard was a French playwright, novelist, journalist and lawyer. Born Paul Bernard into a Jewish family in Besançon, Doubs, Franche-Comté, France and he left Besançon at the age of 14 years, relocating with his father to Paris, where he studied at the Lycée Condorcet, which was noted for its numerous literary alumni. In 1888 was born his son Jean-Jacques Bernard, also a dramatist and he studied law, but after his military service he started his career as the manager of an aluminium smelter. He reputedly introduced the bell to signify the last lap of a race, after his first publication in La Revue Blanche in 1891, he became increasingly a writer and adopted the pseudonym Tristan. His first play, Les Pieds Nickelés, was a success and was representative of the style of his later work. He became known especially for his writing for vaudeville-type performances, which were popular in France during that time. He also wrote novels and some poetry. Bernard is remembered mainly for witticisms, particularly from his play Les Jumeaux de Brighton, in 1932, he was a candidate for the Académie Française, but was not elected, receiving only 2 votes of a total of 39. He was interned during World War II at the Drancy deportation camp, when Gestapo agents were at his door he turned to his wife, who was crying, and said Don´t cry, we were living in fear, but from now on we will live in hope. Public protest of his imprisonment caused his release in 1943 and he died in Paris four years later, allegedly of the results of his internment, and was buried in Passy cemetery. A theater in Paris that he ran briefly as the Théâtre Tristan-Bernard in 1931 was later given the name permanently to honor him and his descendants have achieved some fame. His son Raymond Bernard became an influential French filmmaker while his son Jean-Jacques Bernard published a memoir of his father in 1955 titled Mon père Tristan Bernard, Tristan Bernards grandson Christian Bernard is the current Imperator of the Rosicrucian organization AMORC. One of his grand-nephews is Francis Veber, a screenwriter, director and playwright whose films have been frequently remade or adapted in Hollywood
6. Pierre Bonnard – Pierre Bonnard was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, the intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny. Identified as a practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color. Bonnard was born in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Hauts-de-Seine on 3 October 1867 and he led a happy and carefree youth as the son of a prominent official of the French Ministry of War. He studied classics during his baccalaureate, at the insistence of his father, Bonnard studied law, graduating and briefly practicing as a barrister in 1888. However, he had attended art classes at Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julian. His earlier work such as Woman in Checkered Dress shows the influence of Japanese prints, in 1891, he met Toulouse-Lautrec and began showing his work at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants. In the same year Bonnard also began an association with La Revue Blanche, for which he, Bonnards talent was appreciated early in his career, Claude Roger-Marx remarked in 1893 that he catches fleeting poses, steals unconscious gestures, crystallises the most transient expressions. His first show was at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1896, in his twenties Bonnard was a part of Les Nabis, a group of young artists committed to creating work of symbolic and spiritual nature. Other Nabis include Vuillard and Maurice Denis, in addition to his paintings, he also became known for his posters and book illustrations, as well as for his prints and theater set designs. He left Paris in 1910 for the south of France, Bonnard was described, by his own friend and historians, as a man of quiet temperament and one who was unobtrusively independent. His life was free from the tensions and reversals of untoward circumstance. It has been suggested that, Like Daumier, whose life knew little serenity, Bonnard is known for his intense use of color, especially via areas built with small brush marks and close values. His often complex compositions—typically of sunlit interiors and gardens populated with friends, Bonnards fondness for depicting intimate scenes of everyday life, has led to him being called an Intimist, his wife Marthe was an ever-present subject over the course of several decades. She is seen seated at the table, with the remnants of a meal, or nude. He also painted several self-portraits, landscapes, street scenes, and many still lifes, Bonnard did not paint from life but rather drew his subject—sometimes photographing it as well—and made notes on the colors. He then painted the canvas in his studio from his notes, I have all my subjects to hand, he said, I go back and look at them. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream and he worked on numerous canvases simultaneously, which he tacked onto the walls of his small studio
7. Marcel Brillouin – Louis Marcel Brillouin was a French physicist and mathematician. Born in Saint-Martin-lès-Melle, Deux-Sèvres, France, his father was a painter who moved to Paris when Marcel was a boy, there he attended the Lycée Condorcet. The Brillouin family returned to Saint-Martin-lès-Melle during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 to escape the fighting, there he spent time teaching himself from his grandfathers philosophy books. After the war, he returned to Paris and entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1874, Brillouin then held successive posts as assistant professor of physics at universities in Nancy, Dijon and Toulouse before returning to the École Normale Supérieure in Paris in 1888. Later, he was Professor of Mathematical Physics at the Collège de France from 1900 to retirement in 1931, in 1911 he was one of only six French physicists invited to the first Solvay Conference. He was awarded the Prix La Caze for 1912, Brillouin was elected to the Académie des Sciences in 1921. He was an officer of the Legion of Honour, most notably he, built a new model of the Eötvös balance, wrote on Helmholtz flow and the stability of aircraft, worked on a theory of the tides. His son Léon Brillouin, also had a prominent career in physics, in Dictionary of Scientific Biography ed. by C. C. Propagation de lÉlectricité, Histoire et Théorie, leçons sur la Viscosité des Liquides et des Gaz. Jubilé de M. Brillouin pour son 80ème anniversaire, comptes Rendus de lAcadémie des Sciences, vol. Biography at the School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland
8. Julien Cain – Julien Cain was the general administrator of the Bibliothèque nationale de France before the Occupation of France by Nazi Germany. In the summer of 1939, before the occupation began, he saw the impending danger clearly enough to order the evacuation of many of the librarys most valuable items. Quite soon after the occupation began, Cain was removed from his post by the Vichy government because he was Jewish, in February,1941, Cain was denounced in Le Matin and arrested. He was detained in French prisons until January 1944, when he was sent to Buchenwald and he was freed by American forces in April,1945, when the camp was liberated. He resumed the administratorship of the Bibliothèque nationale, which he held until 1964, French Wikipedia article on Julien Cain
9. Camille Matignon – Arthème Camille Matignon was a French chemist noted for his work in thermochemistry. He was a member of the Académie des Sciences, President of the French Chemical Society, Matignon was born in a small village of Saint-Maurice-aux-Riches-Hommes in Burgundy. He studied first at the school of St. François de Salles at Troyes and then at the Lycée Condorcet, after graduating in 1889 he became an assistant at the Collège de France. His experimental work in thermochemistry was summarised in a doctorate thesis, in 1893 Matignon became a lecturer at the University of Lille and in 1894 Director of bleaching, dyeing and finishing at the Institut Industriel du Nord. In 1898, he was appointed a lecturer at the Sorbonne and an assistant professor at the Collège de France and he was decorated as a Chevalier of the Légion d’honneur in 1908 and elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in 1926. Matignon became President of the French Chemical Society in 1932 and an honorary Fellow of the British Chemical Society in 1933, Matignon was a talented orator and writer, noted for his enthusiasm and extravagant dressing style. In his early years, Matignon studied heat of combustion for major gaseous hydrocarbons and standard enthalpy of formation for ethanol, formic acid, acetic acid and this led to such practical conclusions as nitric esters are more powerful explosives than nitro-derivatives. Those urea studies aimed to understand the processes occurring in living organisms and hinted that formic acid and urea should react at ambient conditions and form formylurea. This law can be applied to cases as sublimation and dissociation of calcium carbonate and can predict whether a chemical reaction will proceed. At the Sorbonne, Matignon mostly worked on rare earth elements and he was heating the metal oxide with magnesium to produce the pure metal in an atmosphere of a certain gas, and demonstrated that most rare earths easily react with nitrogen and absorb hydrogen. He also studied the chemistry of numerous rare-earth salts and revealed that samarium can have the valence of two in addition to the common 3+ state, for other metals, Matignon showed that technical-grade zinc, aluminium and ferromanganese powders always contain some nitrogen. World War I urged most chemists to work on urgent technological problems and he also worked on the stability of the ammonium carbonate-urea system, which was important for fertilizers, and discovered an iron-alumina catalyst for the synthesis of ammonia. By applying an oxidation reaction to a cargo of sugar spoiled by seawater he managed to convert it into oxalic acid, Matignon also tried to design recycling procedures for waste products of grape processing and brandy distillation. LÉlectrométallurgie des fontes, fers et aciers, Centenaire de Marcelin Berthelot, bio-bibliographie, fac-similés et portraits, discours et adresses à loccasion du Centenaire, etc. This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, journal of the Chemical Society,700
10. Monique Canto-Sperber – Monique Canto-Sperber is a French philosopher. She was born on May 14,1954 and her works, translated in several languages, are focused on ethics and contemporary political issues. Monique Canto-Sperber was born in French Algeria and has been living in France since 1964, an alumnus of the Ecole normale supérieure de jeunes filles, she is Agrégée and holds a PhD in philosophy. After teaching at the universities of Rouen and Amiens, she became Research Director at the CNRS in 1993, between 2001 and 2004, she was a member of the Comité consultatif national déthique and served as its President from 2004 to 2007. She produces the radio programme Questions déthique on France Culture, broadcast every Monday evening and she is officier de la Légion dhonneur officier de lordre du Mérite et chevalier des Arts et des Lettres. Her work in ancient philosophy is centred on ethical theory and epistemology, she has published several commented translations of Plato and various books. She has also taken a part in the renewal of moral philosophy in France. Monique Canto-Sperber has been the head of the Ecole normale supérieure since 2005 and she has promoted the creation of a group of institutions called Paris Sciences et Lettres - Quartier latin. On February 2012, she was elected as the President of Paris Sciences et Lettres - Quartier latin, Paris Sciences et Lettres aims to rapidly become one of the worlds outstanding universities with a strong international presence and a common citation policy for its publications. PSL was chosen as an Excellence Initiative in July 2011 PSL* and was the beneficiary of a significant endowment, each has an identity that PSL wishes to respect, in order to maintain the performances in teaching and research that form the basis of their excellence. A specialist of ancient philosophy, Monique Canto-Sperber has worked on and she has also played an important role in the introduction in France of contemporary debates in Anglo-American philosophy. She has edited at the Presses Universitaires de France a Dictionnaire déthique et de morale, with numerous French and international specialists. During the last 15 years, Monique Canto-Sperber has also important works of political philosophy. In books such as Rules of Freedom or Does liberalism need to be saved and she offers an analysis of liberalism that attempt to give the notion a new legitimacy in progressive political thinking. Recent books such as LIdée de guerre juste and La Morale du monde offer her vision of international relations, Éthiques grecques,2001 LInquiétude morale et la Vie humaine,2002 Le Socialisme libéral. Une anthologie,2003 Les Règles de la liberté,2003 Le Bien, pour une morale internationale,2005 Faut-il sauver le libéralisme. Avec Nicolas Tenzer,2006 Le Libéralisme et la gauche,2008 Lidée de guerre juste,2010 La Morale du monde,2010 Le site de Monique Canto-Sperber Questions déthique sur le site de France Culture
11. Henri Cartier-Bresson – Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French humanist photographer considered a master of candid photography, and an early user of 35 mm film. He pioneered the genre of photography, and conceived of photography as capturing a decisive moment. His work has influenced many photographers, Henri Cartier-Bresson was born in Chanteloup-en-Brie, Seine-et-Marne, France, the oldest of five children. His father was a textile manufacturer, whose Cartier-Bresson thread was a staple of French sewing kits. His mothers family were merchants and landowners from Normandy, where Henri spent part of his childhood. The Cartier-Bresson family lived in a neighborhood in Paris, Rue de Lisbonne, near Place de lEurope. His parents supported him financially so Henri could pursue photography more freely than his contemporaries, young Henri took holiday snapshots with a Box Brownie, he later experimented with a 3×4 inch view camera. He was raised in traditional French bourgeois fashion, and was required to address his parents with formal vous rather than tu and his father assumed that his son would take up the family business, but Henri was strong-willed and also feared this prospect. Cartier-Bresson attended École Fénelon, a Catholic school that prepared students for the Lycée Condorcet, a governess called Miss Kitty who came from across the Channel, instilled in him the love of - and competence in - the English language. The proctor caught him reading a book by Rimbaud or Mallarmé, Cartier-Bresson said, He used the informal tu, which usually meant you were about to get a good thrashing. But he went on, Youre going to read in my office, well, that wasnt an offer he had to repeat. After trying to learn music, Cartier-Bresson was introduced to oil painting by his uncle Louis, but the painting lessons were cut short when uncle Louis was killed in World War I. In 1927 Cartier-Bresson entered an art school and the Lhote Academy. Cartier-Bresson also studied painting with society portraitist Jacques Émile Blanche, during this period, he read Dostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Nietzsche, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel, Engels and Marx. Lhote took his pupils to the Louvre to study classical artists, Cartier-Bressons interest in modern art was combined with an admiration for the works of the Renaissance masters, Jan van Eyck, Paolo Uccello, Masaccio, Piero della Francesca. Cartier-Bresson regarded Lhote as his teacher of photography without a camera, in the 1920s, schools of photographic realism were popping up throughout Europe but each had a different view on the direction photography should take. The Surrealist movement, founded in 1924, was a catalyst for this paradigm shift, Cartier-Bresson began socializing with the Surrealists at the Café Cyrano, in the Place Blanche. He met a number of the leading protagonists, and was drawn to the Surrealist movements technique of using the subconscious
12. Roland Castro – Roland Castro is a French architect and political activist. Roland Castro was born on 16 October 1940 in Limoges, melp. helped to articulate the dissatisfaction of students in the lead-up to the protests of 1968. His thinking integrates political ideas with urban architecture and he belongs to the concrete utopia movement, which he describes as an attempt to rebuild and renovate politics around revolutionary values. He is also the father of Elizabeth Castro, alias Zazon, comedian, from 2008 to 2009, Roland Castro was appointed by the President of the Republic to lead a multidisciplinary team on the future of Greater Paris. He argues for the implementation of symbolic high places of the republic and of culture, media center, hotel and housing,115 rue de Bagnolet, Paris 20. He rejoined the Union des jeunesses communistes marxistes-léninistes the following year, maoist in the 1970s, in the movement Vive le Communisme, which soon after transformed itself into Vive la révolution, which he cofounded with Tiennot Grumbach. *After the dissolution of VLR in 1971, he met Lacan and began a psychoanalysis with him that lasted seven years, as a Mitterrandist in 1981, he created a structure of response and reflection on the suburbs called Banlieues 89. Journal Légende du siècle, la conspiration des égos with Jean-Paul Dollé, Jean-Pierre Le Dantec, five issues were published between 1987 and 1992. Resigned from the Socialist Party on the day that Bernard Tapie entered the government, back to the CPF under Robert Hue, member of the National Party. In response to the Chirac / Le Pen duel in the round of the 2002 presidential elections, in 2003 created with some friends including Eric Halphen s MUC. This is a new movement as a citizen, which he calls evolutionary. Announced his candidacy for the 2007 presidential election, in 2011, he announced support for the candidacy of Arnaud Montebourg in the Socialist primaries. The concrete utopia movement is a movement created by Roland Castro. This movement defends 89 proposals to restore social bonds, without revolution transforming society towards more republican equality and these proposals have arisen from the reflection of Roland Castro and his desire to advance concrete utopias and is evolutionary to give new meaning to politics. In August 2006, he toured from Saint-Tropez to Sarcelles by bus to promote the 89 proposals of the MUC, the candidacy of its leader to the presidential election of 2007 did not succeed. On 12 March 2007 he withdrew due to lack of adequate sponsorship, jaffirme, Manifeste pour une insurrection du sens. Roland Castro, Sophie Denissof, Jean-Pierre Le Dantec, faut-il passer la banlocatione au Kärcher. Site officiel de lagence Débat TV, « Intellectuels dans les médias, » Castro sur Archiguide Roland Castro répond aux gars de la Royal dans une vidéo politique
13. Jean Cocteau – Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau was a French writer, designer, playwright, artist and filmmaker. Cocteau is best known for his novel Les Enfants Terribles, and the films Blood of a Poet, Les Parents Terribles, Beauty and the Beast and Orpheus. Cocteau was born in Maisons-Laffitte, Yvelines, a town near Paris, to Georges Cocteau and his wife, Eugénie Lecomte and his father was a lawyer and amateur painter who committed suicide when Cocteau was nine. From 1900–1904, Cocteau attended the Lycée Condorcet where he met and he published his first volume of poems, Aladdins Lamp, at nineteen. Cocteau soon became known in Bohemian artistic circles as The Frivolous Prince, edith Wharton described him as a man to whom every great line of poetry was a sunrise, every sunset the foundation of the Heavenly City. In his early twenties, Cocteau became associated with the writers Marcel Proust, André Gide, in 1912, he collaborated with Léon Bakst on Le Dieu bleu for the Ballets Russes, the principal dancers being Tamara Karsavina and Vaslav Nijinsky. During World War I Cocteau served in the Red Cross as an ambulance driver and this was the period in which he met the poet Guillaume Apollinaire, artists Pablo Picasso and Amedeo Modigliani, and numerous other writers and artists with whom he later collaborated. Russian impresario Sergei Diaghilev persuaded Cocteau to write a scenario for a ballet and it was produced by Diaghilev, with sets by Picasso, the libretto by Apollinaire and the music by Erik Satie. The piece was expanded into a full opera, with music by Satie, Francis Poulenc. If it had not been for Apollinaire in uniform, wrote Cocteau, with his skull shaved, the scar on his temple and he denied being a Surrealist or being in any way attached to the movement. Cocteau wrote the libretto for Igor Stravinskys opera-oratorio Oedipus rex, which had its performance in the Théâtre Sarah Bernhardt in Paris on 30 May 1927. An important exponent of avant-garde art, Cocteau had great influence on the work of others, in the early twenties, he and other members of Les six frequented a wildly popular bar named Le Boeuf sur le Toit, a name that Cocteau himself had a hand in picking. The popularity was due in no small measure to the presence of Cocteau, in 1918 he met the French poet Raymond Radiguet. They collaborated extensively, socialized, and undertook many journeys and vacations together, Cocteau also got Radiguet exempted from military service. Some contemporaries and later commentators thought there might have been a component to their friendship. Cocteau himself was aware of this perception, and worked earnestly to dispel the notion that their relationship was sexual in nature, there is disagreement over Cocteaus reaction to Radiguets sudden death in 1923, with some claiming that it left him stunned, despondent and prey to opium addiction. Opponents of that point out that he did not attend the funeral. Cocteau himself much later characterised his reaction as one of stupor and his opium addiction at the time, Cocteau said, was only coincidental, due to a chance meeting with Louis Laloy, the administrator of the Monte Carlo Opera
14. Jacques Copeau – Jacques Copeau was an influential French theatre director, producer, actor, and dramatist born in Paris. He eventually organized a school attached to his theatre and thus influenced the development of theatre through the training of the actor. Twentieth century French theatre is marked by Copeaus outlook, According to Albert Camus, in the history of the French theatre, there are two periods, before Copeau and after Copeau. The child of a well-off middle-class family, Copeau was raised in Paris, at the Lycée Condorcet, he was a talented but nonchalant student whose interest in theatre already consumed him. His first staged play, Brouillard du matin, was presented on March 27,1897 at the Nouveau-Théâtre as part of the festivities of the association of the Lycée Condorcet. The former president of the French Republic, Casimir-Perier, and the playwright Georges de Porto-Riche both congratulated him on his work. During the same period when Copeau was preparing his baccalauréat exams, he met Agnès Thomsen and they first met on March 13,1896, and Copeau, then a seventeen-year-old high school student, quickly fell in love. Against his mothers wishes he married Agnès in June 1902 in Copenhagen and their first child, Marie-Hélène, was born on December 2,1902. In April 1903, the family made its way back to France where Copeau took up his duties as director of the familys factory in Raucourt in the Ardennes. He also reinserted himself into a literary coterie of friends, among them now. While living in Angecourt in the Ardennes, Copeau frequently travelled to Paris where he made a name for himself as theatre critic-at-large for several publications, in mid-April their second daughter, Hedwig was born. In July 1905, he took on a job at the Georges Petit Gallery where he assembled exhibits and he stayed at the Petit Gallery until May 1909. During this period he continued to write reviews and garnered a reputation as an astute. Liberated, as he said, from his duties at the gallery and from management concerns at the Raucourt factory, in 1910, he bought Le Limon, a piece of property in the Seine-et-Marne département, away from the distractions of Paris. He worked tirelessly on an adaptation of Dostoyevskys The Brothers Karamazov along with his school boy friend, Jean Croué. He was now ready to work in the theatre as a not only as critic. The play was staged in April 1911 under the direction of Jacques Rouché at the Théâtre des Arts, Charles Dullin, who played the role of Smerdiakov, was particularly singled out for a fine performance. A second staging of the adaptation the following October, with Louis Jouvet in the role of Father Zossima, in his opinion, even the venerated Comédie-Française, the House of Molière, had fallen prey to the artificiality that he considered an obstacle to real artistic creation
15. Marcel Dassault – Marcel Dassault born Marcel Bloch,22 January 1892 –17 April 1986, was a French aircraft industrialist. Bloch was born on 22 January 1892 in Paris, both of his parents were Jewish. He was educated at the Lycée Condorcet in Paris, after studies in Electrical Engineering he graduated from the Breguet School and Supaéro. At the latter school Bloch was classmates with a Russian student named Mikhail Gurevich who would later be instrumental in the creating of the MiG aircraft series. Bloch worked at the French Aeronautics Research Laboratory during World War I, in 1928 Bloch founded the Société des Avions Marcel Bloch aircraft company which produced its first aircraft in 1930. In 1935 Bloch and Henry Potez entered into an agreement to buy Société Aérienne Bordelaise, in 1936 the company was nationalized as the Société Nationale de Constructions Aéronautiques du Sud Ouest. Bloch agreed to become the administrator of the Minister for Air. During Nazi Germanys occupation of France, the aviation industry was virtually disbanded, other than the compulsory manufacturing, assembly. In October 1940, Bloch refused to collaborate with the Germans occupiers at Bordeaux-Aéronautique and was imprisoned by the Vichy government, in 1944 the Nazis deported Bloch to the Buchenwald concentration camp, while his wife was interned near Paris. Bloch was detained at Buchenwald until it was liberated on 11 April 1945 and he changed his name from Bloch to Bloch-Dassault and, in 1949, to simply Dassault. Dassault was the used by his brother, General Darius Paul Bloch, when he served in the French resistance. In 1971 Dassault acquired Breguet, forming Avions Marcel Dassault-Breguet Aviation, in 1919, Bloch married Madeleine Minckes, the daughter of a wealthy Jewish family of furniture dealers. They had two sons, Claude and Serge, as Dassault, he converted to Roman Catholicism in 1950. Now, the building at no.7 has been occupied from 2002 by auction house Artcurial, while no.7 has been sold, no.9 continues to be occupied by the Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault. Marcel Dassault died in Neuilly-sur-Seine, in 1986 and was buried in the Passy Cemetery in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, Serge Dassault, Marcels son, became CEO of Avions Marcel Dassault, which was restructured as Groupe Industriel Marcel Dassault, reflecting its broader interests. In 1990, the division was renamed Dassault Aviation. In 1991, the rond-point des Champs-Elysées was renamed the rond-point des Champs-Elysées-Marcel Dassault in his honor, societé des Avions Marcel Bloch Dassault Group Dassault Aviation The Talisman, the Autobiography of Marcel Dassault, Creator of the Mirage jet, translated by Patricia High Painton. Arlington House,1971 ISBN 0-87000-149-3 Marcel Dassault - Dassault Aviation site
16. Maurice Denis – Maurice Denis was a French painter and writer, and a member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. His theories contributed to the foundations of cubism, fauvism, Maurice Denis was born 25 November 1870, in Granville, Manche, a coastal town in the Normandy region of France. Waters and coastlines would remain favorite subject throughout his career. The Denis family was affluent, and young Maurice attended both the École des Beaux-Arts and the Académie Julian, where he studied with the French figure painter and theorist Jules Joseph Lefebvre. At the Académie, he met painters and future Nabi members including Paul Sérusier, Pierre Bonnard, through Bonnard he also met the future Nabis Édouard Vuillard, Ker-Xavier Roussel, in 1890, they formed The Nabis. They chose Nabi—Hebrew for Prophet—because they understood they would be creating new forms of expression, the group would split apart by the end of the decade, and would influence the later work of both Bonnard and Vuillard, as well as non-Nabi painters like Henri Matisse. After Les Nabis, Denis went on to focus on religious subjects, in 1922, he published his collected historical and theoretical work as Nouvelles théories sur l’art moderne, sur l’art sacré—that is, New Theories of Modern and Sacred Art. The subjects of his works include landscapes and figure studies, particularly of mother. Denis was among the first artists to insist on the flatness of the picture plane—one of the starting points for modernism. In 1898, he produced a theory of creation that found the source for art in the character of the painter, That which creates a work of art is the power and the will of the artist. The Ateliers dArt Sacré were founded on 5 November 1919 after World War I by Denis, the Ateliers created art for churches, particularly those devastated by the recent war. Denis said that he was against academic art because it sacrificed emotion to convention and artifice, above all he wanted beauty, which was an attribute of divinity. Denis, a Catholic tertiary, married his first wife, Marthe Meurier and they had seven children, and she would pose for numerous Denis works. Following her death in 1919, Denis painted a chapel dedicated to her memory, two years later, he married again, to Elisabeth Graterolle, and fathered two more children. Politically, he was close to the monarchist Action Française movement, Denis died in Paris of injuries resulting from an automobile accident in November 1943. In 1980, the Maurice Denis Museum was opened in the home in the Parisian suburb of Saint-Germain-en-Laye. A major retrospective was mounted at the Musée Des Beaux Arts de Montréal in 2007, a similar exhibition took place in 1995 at the UKs Walker Art Gallery in Liverpool. Leçons de l’Italie, d’après son journal | Lessons from Italy, based on his Journal
17. Paul Deschanel – Paul Eugène Louis Deschanel was a French statesman. He served as President of France from 18 February to 21 September 1920. Paul Deschanel, the son of Émile Deschanel, professor at the Collège de France and senator, was born in Brussels and he is one of only two French Presidents who were born outside France. Paul Deschanel studied law, and began his career as secretary to Deshayes de Marcère, in October 1885, he was elected deputy for Eure-et-Loir. From the first, he took an important place in the chamber, in January 1896, he was elected vice-president of the chamber, and henceforth devoted himself to the struggle against the Left, not only in parliament, but also in public meetings throughout France. In June 1898, he was elected president of the chamber, and was re-elected in 1901, nevertheless, he came forward brilliantly in 1904 and 1905 as a supporter of the law on the separation of church and state. He also gained a position on the Committee of Foreign Affairs and he was re-elected deputy in 1910, and on May 23,1912 was chosen to be the Presidency of the Chamber. In this role he played a part during World War I as the national orator. He served until he was elected President of France on 17 January 1920 by an overwhelming majority, having beaten Georges Clemenceau in the preliminary party ballot. Deschanel aspired to a more active role as president than had been de rigueur under the Third Republic. As president, his behaviour caused some consternation, on one occasion, after a delegation of schoolgirls had presented him with a bouquet. On another occasion he received the British Ambassador to France naked except for the decorations of his office. Soon afterwards, Deschanel walked out of a meeting, straight into a lake. His resignation was offered on 21 September 1920, and he was placed in an institution, nevertheless, he was narrowly elected to the senate in January 1921, serving until his death. He was the only French head of state during whose term in office no persons in France were executed until the penalty was abolished in 1981. Deschanel himself was a death penalty opponent
18. Patrick Devedjian – Patrick Devedjian is a French politician of the Union for a Popular Movement party. Devedjian was born in Fontainebleau, Seine-et-Marne and he is the grandson of the Turkish-Armenian zoologist and Ottoman bureaucrat Karekin Deveciyan. His father was born in Sivas, Ottoman Empire and arrived in France after escaping the Armenian Genocide, Devedjian received his early education in an Armenian school in Sèvres. He continued his education at the Panthéon-Assas University, where he was a member of the far-right group Occident and he was admitted to the Paris Bar in 1970. He became a militant in the Gaullist movement in 1971 and took part in the foundation of the Rally for the Republic party in 1976, in 1983, Devedjian was elected Mayor of Antony, a position he would hold until 2002 with re-elections in 1989,1995 and 2001. In 1986, he became a Deputy in the National Assembly from the Hauts-de-Seine department and was re-elected six times in 1988,1993,1997,2002,2007 and 2012. He was member of the Assembly Committee on Finance, and was rapporteur of the General Agreement on Tariffs, in 1992, he was one of the few members of the RPR who voted to support the Maastricht Treaty. During the 1995 presidential campaign, he supported Édouard Balladur together with Nicolas Sarkozy and he became a close adviser to Nicolas Sarkozy, and came back into favour during the presidential campaign of 2002. As President Chirac had requested that ministers did not carry local executive powers and he was also replaced in Parliament by his substitute Georges Siffredi. When Nicolas Sarkozy became Minister of the Economy and Finance in 2004, in June 2005, new Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin did not include Patrick Devedjian in his government. As a result, Georges Siffredi resigned from Parliament in October in order for Devedjian to be reelected in the Hauts-de-Seine 13th constituency, Devedjian added a statement to the amendment that according to media would prevent any provocations and political demonstrations organized by a foreign country. When Nicolas Sarkozy resigned from Government and became President of the Union for a Popular Movement party, instead, Sarkozy chose Rachida Dati, the first woman of Northern African ancestry to hold a Ministry in France. Devedjian was not included in François Fillon’s government, on that occasion, Devedjian bitterly remarked, I am in favour of a government open to a wide range of people—even to Sarkozists. The joke earned him the 2007 Prize for Political Humour, instead, Devedjian took the presidency of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council on 1 June, becoming head of the richest département in France. He left the UMP leadership to Xavier Bertrand on 8 December, governmental functions Minister of Economic Recovery Plan, 2008-2010. Elected in 1986, reelected in 1988,1993,1997,2002,2005,2007 and 2012, General Council President of the Hauts-de-Seine General Council, Since 2007 Vice-president of Hauts-de-Seine General Council, 2004-2007. Municipal Council Mayor of Antony, Hauts-de-Seine, 1983-2002, elected in 1983, reelected in 1989,1995,2001. Municipal councillor of Antony, Hauts-de-Seine, 1983-2005, Agglomeration community Council President of the Agglomeration community of Hauts de Bièvre, 2002-2005
19. Jacques Dutronc – Jacques Dutronc is a French singer, songwriter, guitarist, composer, and actor. He has been married to singer Françoise Hardy since 30 March 1981 and he also has been a longtime songwriting collaborator with Jacques Lanzmann. Some of Dutronc best known hits include Il est cinq heures, Paris séveille, Le Responsable, Dutronc played guitar in the rock group El Toro et les Cyclones. He wrote successful songs for Françoise Hardy in the 1960s before moving on to pursue a solo career. His music incorporated traditional French pop and French rock as well as such as psychedelic rock. He later branched out into acting, starting in 1973. He earned a Cesar for Best Actor for the role in Van Gogh. Jacques Dutronc was born on 28 April 1943 at 67 Rue de Provence in the 9th arrondissement of Paris and his father was a manager for the state-run Office of Coal Distribution. Jacques was educated at Rocroy-Saint-Léon elementary school, the de la Rue Blanche and then at the École Professionnelle de Dessin Industriel. In 1960, Dutronc formed a band with himself as guitarist, schoolfriend Hadi Kalafate as bassist, Charlot Bénaroch as drummer and they auditioned in 1961 for Jacques Wolfsohn, an artistic director at Disques Vogue, who signed them and gave them the name El Toro et les Cyclones. The group released two singles, LOncle John and Le Vagabond, but disbanded when Dutronc was obliged to undertake military service. After being discharged from the army in 1963, Dutronc briefly played guitar in Eddy Mitchells backing band and was given a job at Vogue as Jacques Wolfsohns assistant. In this capacity, he co-wrote songs for such as ZouZou, Cléo. Wolfsohn asked Dutronc to work with Jacques Lanzmann, a novelist and editor of Lui magazine, Benjamin released an EP in 1966, featuring songs written with Dutronc and a Lanzmann-Dutronc composition, Cheveux longs. However, Wolfsohn was disappointed by Benjamins recording of a song titled Et moi, et moi, a second version was recorded, with Dutroncs former bandmate Hadi Kalafate on vocals. Wolfsohn then asked Dutronc if he would be interested in recording his own version, the single reached number 2 in the French charts in September 1966. For Portis, Dutronc marks a break with the tradition of French chanson in his creative use of the sounds, rather than just the syntax. A second single, Les play boys, spent six weeks at number one, Dutronc was one of the most commercially successful French music stars of the late 1960s and early 1970s
20. Thomas Fersen – Thomas Fersen is a French singer-songwriter. During his childhood, he was part of a group before playing the piano in café-theatres. He released his first album in 1993, it gave him immediate name recognition and his deep and gravelly smokers voice gives a particular tone to his songs, which belong to different musical styles depending on the album. The stage name Thomas Fersen comes from the names of Thomas Boyd, a Scottish footballer and he was one of the first singers to join the label Tôt ou tard
21. Robert de Flers – Robert de Flers was a French playwright, opera librettist, and journalist. He entered the Lycée Condorcet in 1888 where he studied law with the ambition of entering diplomatic service. He met and befriended fellow student and writer Marcel Proust, Proust exposed Flers to art, literature, and music and his interests soon switched from law to writing, journalism, and literature. The two men enjoyed a lifelong friendship, after completing his studies, he toured throughout Asia in the mid-1890s. The event inspired his earliest writings, the novel La Courtisane Taïa et son singe vert, the short story Ilsée, princesse de Tripoli, upon returning to Paris, he was approached by composer Edmond Audran to write the libretto for his operetta La reine des reines. The worked premiered on 14 October 1896 at the Théâtre de lEldorado in Strasbourg and his next libretto was for Gaston Serpettes vaudeville-operetta Shakspeare. Which premiered at the Théâtre des Bouffes Parisiens on 23 November 1899, in 1901 de Flers married Geneviève Sardou, the daughter of Victorien Sardou. He continued to be active writing librettos and his third opera libretto, Les travaux dHercule, marked his first collaboration with fellow playwright Gaston Arman de Caillavet and composer Claude Terrasse. Most of his librettos were written with Caillavet, often for Terrasse who was their most frequent musical collaborator. Other composers for which the two men wrote librettos include André Messager, and Gabriel Pierné, the two men also wrote a French translation of Franz Lehárs The Merry Widow in 1905 which was used throughout France during the first half of the 20th century. Their last opera collaboration was for Alfred Bruneaus 1923 opera Le jardin du paradis, de Flers also wrote the librettos for Reynaldo Hahns Ciboulette with playwright Francis de Croisset, and Joseph Szulcs Le petit choc. He later worked frequently with playwright Francis de Croisset, producing works as Les Vignes du seigneur, Les Nouveaux Messieurs. Although a number of his operas were successful in his day, de Flers was a member of the Académie française from 1920 up until his death in 1927. He spent the last six years of his life as editor of Le Figaro. He also served as the Conseiller Général of Lozère during his latter years
22. Serge Gainsbourg – Serge Gainsbourg was a French singer, songwriter, pianist, film composer, poet, painter, screenwriter, writer, actor, and director. His lyrical work incorporated a vast amount of word play to hoodwink the listener, often for humorous, provocative. Common types of play in his songs include mondegreen, onomatopoeia, rhyme, spoonerism, dysphemism, paraprosdokian. Through the course of his career, Gainsbourg wrote over 550 songs, since his death, Gainsbourgs music has reached legendary stature in France. He has also gained a following in the English-speaking world. Born in Paris, France, Gainsbourg was the son of Jewish Ukrainian migrants, Joseph Ginsburg and Olga, who fled to Paris after the 1917 Russian Revolution. Joseph Ginsburg was a trained musician whose profession was playing the piano in cabarets and casinos, he taught his children - Gainsbourg. Gainsbourgs childhood was affected by the occupation of France by Germany in World War II. The identifying yellow star Jews were required to wear haunted Gainsbourg, during the occupation, the Jewish Ginsburg family was able to make their way from Paris to Limoges, traveling under false papers. Limoges was in the Zone libre under the administration of the collaborationist Vichy government, after the war, Gainsbourg obtained work teaching music and drawing in a school outside of Paris, in Mesnil-Le-Roi. The school was set up under the auspices of local rabbis, here Gainsbourg heard the accounts of Nazi persecution and genocide, stories that resonated for Gainsbourg far into the future. Before he was 30 years old, Gainsbourg was a disillusioned painter, Gainsbourg changed his first name to Serge, feeling that this was representative of his Russian background and because, as Jane Birkin relates, Lucien reminded him of a hairdressers assistant. He chose Gainsbourg as his last name, in homage to the English painter Thomas Gainsborough and he married Elisabeth Lize Levitsky on 3 November 1951 and divorced in 1957. He married a second time on 7 January 1964, to Françoise-Antoinette Béatrice Pancrazzi and he divorced Béatrice in February 1966. In late 1967 he had a short but ardent love affair with Brigitte Bardot, to whom he dedicated the song, in mid-1968 Gainsbourg fell in love with the younger English singer and actress Jane Birkin, whom he met during the shooting of the film Slogan. Their relationship lasted over a decade, in 1971 they had a daughter, the actress and singer Charlotte Gainsbourg. Although many sources state that they were married, according to their daughter Charlotte this was not the case. Birkin remembers the beginning of her affair with Gainsbourg, he first took her to a nightclub, then to a transvestite club, Birkin left Gainsbourg when pregnant with her third daughter Lou by the film director Jacques Doillon
23. Prince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky – Prince George Alexandrovich Yuryevsky was the natural son of Alexander II of Russia by his mistress Catherine Dolgorukov. The marriage of Georges parents eight years after his birth, on 6 July 1880, Georges mother Catherine Dolgorukov met Tsar Alexander II when he visited the Smolny Institute in the autumn of 1864. She became his mistress in July 1866, despite early resistance and their affair caused great scandal at court, with Alexanders heir the Tsarevich in particular protesting, though it was to be in vain. The tsar was devoted to Catherine and promised to marry her as soon as he was free, meaning when his estranged and sickly wife Tsarina Maria Alexandrovna finally died. George was the first child of Catherine and Alexander and was born in the study on 12 May 1872. Alexander had ordered that if the called for it, Catherine, and not the child, must be saved. I praised God, in tears I thank Him, three more siblings later followed, Olga, Boris, and Catherine. Their births further tied the couple together, the devotion Alexander showed to his mistress and children concerned all around him, many feeling that the relationship damaged his reputation irreparably. The tsar had believed he was in danger of assassination, and was consequently in favor of a speedy remarriage, the marriage was heavily criticized, with one source speculating that it deprived image of both the moral and cultural attributes that had come to justify autocratic power. Catherine took the title Princess Romanovskaia-Yurevskaia and the status of Serene Highness, all the children began using the patronymic Aleksandovich, causing fears that despite the morganatic status of the marriage, the tsar was contemplating giving them dynastic rights. Georges birth had caused concern among the Imperial family, because he was viewed as a threat to the true heir. Rumours were constantly circulating that George would be the tsarevichs replacement and it was well known that Alexander regarded George as a true Russian, remarking in 1881 of George, This is a real Russian, in him at least there flows only Russian blood. Furthermore, although the order of the succession had been clear in a law of 1797. One incident that caused concern occurred at a reception, when Alexander playfully asked his son, Tell us Goga. George replied, My name is Prince Georgy Alexandrovich Yuryevsky, to which the tsar declared, and wouldnt you like to become a grand duke, young man. This conversation was the tsars barely concealed attempt to test his relatives reactions, were he to legally adopt and make his son and daughters a grand duke, the princess however renounced all succession rights on behalf of her son, who was eight years old at the time. The morganatic nature of the marriage meant that not only did Catherine not automatically become tsarina, the newly married Princess Yuryevsky and her son made their first official appearance on 4 October during a military review of the Cossacks, with George wearing a Cossack uniform. Alexander begged his heir to accept her into the family, and introduced him to George as his eldest brother whom he was to love and obey and by whom he would be looked after
24. Norbert Goeneutte – Norbert Goeneutte was a French painter, etcher and illustrator, notably for the novel La Terre by Émile Zola. He was born into a family that had moved from Saint-Omer to Paris in 1850, following a long interruption by the Franco-Prussian War and the Commune, when he lived away from Paris, he graduated in 1871 and his father found him a place in an attorneys office. His father died shortly thereafter and Norbert persuaded his mother that he was not suited for that sort of work and she agreed, so he entered the École des Beaux-arts and began studies with Isidore Pils. When Pils died in 1875, he was replaced by Henri Lehmann and they wrote to Édouard Manet, asking him to take Lehmanns place, but he declined. Some students remained, but Goeneutte left to set up his own studio and he frequented the Père Lathuille, a famous cabaret, where he met Manet and was introduced to the artistic circle at the Café de la Nouvelle Athènes. He soon began exhibiting at the Salon but, despite his friendship with many notable Impressionists, in 1879, he married Eva Gonzalès, one of Manets models. With the financial support of his brother, he travelled abroad, including trips to London. He also travelled extensively in France and these visits produced a multitude of landscapes and cityscapes. In 1889, he one of the founders of the Société des Peintres-graveurs Français, together with his friends Henri Guérard. That same year, he exhibited at the Exposition Universelle, two years later, he found himself at odds with the Société when it refused admission to Camille Pissarro, who was not born in France. In 1891, doctor Paul Gachet, a supporter of the arts. Gachet was able to him a house near his own in Auvers-sur-Oise, called the Villa Musette. Once there, he involved with a group of artists associated with Charles-François Daubigny. Three years later, he died of complications from what had turned out to be a lung disease and he is buried there, near the grave of Vincent van Gogh, who had also been treated by Gachet during his final illness. Norbert Goeneutte @ Zibelius Fine Art Norbert Goeneutte blog