Pages in category "Magdeburg rights"
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 36 pages are in this category, out of 36 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Magdeburg rights – Named after the German city of Magdeburg, these town charters were perhaps the most important set of medieval laws in Central Europe thus far. They became the basis for the German town laws developed during many centuries in the Holy Roman Empire, in medieval Poland, Jews were invited along with German merchants to settle in cities as part of the royal city development policy. Jews and Germans were sometimes competitors in those cities, Jews lived under privileges that they carefully negotiated with the king or emperor. They were not subject to city jurisdiction and these privileges guaranteed that they could maintain communal autonomy, live according to their laws, and be subjected directly to the royal jurisdiction in matters concerning Jews and Christians. Other provisions frequently mentioned were a permission to sell meat to Christians, external merchants coming into the city were not allowed to trade on their own, but instead forced to sell the goods they had brought into the city to local traders, if any wished to buy them. Being a member of the Hanseatic League, Magdeburg thus was one of the most important trade cities also, maintaining commerce with the Low countries, the Baltic states, in these lands they were mostly known as German or Teutonic law. The Law of Magdeburg implemented in Poland was different from its original German form and it was combined with a set of civil and criminal laws, and adjusted to include the urban planning popular across Western Europe – which was based on the ancient Roman model. Polish land owners used the location known as settlement with German law across the country usually with no German settlers present. Meanwhile, the people often ignorant of the actual German text. The advantages were not only economic, but also political, members of noble families were able to join the city patriciate usually unchallenged. In the medieval Kingdom of Hungary, the first town to receive the Magdeburg rights was Székesfehérvár in 1237, followed by, towns and cities including Bardejov, Buda, Bratislava and Košice adopted the Southern German Nuremberg town rights, rather than the Magdeburg rights. German town law Kulm law Lübeck law Danzig law
2. German town law – The German town law or German municipal concerns was a set of early town privileges based on the Magdeburg rights developed by Otto I. The Magdeburg Law became the inspiration for regional town charters not only in Germany, the German town law was used in the founding of many German cities, towns, and villages beginning in the 13th century. As Germans began establishing towns throughout northern Europe as early as the 10th century, such privileges often included the right to self-governance, economic autonomy, criminal courts, and militia. Town laws were more or less copied from neighboring towns, such as the Westphalian towns of Soest, Dortmund, Minden. The granting of German city rights modelled after a town to a new town regarded the original model as a Rechtsvorort. For instance, Magdeburg became the sponsor of towns using Magdeburg Rights, as territorial borders changed through the passage of time, changes to German city rights were inevitable. During the course of the 15th, 16th, and 17th centuries, ultimately, the older towns laws, along with local autonomy and jurisdiction, gave way to landed territorial rulers. The only remnants of medieval town rights included in the Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch of 1 January 1900 were single articles concerning family, the cities of Hamburg, Bremen, and Berlin are currently administered under Landesrechte, or laws of the federal states of Germany. Many towns granted German city rights had existed for some time. Many European localities date their foundation to their reception of a town charter, German town law was frequently applied during the Ostsiedlung of Central and Eastern Europe by German colonists beginning in the early 13th century. Because many areas were considered underpopulated or underdeveloped, local rulers offered urban privileges to peasants from German lands to them to immigrate eastward. Some towns which received a German town law charter were based on pre-existing settlements, many towns were formed in conjunction with the settlement of nearby rural communities, but the towns urban rights were jealously guarded. Initially German town law was applied only to ethnic Germans, but gradually in most localities all town-dwellers were regarded as citizens, regardless of ethnic origin. Lübeck law spread rapidly among the settlements along the southern shore of the Baltic Sea and was used in northern Mecklenburg, Western Pomerania. It formed the basis of Riga law in Riga, used in the lands of the Livonian Order in Livonia, Estonia, other variants included Brandenburg, Litoměřice, and Olomouc law. South German law, broadly referring to the codes of Nuremberg and Vienna, was used in Bavaria, Austria, and Slovenia, jihlava law was a variant used frequently by mining communities in Bohemia, Moravia, the mountains of Slovakia, and Transylvania. Other town laws were only suitable for or were modified to fit local conditions, such as Głubczyce, Görlitz, Goslar, Lüneburg, Lwówek Śląski, Nysa, Spiš, and Székesfehérvár laws. Many Transylvanian Saxon settlements in Transylvania, especially in the regions of Altland, Burzenland, in the 16th century Muscovy granted or reaffirmed Magdeburg rights to various towns along the Dnieper acquired from the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
3. Bardejov – Bardejov is a town in North-Eastern Slovakia. It is situated in the region on a floodplain terrace of the Topľa River. It exhibits numerous cultural monuments in its intact medieval town center. The town is one of UNESCOs World Heritage Sites and currently maintains a population of about 30,000 inhabitants, there are two theories about the origin of the name. According to one theory, the town comes from the Hungarian word bárd. In the Hungarian name, the fa suffix came later, and it changed the last letter of bárd to bárt. Another theory derives the name from a Christian personal name Barděj and this theory is supported by the first recorded form of the name - Bardujef. The motivation by the name is supported also by the presence of the suffix preserved in later Polish or Slovak sources. The territory of present-day Bardejov has attracted settlers since the Stone Age, however, the first written reference to the town dates back to the 1240s, when monks from Bardejov complained to King Béla IV about a violation of the town’s borders by Prešov. By that time, the important church of Sv, heavily fortified in the 14th century, the town became a center of trade with Poland. More than 50 guilds controlled the flourishing economy, Bardejov gained the status of a royal town in 1376, later becoming a free royal town. The town’s golden age ended in the 16th century, when several wars, pandemics, beginning in the first quarter of the 18th century, the situation began to improve. Slovaks and Hasidic Jews came into Bardejov in large numbers, by the end of the century, the population of the town had regained the level of the 16th century. The burghers houses were rebuilt or modified in keeping with current architectural fashion, a Jewish quarter with a synagogue, slaughterhouse, and ritual baths developed in the north-western suburbs. New churches and bridges were built, as well, despite further fires in the last quarter of the 19th century, the town continued to thrive, thanks to major industrialization projects in the region. In 1893, a railway was opened connecting Presov to Bardejov, however, it declined again following the establishment of the first Czechoslovak Republic and became a backward farming region. World War II saw a worsening in the situation, though little damage from bombardment. Bardejov was taken by Soviet troops of the 1st Guards Army on 20 January 1945, in 1950, Bardejov was declared a protected city core and extensive restoration of its cultural heritage began
4. Biecz – Biecz is a town and municipality in southeastern Poland, in Lesser Poland Voivodeship, Gorlice County. It is in the Carpathian Mountains, in the Doły Jasielsko-Sanockie, due to its rich history, it is often referred to as little Kraków or the pearl of the Carpathians. The many preserved medieval city walls and buildings have given rise to the nickname Polish Carcassonne. By the mid-16th century, the city was one of the largest in Poland, being a royal city, Biecz enjoyed an economic and social Renaissance during the 14th and 15th centuries which tapered off into a gradual decline starting during the 17th century. Today, it is a small, picturesque tourist town with numerous historical monuments, the earliest mentions in historical sources give the name of the town as Beyech, Begech, Begecz, Begesz, Beyecz, Beecz, Beycz, Byecz and Beiech. This allows to establish that the form of the name was Biejecz. The age of the town makes further derivation from Bieniedzikt improbable, later, in the 13th century, the nominative stem was levelled to the oblique stem Biejcz-, giving Biejcz without stem alternations and then the current form, Biecz. The Biecz coat of arms depicts Saints Peter and Paul on a field of red, St. Paul, on the right, holds a sword, while St. Peter holds the Keys of Heaven. Between them is the capital letter B, a reference to the city name, the coat of arms dates back to the 16th century, when official seals depicting the images of Saints Peter and Paul and the letter B first appeared. The seals were used with more regularity during the 17th and 18th centuries, on 12 July 1990, the Municipal Council officially adopted the use of the coat of arms in Resolution No. Biecz lies on the Ropa River, on a pass through the Carpathian Mountains, up until the 19th century, the River ran through the heart of the city. With the construction of the railroad, however, the course was altered so that it ran alongside the city instead. Despite the relatively small size of the city, there is a significant grade in elevation, the highest point lies at 368.7 metres above sea level, while the lowest lies at 243 metres. Biecz borders Binarowa, Głęboka, Grudna Kępska, Korczyna, Libusza, in the Biecz and the surrounding area there are a number of oil deposits. Biecz lies in the South-eastern part of Poland, approximately 35 kilometres from the Slovakian border and 100 kilometres from the Ukrainian border, the city lies within the borders of the historical region of Małopolska. Throughout history, the territory was also a part of the region of Kraków, Bieczs importance during his medieval and renaissance heyday resulted in the city receiving administrative control over a significant amount of surrounding territory. The average annual temperature is approximately 6 °C, the average high in July is 17 °C, and in January the average low is −5 °C. The area receives at most 900 millimetres of rain per annum, sheet ice in winter lasts approximately 100 days, and has an average thickness of 15 centimetres
5. Buchach – Buchach is a town located on the Strypa River in Ternopil Oblast of Western Ukraine. It is the center of the Buchach Raion, and rests 135 kilometres south east of Lviv. Prior to 1939, the city was located in Poland and Austro-Hungary, the estimated population was around 12,500, according to the 2001 Ukrainian census. The earliest recorded mention of Buchach is in 1260 by Bartosz Paprocki in his book Gniazdo Cnoty, zkąd herby Rycerstwa Polskiego swój początek mają, in 1349, the region of Halychyna became part of the Kingdom of Poland. As a part of Ruthenian Voivodeship remained in Poland from 1434 until 1772 and it was during this time that the area experienced a large influx of Polish, Jewish and Armenian settlers. In the late 14th century, Polish nobleman, Michał Awdaniec, on July 28,1379, M. Awdaniec founded here a Roman Catholic parish church, and built a castle. In 1393, King Władysław II Jagiełło agreed to grant Magdeburg rights to Buchach, it was first Magdeburg-style town, in the early 15th century, the Awdaniec family of Buchach changed its last name into Buczacki, after its main residence. Frequent invasions of the Crimean Tatars brought destruction to the town, in 1580, local castle was rebuilt, the castle was twice besieged by the Tatars, who finally captured it in 1672, during the Polish–Ottoman War. Buchach was a residence of Mehmed IV, here, on October 18,1672. According to this treaty, Poland handed the provinces of Ukraine, as a result, until 1683 Buchach was divided into two parts, Polish and Ottoman. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Buchach belonged to the Potocki family, with the unification of Poland and Lithuania in 1569, the newly united kingdom extended from the Baltic to the Black Sea. Owing to its importance as a town, Buchach had become a prominent trading centre linking Poland. Industry came to Buchach around the end of the 19th century, among the small-scale industries there included a brickworks, and candle and soap factory, flour mills, a textile plant, and a necktie factory. The town also boasted a brewery and a winery, in 1912 the Stanislaviv-based Savings and Credit Union opened a branch in Buchach, and this served as a bank for local industrialists and business. Buchach remained a part of Austria and its successor states until the end of the First World War in 1918, the town was briefly a part of the independent West Ukrainian Peoples Republic before it was captured by the Republic of Poland in July 1919 after Ukrainian-Polish War. Also, between August 10 and September 15,1920, it was occupied by the Red Army, in the Second Polish Republic, Buchach was the seat of a county in Tarnopol Voivodeship. In the 1920s, Buchach was inhabited by Jews, Poles, on September 18,1939, during the Soviet Invasion of Poland, Buchach was occupied by the Red Army, and incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. In 1941, it was invaded by Nazi Germany, before World War II, approximately 10,000 Jews lived in Buchach
6. Chernivtsi – Chernivtsi is a city in western Ukraine, situated on the upper course of the River Prut. Chernivtsi is the center of Chernivtsi Oblast – the northern. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600, Chernivtsi is currently viewed as one of Western Ukraines main cultural centers. The city is considered one of Ukraines important educational and architectural sites. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed Little Vienna, Chernivtsi is currently twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is a regional rail and road transportation hub. In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the citys name was Chern, archeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture, artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city. A fortified settlement located on the shore of the Prut dates back to the time of the Principality of Halych and is thought to have been built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl. Legendary accounts refer to this fortress-city as Chern, or Black city, it is said to owe its name to the color of the city walls. This early stronghold was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in 1259, however, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes, in the 17th century they were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant. Following the destruction of the fortress, later settlements in the centered on the right shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous. It was part of a group of three fortifications, the two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River. The name Cernăuţi/Chernivtsi is first attested in a document by Alexandru cel Bun on 8 October 1408, in Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as Çernovi, a phonetic transliteration of a Latin cognomen meaning new castle see French Castelnau or Welsh Carno. In 1775, the part of the territory of Moldavia was annexed by the Habsburg Empire. The city became the capital, which in 1849 was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina. The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration and he invited many merchants, craftsmen and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peters Fairs had given a new vibrant impulse to the development from 1786
7. Frysztak – Frysztak is a village in the Gmina Frysztak, Strzyżów County, Subcarpathian Voivodeship, Poland,17 km from Krosno. Frysztak lies in historic Lesser Poland, and in 1772–1918 it was part of Austrian province of Galicia and it is located on a hillock near the river Wisłok, on the road from Rzeszów to Krosno. Frysztak was mentioned in a 1259AD document as a town with Magdeburg Rights given by King Bolesław V the Chaste and named after the German Freistadt, for centuries, it belonged to Lesser Polands Sandomierz Voivodeship, and was located in its extreme southeastern corner. In 1474, the town was destroyed by Hungarian army of King Matthias Corvinus. Its German-speaking population of the Walddeutsche became Polonized in the course of the time, the Hasidic leader Rabbi Menachem Mendel of Rimanov lived and worked there for many years. Following World War I, Frysztak was stripped of its city status due to population decline, Frysztak lost its town charter in 1932. Its residents twice tried to change this decision, but without success, in 1942 the Nazi Germans established a ghetto in Frysztak with 1,600 inhabitants. On July 3,1942,850 people were taken to Warzyce forest nearby, the ghetto was liquidated on August 18 the same year, with the remaining Jews taken to Jasło ghetto. Mikołaj Frysztacki Radwan 15th century Knight of King Vladislav Varnenchik participated in the battle of Varna, gen. Ludwik de Laveaux The Rev. Dr. Jan Biedroń, Rector of the major Seminary in Sandomierz and Canon of the cathedral at Gremialny. Maj. Edwin Wagner, Polish politician and, major of the Infantry Division of the Polish Army, Dr Pawel Wildstein Prof. Dr. Emil Orzechowski, theatre academic and cultural scientist. Lendians Great Moravia Ostsiedlung Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Ruthenian Voivodeship Lwów Voivodeship Pogórzanie Walddeutsche
8. Grodno – Grodno or Hrodna is a city in western Belarus. It is located on the Neman close to the borders of Poland and it is the capital of Grodno Region and Grodno District. In Belarusian, the city is referred to as Го́радня or Гаро́дня. In Latin it was known as Grodna, in Polish as Grodno, the Lithuanian name of the city is Gardinas. The modern city of Grodno originated as a fortress and a fortified trading outpost maintained by the Rurikid princes on the border with the lands of the Baltic tribal union of the Yotvingians. The first reference to Grodno dates to 1005, the official foundation year is 1127. Along with Navahrudak, Grodno was regarded as the city on the western borderlands of Black Ruthenia. The border region neighboured the original Lithuania and it was often attacked by various invaders, especially the Teutonic Knights. In the 1240–1250s the Grodno area, as well as the most of Black Ruthenia, was controlled by princes of Lithuanian origin to form the Baltic state—Grand Duchy of Lithuania—on these territories, after the Prussian uprisings a large population of Old Prussians moved to the region. The famous Lithuanian Grand Duke Vytautas was the prince of Grodno from 1376 to 1392, since 1413, Grodno had been the administrative center of a powiat in Trakai Voivodeship. To aid the reconstruction of trade and commerce, the grand dukes allowed the creation of a Jewish commune in 1389 and it was one of the first Jewish communities in the grand duchy. In 1441 the city received its charter, based on the Magdeburg Law, the city was the site of two battles, Battle of Grodno and Battle of Grodno during the Great Northern War. After the First Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Grodno became the capital of the short-lived Grodno Voivodeship in 1793, as an important centre of trade, commerce, and culture, Grodno remained one of the places where the Sejms were held. Also, the Old and New Castles were often visited by the Commonwealth monarchs including famous Stephen Báthory of Poland who made a royal residence here, in 1793 the last Sejm in the history of the Commonwealth occurred at Grodno. Two years afterwards, in 1795, Russia obtained the city in the Third Partition of Poland and it was in the New Castle on November 25 of that year that the last Polish king and Lithuanian grand duke Stanisław August Poniatowski abdicated. In the Russian Empire, the city continued to serve its role as a seat of Grodno Governorate since 1801, the industrial activities, started in the late 18th century by Antoni Tyzenhaus, continued to develop. Count Aleksander Bisping was arrested and imprisoned here during the January Uprising before his exile to Ufa, after the outbreak of World War I, Grodno was occupied by Germany and ceded by Bolshevist Russia under the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk in 1918. After the war the German government permitted a state to be set up there