Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. It has a status in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia. As the Bahasa Kebangsaan or Bahasa Nasional of several states, Standard Malay has various official names, in Singapore and Brunei it is called Bahasa Melayu, in Malaysia, Bahasa Malaysia, and in Indonesia, Bahasa Indonesia and is designated the Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu. However, in areas of central to southern Sumatra where the language is indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu and consider it one of their regional languages. There are also several Malay trade and creole languages which are based on a lingua franca derived from Classical Malay, as well as Macassar Malay, Malay historical linguists agree on the likelihood of the Malay homeland being in western Borneo stretching to the Bruneian coast. A form known as Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the ancestral language of all subsequent Malayan languages. The h
Koc Wanita street sign in Malay.
The Malaysian language, or Standard Malay is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia. Constitutionally, however, the language of Malaysia is Malay. Malaysian is a register of the Johore-Riau dialect of Malay. It is spoken by much of the Malaysian population as a second language and it is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary schools. Article 152 of the Federation designates Malay as the official language, between 1986 and 2007, the official term Bahasa Malaysia was replaced by Bahasa Melayu. The language is simply referred to as Bahasa or BM. English continues, however, to be used in professional and commercial fields. The Malaysian language is written using a Latin alphabet called Rumi. Rumi is official while efforts are currently being undertaken to preserve Jawi script, the Latin alphabet, however, is still the most commonly used script in Malaysia, both for official and informal purposes. The Malaysian language has most of its words borrowed from S
Brunei Malay is the most widely spoken language in Brunei and a lingua franca in some parts of East Malaysia, such as Labuan, Limbang and Lawas. It is quite divergent from Standard Malay to the point where it is almost mutually unintelligible with it, the consonants of Brunei Malay are shown in the following table. Some analysts exclude /w/ and /j/ from this table on the basis that they are high vowels, while others include /w/. All these consonants can occur in position except /h/. While /h/ can occur in position, its absence from initial position means that Standard Malay hutan is utan in Brunei Malay. All the consonants can occur in word-final position apart from the palatal sounds /tʃ dʒ ɲ/, Brunei Malay has a three-vowel system, /i/, /a/, /u/. Acoustic variation in the realisation of these vowels is shown in the plot on the right, while /i/ is distinct from the other two vowels, there is substantial overlap between /a/ and /u/. This is partly because of the vowel in the first syll
Area where Brunei Malay language were spoken
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka is the government body responsible for co-ordinating the use of the Malay language and literature in Malaysia. DBP Malaysia was established as Balai Pustaka in Johor Bahru on 22 June 1956, during the Kongres Bahasa dan Persuratan Melayu III which was held between 16 and 21 September 1956 in both Singapore and Johor Bahru, Balai Pustaka was renamed Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka. Royal Prof Ungku Abdul Aziz Ungku Abdul Hamid was instrumental in setting up the institution, in 1957, DBP moved from Johor Bahru to Kuala Lumpur. Through Ordinan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka 1959, DBP was granted a charter with its own Board of Governors, with the charter, DBP has the power to form policies regarding the Malay language, responsible to spread the language and is able to go into book publishing business. On 31 January 1962, DBP moved to its own building at Jalan Lapangan Terbang Lama, the buildings architect was Lee Yoon Thim and the prominent mural was by Ismail Mustam. Later in
Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka in Kuala Lumpur.
The Seal of the Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
History of the Malay language
Malay is a major language of the Austronesian language family. The oldest form of Malay is descended from the Proto-Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the earliest Austronesian settlers in Southeast Asia and this form would later evolved into Old Malay when Indian cultures and religions began penetrating the region. Old Malay contained some terms that exist today, but are unintelligible to modern speakers, Malay evolved extensively into Classical Malay through the gradual influx of numerous Arabic and Persian vocabulary, when Islam made its way to the region. Initially, Classical Malay was a group of dialects, reflecting the varied origins of the Malay kingdoms of Southeast Asia. One of these dialects that was developed in the tradition of Melaka in the 15th century. Ancient Malay, or Proto-Malay, is the believed to exist in prehistoric times. Proto-Malay language was spoken in Borneo at least by 1000 BCE and was, it has been argued, the beginning of the common era saw the growing in
Jawi is an Arabic alphabet for writing the Malay language, Acehnese, Banjarese, Minangkabau, Tausūg and several other languages in Southeast Asia. Jawi is one of the two scripts in Brunei, used as an alternative script in Malaysia and Malay dominated areas in Indonesia. It can be typed with the Jawi keyboard, day-to-day usage of Jawi is maintained in more conservative Malay-populated areas such as Kelantan in Malaysia and Pattani. Jawi is still used on road and building signs, and taught in primary and religious schools in Brunei. The word Jawi is an adjective for the Arabic noun Jawah, both terms may have originated from the term Javadwipa, the ancient name for Java. Prior to the onset of the Islamisation, when Hindu-Buddhist influences were still firmly established in the region and this is evidenced from the discovery of several stone inscriptions in Old Malay, notably the Kedukan Bukit Inscription and Talang Tuwo inscription. The spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and the subsequent
Perak Malay is one of the Malay dialects spoken within the state of Perak, Malaysia. In spite of the fact there are five main dialects traditionally spoken in Perak. There are subtle phonetic, syntactic and lexical distinctions from other major Malay dialects, Perak Malay can be divided into two sub-dialects, Kuala Kangsar and Perak Tengah, named after the daerah where they are predominantly spoken. Linguistically, the Malay dialects spoken in the state of Perak are diverse, in fact, there is still no definite classification of the type of Malay dialects used in Perak. Ismail Hussein classified the Malay dialects in Perak into five types segregated into five different areas, while Harun Mat Piah categorized them into six. Although Asmah Haji Omar divided the Malay dialects in Perak into five types and this variant is occasionally classified as a sub-dialect of Yawi. The district of Hulu Perak once was ruled by the Sultanate of Reman, Reman was historically a part of Greater Pattani bef
(districts) in Perak