Mamluk is an Arabic designation for slaves. The term is most commonly used to refer to Muslim slave soldiers and these were mostly enslaved Turkic peoples, Egyptian Copts, Circassians, Abkhazians, and Georgians. Many Mamluks were also of Balkan origin, over time, the mamluks became a powerful military knightly caste in various societies that were controlled by Muslim rulers. Particularly in Egypt, but also in the Levant, Mesopotamia, in some cases, they attained the rank of sultan, while in others they held regional power as emirs or beys. Most notably, mamluk factions seized the sultanate centered on Egypt and Syria, the Mamluk Sultanate famously defeated the Ilkhanate at the Battle of Ain Jalut. They had earlier fought the western European Christian Crusaders in 1154-1169 and 1213-1221, effectively driving them out of Egypt, in 1302 the mamluks formally expelled the last Crusaders from the Levant, ending the era of the Crusades. While mamluks were purchased as property, their status was above ordinary slaves, in a sense they were like enslaved mercenaries. In the Middle Ages, the Mamlukes took up the practice of furusiyya chivalry although Mamluk knights were slaves until their service ended, the Arabic term for a knight was fāris, The faris and the notion of furusiyya originated in pre-Muslim Persian brotherhoods. Within the Muslim world, the fursān became prized as ideal warriors and they were also trained in wrestling, and their martial skills were honed first on foot as piéton and then perfected when as mounted warriors. They were popularly used as heavy knightly cavalry by a number of different Islamic kingdoms and empires, including the Ayyubid dynasty, the origins of the mamluk system are disputed. Historians agree that a military caste such as the mamluks appeared to develop in Islamic societies beginning with the ninth-century Abbasid Caliphate of Baghdad. When in the century has not been determined. Up until the 1990s, it was believed that the earliest mamluks were known as ghilman and were bought by the Abbasid caliphs. By the end of the 9th century, such warrior slaves had become the dominant element in the military, conflict between these ghilman and the population of Baghdad prompted the caliph al-Mutasim to move his capital to the city of Samarra, but this did not succeed in calming tensions. The caliph al-Mutawakkil was assassinated by some of these slave-soldiers in 861, adult slaves and freemen both served as warriros. The mamluk system developed later, after the return of the caliphate to Baghdad in the 870s and it included the systematic training of young slaves in military and martial skills. The Mamluk system is considered to have been an experiment of al-Muwaffaq. This recent interpretation seems to have been accepted, after the fragmentation of the Abbasid Empire, military slaves, known as either mamluks or ghilman, were used throughout the Islamic world as the basis of military power
Muḥammad Bey Abū al-Ḏẖahab, also just called Abū Ḏahab, was a Mamluk emir and regent of Ottoman Egypt. Born in the North Caucasus region of Circassia or in Abkhazia he was kidnapped and he became Ali Beys closest and favourite fellow, his most trusted general and even his brother-in-law. On behalf of Ali Bey, Abu Dhahab suppressed a revolt in Upper Egypt, seized the Hidjaz, having taken Damascus from its Ottoman governor Uthman Pasha al-Kurji, Abu Dhahab changed sides, handed over all the conquered territories to the Ottomans and marched against Cairo. Ali Bey fled to Zahir al-Umar in Acre, and Abu Dhahab became the new Shaykh al-Balad, when Ali Bey came back and tried to restore his position, he was defeated and killed by Abu Dhahabs forces near Cairo. Acting on Ottoman orders Abu Dhahab then invaded Palestine to defeat Emir Zahir, after conquering Gaza, Jaffa and Acre, he suddenly died of the plague. His comrades Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey, the leaders of his Mamluk faction, ʿAbdarraḥmān al-Ǧabartī, Arnold Hottinger, Bonaparte in Ägypten - Aus den Chroniken von ʿAbdarraḥmān al-Ǧabartī, pages 46–58 and 332f. Piper, Munich 1989 Robin Leonard Bidwell, Dictionary of Modern Arab History, london/New York 1998 Arthur Goldschmidt jr. Historical Dictionary of Egypt, page 29f, lanham 2013 David Crecelius, The Waqf of Muhammad Bey Abu al-Dhabab, Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt, vol. David Crecelius, The Roots of Modern Egypt, A Study of the Refimes of Ali Bey al-Kebir and Muhammad Bey Abu al-Dhabab, studies in Middle Eastern History,6. Sauveur Lusignan, A history of the Revolution of Ali Bey against the Ottoman Porte
Ali Bey al-Kabir
Ali Bey al-Kabir was a Mamluk leader of Egypt from 1768 to 1769,1772, or 1773. Originally a Mamluk soldier, he rose to prominence in 1768 when he rebelled against his Ottoman rulers and his rule ended following the insubordination of his most trusted general, Abu al-Dahab, which led to Ali Beys exile then death outside the walls of Cairo. Ali Bey was born in Abkhazia he had Abkhazian origins, the son of an Orthodox priest. He was kidnapped and brought to Cairo in 1743 where he was sold into slavery and he was recruited into the Mamluk force in which he gradually rose in ranks and influence, winning the top office of Shaykh al-Balad in 1760. During his time in power, he successfully expanded Egypts trade with Britain and he also hired European advisers to the military and bought European weapons. He did not make use of native Egyptians or call in foreigners for technical advice and he made no effort to build a modern army. In 1768 Ali Bey deposed the Ottoman governor Rakım Mehmed Pasha, in 1770 he gained control of the Hijaz and a year later temporarily occupied Syria, thereby reconstituting the Mamluk state that had disappeared in 1517. As a result, Ali Bey lost power in 1772, the following year, he was killed in Cairo. However, the date of 1772 is highly disputed, other sources, first-person source Al-Jabarti declares that Ali Bey gave up power in 1769 when a new governor from the Ottoman capital of Istanbul was assigned by the sultan. List of Ottoman governors of Egypt Sauveur Lusignan, A history of the Revolution of Ali Bey against the Ottoman Porte
Badr al-Din Lu'lu'
Badr al-Din Lulu was successor to the Zangid rulers of Mosul, where he governed in variety of capacities for half a century. He was the first mamluk to transcend servitude and become sultan in his own right and he preserved control of the Jazira through a series of tactical submissions to larger neighboring powers, at various times recognizing Ayyubid, Rûm Seljuqs, and the Mongol overlords. His prescient surrender to the Mongols spared Mosul the destruction experienced by other settlements in Mesopotamia, Lulu was an Armenian convert to Islam, in the household of the Zangid ruler Nur al-Din Arslanshah I. Recognized for his abilities as an administrator, he rose to the rank of atabeg and, after 1211, served as regent until the death of the last Zengid, Nasir al-Din Mahmud in 1233. From this time on, he ruled independently, careful to preserve his sovereignty through a series of submissions to larger neighboring powers. His coinage is important for establishing the history of the Jazira during the mid-13th century, a time when the region was contested by the Ayyubids, the Seljuqs of Rûm. Imam Awn al-Din Mashhad Imam Yahya ibn al-Qasim Mashhad Sittna Zaynab Mausoleum
Murad Bey Mohammed was an Egyptian Mamluk chieftain, cavalry commander and joint ruler of Egypt with Ibrahim Bey. He is often remembered as being a cruel and extortionate ruler, Murad was of Georgian origin from Tiflis, or Circassian. In 1768 he was sold to the Mamluk Muhammad Bey Abu al-Dhahab in Egypt, after the death of his master Muhammad Bey Abu al-Dhahab, Murad Bey was in command of the Mamluk army, whereas Ibrahim Bey was in charge of administrative duties of Egypt. They survived through the persistent Ottoman attempts at overthrowing the Mamluk regime and they served as kaymakams in Egypt on occasion, although they effectively held de facto power for decades, even over the appointed Ottoman governor of Egypt. In 1786, the Ottoman sultan Abdülhamid I sent Kapudan Pasha and Cezayirli Gazi Hasan Pasha to drive out Ibrahim, Hasan Pasha was fervent and thorough in his efforts and succeeded in the short term, reestablishing direct Ottoman Empire control over Egypt. Ismail Bey was appointed as new Mamluk leader and Shaykh al-Balad, however, in 1791, only five years after their expulsion by Hasan Pasha, the duumvirate returned to Cairo from hiding in southern Egypt and took back de facto control. At this time, Murad Bey served as Amir al-Hajj and he commanded the Mamluk cavalry and Janissaries infantry in the Battle of Shubra Khit on 13 July 1798, but he was defeated by the French Armée and withdrew from the fight. Eight days later, on 21 July, he commanded the Mamluk cavalry during the Battle of the Pyramids, alongside Ibrahim Bey, and was defeated at the hands of Napoleons armies. While Ibrahim Bey fled towards Sinai, Murad had fled to Cairo first and then to Upper Egypt and it was while pursuing Murad Bey into Upper Egypt that the French discovered the monuments at Dendera, Thebes, Edfu and Philae. Murad had reportedly offered money to the French forces to leave Egypt and offered to himself with the British in exchange for allowing the British to occupy Alexandria. In 1800, Murad made peace with Jean Baptiste Kléber, and agreed to garrison Cairo, Ibrahim Bey, his career-long partner in ruling Egypt
Farrukh Pasha was born in Circassia, where he was either captured or purchased as a slave. He became a mamluk of Bahram Pasha, a brother of Ridwan Pasha, under Bahrams patronage, Farrukh was well-educated and trained for a government career. In 1596, Bahrams influence helped Farrukh gain the appointment of Jerusalem Sanjaks subashi, in 1603, following Bahrams death, Farrukh was appointed sanjak-bey of Jerusalem and later, in 1609, he was appointed sanjak-bey of Nablus. Farrukh established Nablus as the headquarters of his family, between 1609 and his death in 1620-21, he served as the governor of Jerusalem or Nablus or both. The Damascene historian and Farrukhs contemporary, Muhammad Amin al-Muhibbi, described Farrukh Pasha as a hero, of fearless heart. He also held the office of amir al-hajj. He built a large caravanserai called the Wikala al-Farrukhiyya or Khan al-Farrukhiya for the Hajj pilgrims who assembled in Nablus, according to a description of the building by Turkish traveler Evliya Çelebi, Farrukhs caravanserai was huge and similar to a castle and it has 150 rooms. It became one of Nabluss main commercial properties at least until the mid-19th century, Farrukh Pasha died while commanding the Hajj caravan en route to Mecca. The Farrukh dynasty that Farrukh Pasha established and headquartered in Nablus became one of the prominent pasha families of Palestine during the Ottoman era in the 17th century. Farrukh Pasha son Muhammad ibn Farrukh succeeded him as sanjak-bey of Jerusalem and Nablus, members of the family still constituted a part of the elite classes of Jerusalem, Nablus and Damascus through the 18th century, but none served as sanjak-beys after Assafs death