Category:Mammals described in 1776
Pages in category "Mammals described in 1776"
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 25 pages are in this category, out of 25 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Species – In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which two individuals can produce fertile offspring, typically by sexual reproduction. While this definition is often adequate, looked at more closely it is problematic, for example, with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, or in a ring species, the boundaries between closely related species become unclear. Other ways of defining species include similarity of DNA, morphology, all species are given a two-part name, a binomial. The first part of a binomial is the genus to which the species belongs, the second part is called the specific name or the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the Boa genus, Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped that species could evolve given sufficient time, Charles Darwins 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection. Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal transfer, and species may become extinct for a variety of reasons. In his biology, Aristotle used the term γένος to mean a kind, such as a bird or fish, a kind was distinguished by its attributes, for instance, a bird has feathers, a beak, wings, a hard-shelled egg, and warm blood. A form was distinguished by being shared by all its members, Aristotle believed all kinds and forms to be distinct and unchanging. His approach remained influential until the Renaissance, when observers in the Early Modern period began to develop systems of organization for living things, they placed each kind of animal or plant into a context. Many of these early delineation schemes would now be considered whimsical, animals likewise that differ specifically preserve their distinct species permanently, one species never springs from the seed of another nor vice versa. In the 18th century, the Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus classified organisms according to shared physical characteristics and he established the idea of a taxonomic hierarchy of classification based upon observable characteristics and intended to reflect natural relationships. At the time, however, it was widely believed that there was no organic connection between species, no matter how similar they appeared. However, whether or not it was supposed to be fixed, by the 19th century, naturalists understood that species could change form over time, and that the history of the planet provided enough time for major changes. Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, in his 1809 Zoological Philosophy, described the transmutation of species, proposing that a species could change over time, in 1859, Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace provided a compelling account of evolution and the formation of new species. Darwin argued that it was populations that evolved, not individuals and this required a new definition of species. Darwin concluded that species are what appear to be, ideas
2. African civet – The African civet /ˈsɪvɪt/ is the largest representative of the African Viverridae and the sole member of its genus. It is considered common and widely distributed in sub-Saharan Africa and it is primarily nocturnal and spends the day sleeping in dense vegetation. It is a mammal that has a unique coloration, the black and white stripes and blotches covering the coarse pelage of the animal are extremely variable. The black bands surrounding its eyes closely resemble those of the raccoon, other distinguishing features are its disproportionately large hindquarters and its erectile dorsal crest. The African civet is an omnivorous generalist, taking small vertebrates, invertebrates, eggs, carrion and it is capable of taking on poisonous invertebrates and snakes. Prey is primarily detected by smell and sound rather than by sight and it prefers riverine habitats and woodlands. Like all civets it has perineal glands that produce a fluid known as civet and it is used in the perfume industry. The scientific name of the African civet is Civettictis civetta and it is the sole member of its genus, and a member of the family Viverridae. The African civet was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1776 as Viverra civetta, in 1915, the English zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock placed the African civet in its own genus, Civettictis. A1969 study noted that this civet showed enough differences from the rest of the viverrines in terms of dentition to be classified under its own genus, the generic name Civettictis is a fusion of the French civette and the Greek ictis, meaning weasel. The specific name civetta and the name civet come from the French civette or the Arabic zabād or sinnawr al-zabād. The civet has been a domestic animal in Africa since ancient times. A2006 phylogenetic study showed that the African civet is closely related to the genus Viverra and it was estimated that the Civettictis-Viverra clade diverged from Viverricula around 16.2 Mya, the African civet split from Viverra 12.3 Mya. The authors suggested that the subfamily Viverrinae should be bifurcated into Genettinae and Viverrinae, the following cladogram is based on this study. The following six subspecies are identified, The African civet is the largest viverrid in Africa, among the extant viverrids, only the binturong matches or exceeds the African civet in size. While females are sometimes credited as slightly larger, there are no discernible differences in measurements between sexes. Weight can range from 7 to 20 kg, with a mass of about 12.5 kg. Head-and-body length is 67 to 84 cm, while the tail is 34 to 47 cm, Civettictis civetta is a stocky animal with a long body and appears short-legged for its size although its hind limbs are noticeably larger and more powerful
3. Beluga whale – The beluga whale or white whale is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean. It is one of two members of the family Monodontidae, along with the narwhal, and the member of the genus Delphinapterus. This marine mammal is commonly referred to as the beluga, melonhead and it is adapted to life in the Arctic, so has anatomical and physiological characteristics that differentiate it from other cetaceans. Amongst these are its all-white colour and the absence of a dorsal fin and it possesses a distinctive protuberance at the front of its head which houses an echolocation organ called the melon, which in this species is large and deformable. The belugas body size is between that of a dolphins and a true whales, with growing up to 5.5 m long and weighing up to 1,600 kg. This whale has a stocky body, a large percentage of its weight is blubber, as is true of many cetaceans. Its sense of hearing is highly developed and its echolocation allows it to move about, belugas are gregarious and form groups of up to 10 animals on average, although during the summer, they can gather in the hundreds or even thousands in estuaries and shallow coastal areas. They are slow swimmers, but can dive to 700 m below the surface and they are opportunistic feeders and their diets vary according to their locations and the season. The majority of live in the Arctic Ocean and the seas and coasts around North America, Russia and Greenland. They are migratory and the majority of groups spend the winter around the Arctic ice cap, some populations are sedentary and do not migrate over great distances during the year. The native peoples of North America and Russia have hunted belugas for many centuries and they were also hunted commercially during the 19th century and part of the 20th century. Whale hunting has been under control since 1973. Currently, only certain Inuit and Alaska Native groups are allowed to carry out hunting of belugas. Other threats include natural predators, contamination of rivers, and infectious diseases, of seven Canadian beluga populations, the two inhabiting eastern Hudson Bay and Ungava Bay are listed as endangered. Belugas are one of the most commonly kept cetaceans in captivity and are housed in aquariums, dolphinariums, and wildlife parks in North America, Europe and they are popular with the public due to their colour and expression. The beluga was first described in 1776 by Peter Simon Pallas and it is a member of the Monodontidae family, which is in turn part of the parvorder Odontoceti. The Irrawaddy dolphin was once placed in the family, recent genetic evidence suggests these dolphins belong to the Delphinidae family. The narwhal is the other species within the Monodontidae besides the beluga
4. Bluebuck – The bluebuck or blue antelope is an extinct species of antelope that lived in South Africa until around 1800. It is congeneric with the antelope and sable antelope, but was smaller than either. It was sometimes considered a subspecies of the antelope, but a genetic study has confirmed it as a distinct species. The largest mounted bluebuck specimen is 119 centimetres tall at the withers and its horns measure 56.5 centimetres along the curve. The coat was a uniform bluish-grey, with a whitish belly. The forehead was brown, darker than the face and its mane was not as developed as in the roan and sable antelopes, its ears were shorter and blunter, not tipped with black, and it had a darker tail tuft and smaller teeth. It also lacked the black and white patterns seen on the heads of its relatives. The bluebuck was a grazer, and may have calved where rainfall, the bluebuck was confined to the southwestern Cape when encountered by Europeans, but fossil evidence and rock paintings show that it originally had a larger distribution. Sea level changes during the early Holocene may also have contributed to its decline by disrupting the population, the first published mention of the bluebuck is from 1681, and few descriptions of the animal were written while it existed. The few 18th-century illustrations appear to have based on stuffed specimens. Hunted by European settlers, the bluebuck became extinct around 1800, it was the first large African mammal to face extinction in historical times, followed by the quagga in 1883. Only four mounted specimens remain, in museums in Leiden, Stockholm, Vienna, in 1776 the German zoologist Peter Simon Pallas formally described the bluebuck as Antilope leucophaeus. In 1846, the Swedish zoologist Carl Jakob Sundevall moved the bluebuck and its closest relatives to the genus Hippotragus and this revision was commonly accepted by other writers, such as the British zoologists Philip Sclater and Oldfield Thomas, who restricted the genus Antilope to the blackbuck in 1899. In 1914, the name Hippotragus was submitted for conservation to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature with the bluebuck as type species. However, the original 1845 naming of the genus with the antelope as single species was overlooked and later suppressed by the ICZN. In 2001, the British ecologist Peter J and this was accepted by the commission in 2003. Kolbe also included an illustration, which Mohr believed was based on memory, the first published illustration of the bluebuck is therefore instead a depiction of a horn from 1764. It has also pointed out that the animal had already been mentioned on a list of South African mammals in 1681
5. Common chimpanzee – The common chimpanzee, also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows both species of chimpanzees are the group to the modern human lineage. The common chimpanzee is covered in black hair, but has a bare face, fingers, toes, palms of the hands. It is considered more robust than the bonobo, weighing between 40 and 65 kg and measuring about 63 to 94 cm and its gestation period is eight months. The common chimpanzee lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel, the species lives in a male-dominated, strict hierarchy, which means disputes can generally be settled without the need for violence. Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks, grass, and leaves and using them for acquiring honey, termites, ants, nuts, the species has also been found creating sharpened sticks to spear Senegal bushbabies out of small holes in trees. The common chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species, between 170,000 and 300,000 individuals are estimated across its range in the forests and savannahs of West and Central Africa. The biggest threats to the common chimpanzee are habitat loss, poaching, the common chimpanzee was named Simia troglodytes by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach in 1776, Lorenz Oken moved it to the new genus Pan in 1816. The species name troglodytes is a reference to the Troglodytae, an African people described by Greco-Roman geographers, Blumenbach first used it in his De generis humani varietate nativa liber in 1776. The English name chimpanzee is first recorded in 1738 and it is derived from a Tshiluba language term kivili-chimpenze, with a meaning of mockman or possibly just ape. The colloquialism chimp was most likely coined some time in the late 1870s, despite a large number of Homo fossil finds, chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the human fossil sites in East Africa. However, chimpanzee fossils have now been reported from Kenya and this would indicate that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene. DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species separated from other less than one million years ago. The chimpanzee line split from the last common ancestor of the line around six million years ago. Because no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the line of that branching. The lineage of humans and chimpanzees diverged from that of the gorilla about seven years ago. The adult male common chimpanzee weighs between 40 and 60 kg, the female weighs 32 to 47 kg, however, large wild males can weigh up to 70 kg and males in captivity, such as Travis the Chimp, have reached 91 kg
6. Dugong – The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal. It is one of four living species of the order Sirenia and it is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae, its closest modern relative, Stellers sea cow, was hunted to extinction in the 18th century. The dugong is the strictly marine herbivorous mammal. The dugong is the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific, the northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay are believed to be the dugongs contemporary stronghold. Like all modern sirenians, the dugong has a body with no dorsal fin or hind limbs. The forelimbs or flippers are paddle-like, the dugong is easily distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but also possesses a unique skull and teeth. Its snout is sharply downturned, an adaptation for feeding in benthic seagrass communities, the molar teeth are simple and peg-like unlike the more elaborate molar dentition of manatees. The dugong has been hunted for thousands of years for its meat, traditional hunting still has great cultural significance in several countries in its modern range, particularly northern Australia and the Pacific Islands. The dugongs current distribution is fragmented, and many populations are believed to be close to extinction, the IUCN lists the dugong as a species vulnerable to extinction, while the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species limits or bans the trade of derived products. Despite being legally protected in many countries, the causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include fishing-related fatalities, habitat degradation. With its long lifespan of 70 years or more, and slow rate of reproduction, the word dugong derives from the Tagalog term dugong which was in turn adopted from the Malay duyung, both meaning lady of the sea. Other common local names include sea cow, sea pig and sea camel, Dugong dugon is the only extant species of the family Dugongidae, and one of only four extant species of the Sirenia order, the others forming the manatee family. It was first classified by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon and it was later assigned as the type species of Dugong by Lacépède and further classified within its own family by Gray and subfamily by Simpson. Dugongs and other sirenians are not closely related to marine mammals. Dugongs and elephants share a group with hyraxes and the aardvark. The fossil record shows sirenians appearing in the Eocene, where they most likely lived in the Tethys Ocean, the Stellers sea cow became extinct in the 18th century. No fossils exist of other members of the Dugongidae, molecular studies have been made on dugong populations using mitochondrial DNA. The results have suggested that the population of Southeast Asia is distinct from the others, Australia has two distinct maternal lineages, one of which also contains the dugongs from Africa and Arabia
7. Guanaco – The guanaco, a camelid native to South America, stands between 1.0 and 1.2 m at the shoulder and weighs 90 to 140 kg. Its color varies very little, ranging from a brown to dark cinnamon. Guanacos have grey faces and small, straight ears, the name guanaco comes from the South American Quechua word huanaco. The guanaco is a native to the mountainous regions of South America. They are found in the altiplano of Peru, Bolivia and Chile, in Argentina and Chile, they are more numerous in Patagonian regions, as well as in places such as the Torres del Paine National Park, and Isla Grande de Tierra del Fuego. In these areas, they have more robust populations, since grazing competition from livestock is limited, estimates, as of 2011, place their numbers at 400,000 to 600,000. A small introduced population exists on Staats Island in the Falkland Islands, guanacos live in herds composed of females, their young, and a dominant male. While reproductive groups tend to remain small, often containing no more than 10 adults, when they feel threatened, guanacos alert the herd to flee with a high-pitched, bleating call. The male usually runs behind the herd to defend them and they can run at 56 km per hour, often over steep and rocky terrain. A guanacos typical lifespan is 20 to 25 years, guanacos are one of the largest wild mammal species found in South America. Natural predators include cougars, jaguars, and foxes, the guanaco has thicker skin on its neck, a trait also found in its domestic counterpart, the llama and in its relatives, the wild vicuña and domesticated alpaca. This protects its neck from predator attacks, bolivians use the neck-skin of these animals to make shoes, flattening and pounding the skin to be used for the soles. In Chile, hunting is allowed only in Tierra del Fuego, between 2007 and 2012,13,200 guanacos were legally hunted in Tierra del Fuego. Mating season occurs between November and February, during which males often fight violently to establish dominance and breeding rights, eleven-and-a-half months later, a single chulengo is born. Chulengos are able to immediately after birth. Male chulengos are chased off from the herd by the dominant male around one year of age, although the species is still considered wild, around 300 guanacos are in US zoos and around 200 are registered in private herds. Guanacos are the parent species of the domesticated llama, guanacos are often found at high altitudes, up to 4,000 meters above sea level, except in Patagonia, where the southerly latitude means ice covers the vegetation at these altitudes. For guanacos to survive in the low oxygen levels found at high altitudes
8. Honey badger – The honey badger, also known as the ratel, is the only species in the mustelid subfamily Mellivorinae and its only genus Mellivora. It is native to Africa, Southwest Asia, and the Indian subcontinent, despite its name, the honey badger does not closely resemble other badger species, instead, it bears more anatomical similarities to weasels. It is classed as Least Concern by the IUCN owing to its extensive range and it is primarily a carnivorous species and has few natural predators because of its thick skin and ferocious defensive abilities. Ratel is an Afrikaans word, possibly derived from the Middle Dutch word raat for honeycomb, the honey badger is the only species of the genus Mellivora. Although in the 1860s it was assigned to the badger subfamily and it is much more closely related to the marten subfamily, Mustelinae, but furthermore is assigned its own subfamily, Mellivorinae. Differences between Mellivorinae and Melinae include differences in their dentition formulae, the species first appeared during the middle Pliocene in Asia. Its closest relation was the extinct genus Eomellivora, which is known from the upper Miocene, as of 2005,12 subspecies are recognised. Points taken into consideration in assigning different subspecies include size and the extent of whiteness or greyness on the back, the honey badger has a fairly long body, but is distinctly thick-set and broad across the back. Its skin is loose, and allows it to turn. The skin around the neck is 6 millimetres thick, an adaptation to fighting conspecifics, the head is small and flat, with a short muzzle. The eyes are small, and the ears are more than ridges on the skin. The honey badger has short and sturdy legs, with five toes on each foot, the feet are armed with very strong claws, which are short on the hind legs and remarkably long on the forelimbs. It is a partially plantigrade animal whose soles are thickly padded and naked up to the wrists, the tail is short and is covered in long hairs, save for below the base. Honey badgers are the largest terrestrial mustelids in Africa, adults measure 23 to 28 cm in shoulder height and 55–77 cm in body length, with the tail adding another 12–30 cm. Males weigh 9 to 16 kg while females weigh 5 to 10 kg on average, skull length is 13. 9–14.5 cm in males and 13 cm for females. There are two pairs of mammae, the honey badger possesses an anal pouch which, unusual among mustelids, is eversible, a trait shared with hyenas and mongooses. The smell of the pouch is reportedly suffocating, and may assist in calming bees when raiding beehives, the skull bears little similarity to that of the European badger, and greatly resembles a larger version of that of a marbled polecat. The skull is solidly built, with that of adults having no trace of an independent bone structure
9. North Atlantic right whale – The North Atlantic right whale is a baleen whale, one of three right whale species belonging to the genus Eubalaena, all of which were formerly classified as a single species. At present, they are among the most endangered whales in the world, Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act and Canadas Species at Risk Act. In the eastern North Atlantic, on the other hand – with a population reaching into the low teens at best – scientists believe that they may already be functionally extinct. Vessel strikes and entanglement in fixed fishing gear, which account for nearly half of all North Atlantic right whale mortality since 1970, are their two greatest threats to recovery. The body of the whale is dark grey or black. The right whales callosities appear white due to colonies of cyamids or whale lice. Adult North Atlantic right whales average 13–16 m in length and weigh approximately 40,000 to 70,000 kg, the largest measured specimens have been 18.5 m long and 106,000 kg. Forty percent of a whales body weight is blubber, which is of relatively low density. Consequently, unlike other species of whale, dead right whales float. There is little data on their life span, but it is believed to be at least fifty years, aside from mating activities performed by groups of single female and several males, so called SAG, North Atlantic right whales seem less active compared to subspecies in southern hemisphere. However, this could be due to difference in number of surviving individuals especially calves that tend to be more curious and playful than adults. They are also known to interact with other baleen whales especially with Humpback whales or Bottlenose dolphins, North Atlantic right whales recordings are available online. Many effective automated methods, such as processing, data mining. They first give birth at age nine or ten after a year-long gestation, calves are 13–15 feet long at birth and weigh approximately 3,000 pounds. The cladogram is a tool for visualizing and comparing the evolutionary relationships between taxa, the point where a node branches off is analogous to an evolutionary branching – the diagram can be read left-to-right, much like a timeline. Another so-called species of whale, the Swedenborg whale as proposed by Emanuel Swedenborg in the 18th century, was by scientific consensus once thought to be the North Atlantic right whale. However, the 2013 results of DNA analysis of fossil bones revealed that they were in fact those of the bowhead whale. As the right continued to float long after being killed
10. Pallas's cat – The Pallass cat, also called the manul, is a small wild cat with a broad but fragmented distribution in the grasslands and montane steppes of Central Asia. It is negatively affected by degradation, prey base decline, and hunting. The Pallass cat was named after the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas, the Pallass cat is about the size of a domestic cat. Its body is 46 to 65 cm long and its tail is 21 to 31 cm long, the combination of its stocky posture and long, dense fur makes it appear stout and plush. Its fur is ochre with dark bars on the torso. The winter coat is greyer and less patterned than the summer coat, there are clear black rings on the tail and dark spots on the forehead. The cheeks are white with black stripes running from the corners of the eyes. The chin and throat are white, merging into the greyish. Concentric white and black rims around the eyes accentuate their rounded shape, the legs are proportionately shorter than those of other cats, the ears are set very low and wide apart, and the claws are unusually short. The face is shortened compared with other cats, giving it a flattened look, the short jaw has fewer teeth than is typical among cats, with the first pair of upper premolars missing, but the canine teeth are large. Pallass cats are native to the regions of Central Asia. They also inhabit parts of Mongolia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, India, Kazakhstan, and Pakistan. They also are found in the Transbaikal regions of Russia and, less frequently, in the Altai, Tyva, in 1997, they were reported for the first time as being present in the eastern Sayan Mountains. Until the early 1970s, only two Pallass cats were recorded in the Transcaucasus, both encountered near the Araks River in northwestern Iran, but no records existed from Azerbaijan. Populations in the Caspian Sea region, in Afghanistan and Pakistan, are thought to be declining and becoming increasingly isolated, both males and females scent mark their territory. They spend the day in caves, rock crevices, or marmot burrows and they are not fast runners, and hunt primarily by ambush or stalking, using low vegetation and rocky terrain for cover. They feed largely on diurnally active prey species such as gerbils, pikas, voles and chukar partridges, the breeding season is relatively short due to the extreme climate in the cats native range. Oestrus lasts between 26 and 42 hours, which is shorter than in many other felids
11. Serval – The serval /ˈsɜːrvəl/, also known as the tierboskat, is a wild cat found in Africa. It is the member of the genus Leptailurus and was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber in 1776. The serval is a slender, medium-sized cat that stands 54–62 cm at the shoulder and it is characterised by a small head, large ears, a golden-yellow to buff coat spotted and striped with black, and a short, black-tipped tail. The serval has the longest legs of any cat relative to its body size, active in the day as well as at night, servals tend to be solitary with minimal social interaction. Both sexes establish highly overlapping home ranges of 10 to 32 km2, servals are carnivores – they prey on rodents, small birds, frogs, insects and reptiles. Mating takes place at different times of the year in different parts of their range, after a gestational period of two to three months, a litter of one to four is born. Weaning occurs at one month, and kittens begin hunting on their own at six months, the juveniles leave their mother at 12 months. The serval prefers areas with such as reeds and tall grasses and proximity to water bodies, such as wetlands. It is rare in northern Africa and the Sahel, but widespread in southern Africa, the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources classifies the serval as least concern. It occurs in protected areas across its range, and hunting of servals is either prohibited or regulated in several countries, the scientific name of the serval is Leptailurus serval. It is the member of its genus and is placed under the family Felidae. The species was first described by German naturalist Johann Christian Daniel von Schreber as Felis serval in the journal Die Säugetiere in Abbildungen nach der Natur mit Beschreibungen in 1776. In 1858, Russian naturalist Nikolai Severtzov proposed the genus Leptailurus for the serval, the name serval could have been derived from the Medieval Latin words Lupus cervalis or from its Portuguese equivalent lobo-cerval. The first recorded use of this dates back to 1771. Another name for the serval is tierboskat, in 1907, British zoologist Reginald Innes Pocock commented that the two forms should be considered independent species, but reverted from this in 1917. Eventually, the two came to be recognised as the same species. In 1944, Pocock identified three races of the serval from northern Africa, studies in the 2000s and the 2010s show that the serval, along with the caracal and the African golden cat, forms one of the eight lineages of Felidae. According to a 2006 genetic study, the Caracal lineage came into existence 8.5 mya, the head-and-body length is typically between 67 and 100 cm
12. Siberian ibex – The Siberian ibex is a species of ibex that lives in central Asia. It has traditionally been treated as a subspecies of the Alpine ibex and it is the longest and heaviest members of the genus Capra, though its shoulder height is surpassed by the markhor. Siberian ibexes are large and heavily built goats, although sizes vary greatly. Males are between 88 and 110 cm in height, and weigh between 60 and 130 kg. Females are noticeably smaller, with heights between 67 and 92 cm, and weights between 34 and 56 kg, the nose is straight in profile, the neck short, and the back straight. The neck is particularly thick and muscular in males. Both sexes have beards, although the males beard is more pronounced, both sexes also possess a large scent gland, about 3 cm across, beneath the tail. The females horns are small, and grey-brown in colour. Those of fully-grown males are black and typically measure about 115 cm, both sexes have circular rings around their horns that represent annual growth, but males also have large transverse ridges along the front surface. The exact shape of the horns varies considerably between individuals, the colouration is also variable, from dark brown to light tan, with some reddish individuals. There is usually a stripe of darker hair down the centre of the back and onto the tail, the undersides are paler, and, in the winter, mature males becoming much darker with white patches. Females and infants are generally more bland in colour than the adult males, during the rut, the males spend considerable effort courting females, and they are often emaciated from lack of grazing by the time it ends. Courtship lasts for over 30 minutes, and consists of licking, ritualised postures, males compete for dominance during the rut, rearing up on their hind legs and clashing their horns together. Gestation lasts 170 to 180 days, and usually results in the birth of a kid, although twins occur in up to 14% of births. Newborn kids weigh about 3 kg, and grow rapidly during their first year, the horns are visible after about three to four weeks. They begin to eat grass as little as eight days after birth, but do not do so regularly until they are one month old. Males are sexually mature at eighteen months, but do not reach their adult size for nine years. Females first breed in their second year, males typically live for ten years in the wild, and females for up to seventeen years