Kentucky, officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state located in the east south-central region of the United States. Kentucky is one of four U. S. states constituted as a commonwealth, originally a part of Virginia, in 1792 Kentucky became the 15th state to join the Union. Kentucky is the 37th most extensive and the 26th most populous of the 50 United States, Kentucky is known as the Bluegrass State, a nickname based on the bluegrass found in many of its pastures due to the fertile soil. One of the regions in Kentucky is the Bluegrass Region in central Kentucky. In 1776, the counties of Virginia beyond the Appalachian Mountains became known as Kentucky County, the precise etymology of the name is uncertain, but likely based on an Iroquoian name meaning the meadow or the prairie. Kentucky is situated in the Upland South, a significant portion of eastern Kentucky is part of Appalachia. Kentucky borders seven states, from the Midwest and the Southeast, West Virginia lies to the east, Virginia to the southeast, Tennessee to the south, Missouri to the west and Indiana to the northwest, and Ohio to the north and northeast.
Only Missouri and Tennessee, both of which border eight states, touch more, Kentuckys northern border is formed by the Ohio River and its western border by the Mississippi River. The official state borders are based on the courses of the rivers as they existed when Kentucky became a state in 1792, for instance, northbound travelers on U. S.41 from Henderson, after crossing the Ohio River, will be in Kentucky for about two miles. Ellis Park, a racetrack, is located in this small piece of Kentucky. Waterworks Road is part of the land border between Indiana and Kentucky. Kentucky has a part known as Kentucky Bend, at the far west corner of the state. It exists as an exclave surrounded completely by Missouri and Tennessee, Road access to this small part of Kentucky on the Mississippi River requires a trip through Tennessee. The epicenter of the powerful 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes was near this area, much of the outer Bluegrass is in the Eden Shale Hills area, made up of short and very narrow hills.
The Jackson Purchase and western Pennyrile are home to several bald cypress/tupelo swamps, located within the southeastern interior portion of North America, Kentucky has a climate that can best be described as a humid subtropical climate. Temperatures in Kentucky usually range from daytime summer highs of 87 °F to the low of 23 °F. The average precipitation is 46 inches a year, Kentucky experiences four distinct seasons, with substantial variations in the severity of summer and winter. The highest recorded temperature was 114 °F at Greensburg on July 28,1930 while the lowest recorded temperature was −37 °F at Shelbyville on January 19,1994, due to its location, Kentucky has a moderate humid subtropical climate, with abundant rainfall
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Stephen Bishop (cave explorer)
Stephen Bishop was a mixed race slave famous for being one of the lead explorers and guides to the Mammoth Cave in the U. S. state of Kentucky. Bishop was introduced to Mammoth Cave in 1838 by his owner, Franklin Gorin, Gorin wrote, after Bishops death, I placed a guide in the cave --- the celebrated and great Stephen, and he aided in making the discoveries. He was the first person who crossed the Bottomless Pit. After Stephen crossed the Bottomless Pit, we discovered all that part of the now known beyond that point. He had a genius, a great fund of wit and humor, some little knowledge of Latin and Greek, and much knowledge of geology. Bishops tour outfit was a slouch hat, a green jacket. In his spare time he explored and named large areas, doubling the known map in a year and he began the naming tradition of the cave, using half-homespun American, half-classical terms. He discovered strange blind fish, silent crickets, in 1852, Bishop guided Nathaniel Parker Willis to Echo River. Willis said he is very picturesque.
part mulatto and part Indian, with more of the physiognomy of a Spaniard, with masses of black hair, curling slightly and gracefully, and his long mustache, giving quite an appearance. He is of size, but built for an athlete. With broad chest and shoulders, narrow hips and legs slightly bowed, Mammoth Cave is a wonder in which draws good society and Stephen shows that he is used to it. After he had already explored all that had previously been discovered and he knew there was more out there, but there was a limit to how far the more experienced guides would go. The farthest anyone had been in the cave was to the bottomless pit, none would dare venture near the pit for fear of being lost forever in its depths. Bishop was brave and his curiosity was greater than his fear, along with a guest who was equally as curious and daring as Bishop, the two men journeyed to the pit. With the help of an old ladder found nearby, they laid it across the mouth of the pit. What the two men discovered opened up a new part of the cave.
A short way further from the pit Bishop discovered a river and this was the first body of water that had ever been encountered in the cave. As he explored the river he found eyeless fish, something no one had ever heard about at this time
Kentucky Route 70
Kentucky Route 70 is a long east-east state highway that originates at a junction with U. S. Route 60 in Smithland in Livingston County, just east of the Ohio River. Kentucky Route 70 begins in the Livingston County seat of Smithland, Kentucky and it travels eastward to a junction with KY866, and reaches a dead end at Tiline, along the Cumberland River. KY70 does not connect from there to Dycusburg, not since the service at that point was discontinued in 1951. KY70 returns to life at Dycusburg, on the Crittenden County side of the river, KY295 ends at that same point. KY70 moves on to join US Route 641 and Kentucky Route 91 in southern Crittenden County, KY70 and 91 departs from US641, and the two state routes split not too long after. Highway 91 goes southeast for Princeton, while KY70 continues due east to go through mainly rural sections of northern Caldwell County, KY70 crosses the Tradewater River into Hopkins County. It intersects }KY109 at Beulah, and reaches Madisonville and it gets co-signed with U. S.
Route 41 in downtown Madisonville before breaking off and traverses the Exit 114 interchange of Interstate 69 on the east side. It intersects KY85 just east of town before KY70 enters Muhlenberg County, in Central City, US431 and KY70 both meet US Route 62, and traverse the exit 58 interchange of the Wendell H. Ford Western Kentucky Parkway. That interchange was a toll booth site until the 1987 discontinuation of the WK Parkways toll plazas. The concurrently running US431 and KY70 continues southeastward from Central City through the intersection of KY176 in Drakesboro, much of US 431s concurrency with KY70 is designated as part of a Kentucky Scenic Byway. KY70 breaks off from US431 at that point south of Drakesboro, steam from the Tennessee Valley Authoritys Paradise Coal-firing plant can be seen from the highway between Drakesboro and Rochester. In Butler County, Kentucky Route 70 intersects KY369 while going through Rochester and it intersects Kentucky Route 106 not too far southeast of there, and would go on to the communities of South Hill and Dunbar.
Not too far east of Dunbar, KY70 intersects KY1468, the route intersects the Exit 29 interchange of the Natcher Parkway. That intersection opened during the 1999-2000 fiscal year, between the Natcher Parkway and US 231/KY79, KY70 is known as Veterans Way and runs concurrently with US231 Truck and KY79 Truck. KY70 runs concurrently with U. S. Route 231 and Kentucky Route 79 from Morgantown, in Aberdeen, KY70 actually departs US231 a little bit after KY79 does. KY70 intersects KY79 for a time, continuing east from Aberdeen through Jetson, and Roundhill. After the intersection with KY185, KY70 immediately enters Edmonson County, KY70 rolls onward towards the communities of Huff and Windyville. It meets KY259, and KY70 and 259 run concurrently to cross the Green River at Brownsville and this is KY 70s second crossing of the Green River