Category:Marine fauna of North Africa
Pages in category "Marine fauna of North Africa"
The following 40 pages are in this category, out of 40 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 40 pages are in this category, out of 40 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Smoothback angelshark – The smoothback angelshark is an angel shark of the family Squatinidae found in the eastern Atlantic between latitudes 47°N and 28°S. Its length is up to 1.6 metre and it is fished for off the African coast, and is depleted in the Mediterranean. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds, morey, G. Serena, F. Mancusi, C. Coelho, R. Seisay, M. Litvinov, F. & Dulvy, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list
2. European bass – The European seabass is a primarily ocean-going fish that sometimes enters brackish and fresh waters. It is also known as the sea dace, highly regarded as a table fish, it is often marketed as Mediterranean seabass, loup de mer, robalo, lubina, spigola, branzino, or bronzino. Debate has been ferocious in Britain in recent years as to the origin of the word seabass, the traditional word was bass, but that has changed with the recent popularity of cooking programmes and the expansion of restaurant marketing, both of which have adopted the phrase seabass. Thus, the distinction is valid in a European context, the European bass is a member of the Moronidae family. The name Dicentrarchus derives from the presence of two spines, although there may be even three. It has silver sides and a white belly, juvenile fish maintain black spots on the back and sides, a feature that can create confusion with Dicentrarchus punctatus. This fishs operculum is serrated and spined and it can grow to a total length over 1 m and 15 kg of weight. Branzino is the name of the fish in Northern Italy, with branzini as the plural, in parts of Italy. In Spain, where it is farmed, the fish is called lubina or róbalo, in Portugal, it is called robalo. In France, the fish is called bar commun along the Atlantic coast and it is called llobarro in Catalonia. The Turks refer to the fish as levrek, the countries of former Yugoslavia use a name similar to that used by their Italian neighbors across the Adriatic, the brancin. In Greek, the name of this fish is lavraki. In Greek cuisine, the fish can be prepared in a variety of ways and is considered a delicacy. Greek journalists use the word to refer to high-value exclusive news stories. Its habitats include estuaries, lagoons, coastal waters, and rivers and it is mostly a night hunter, feeding on small fish, polychaetes, cephalopods, and crustaceans. They spawn from March to June, mostly in inshore waters, as fry they are pelagic, but as they develop they move into estuaries, where they stay for a year or two. Annual catches of wild European seabass are relatively modest, having fluctuated between 8,500 and 11,900 tonnes in 2000–2009, most of the reported catches originate from the Atlantic Ocean, with France typically reporting the highest catches. In the Mediterranean, Italy used to report the largest catches, the fish has come under increasing pressure from commercial fishing and has recently become the focus in the United Kingdom of a conservation effort by recreational anglers
3. Black goby – The black goby is a species of ray-finned fish found in the Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea. It inhabits estuaries, lagoons, and inshore water over seagrass and it feeds on a variety of invertebrates and sometimes small fish. This species can also be found in the aquarium trade and this fish reaches a maximum length of 18 centimetres TL. This fishs neck is scaled and both of its fins have a black spot on the front end. The black goby is deeper-bodied than the common goby, sand goby and two-spotted goby with a rounded snout. It has two dorsal fins that are almost continuous, the one having six spines, which may project from the fin membrane. The posterior dorsal fin terminates close to the peduncle in contrast to the common. The colour is some shade of brown with indistinct black blotches. The colour of the male becomes almost black during the breeding season, the average size of this fish is about 5 to 7 cm The black goby is native to shallow waters in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. Its range extends from Cape Blanc in Mauritania to Trondheim in Norway and its typical habitat is lagoons, estuaries and inshore waters, on sandy or muddy bottoms and among seagrasses and seaweeds, and it occasionally moves into fresh water. The black goby feeds on invertebrates on the seabed. It breeds in the summer at which time the male creates a territory in a shallow weedy area and he invites the female to inspect it and if she approves, she lays her eggs there and the male guards them until they hatch
4. Blackmouth catshark – The blackmouth catshark is a species of catshark, and part of the family Scyliorhinidae, common in the northeastern Atlantic Ocean from Iceland to Senegal, including the Mediterranean Sea. It is typically found over the slope at depths of 150–1,400 m. The youngest sharks generally inhabit shallower water than the older juveniles and it reaches lengths of 50–79 cm, with sharks in the Atlantic growing larger than those in the Mediterranean. Slow-swimming but active, the blackmouth catshark is a generalist that preys on a variety of crustaceans, cephalopods. Its visual and electroreceptive systems are adept at tracking moving, bioluminescent prey and this species is oviparous, with females producing batches of up to 13 egg cases throughout the year. Because of its abundance, the blackmouth catshark forms a part of the bycatch of deepwater commercial fisheries across much of its range. It has low economic value and is discarded, though the largest sharks may be marketed for meat. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has listed this species under Least Concern and this species may also be called the black-mouthed dogfish. The oldest documented blackmouth catshark fossils come from the northern Apennines and it occurs throughout the Mediterranean Sea, save for the northern waters of the Adriatic and Aegean Seas, and is absent from the Black Sea. This species primarily inhabits the continental slope, at depths of 150–1,400 m, however, it has been documented from water as shallow as 20–25 m in Norway, and as deep as 2, 300–3,850 m in the eastern Mediterranean. Water temperature does not appear to be an important factor in determining the distribution of this species, found on or near the bottom, the blackmouth catshark favors a muddy habitat. There is little evidence for segregation by sex, a number of studies in the northern and western Mediterranean have reported that adults occur deeper than juveniles. Other studies though have no such pattern. It is possible that such as the waters off southern France offer a habitat suitable for sharks of all ages. If true, the age-depth inconsistencies observed from previous research could have resulted from incomplete depth sampling. The reported maximum lengths attained by the blackmouth catshark varies from 67 to 79 cm for Atlantic sharks and 50 to 64 cm for Mediterranean sharks, females attain a larger ultimate size than males. The maximum weight on record is 1.4 kg and this species has a slender, firm body with a rather long, pointed snout comprising roughly 6–9% of the total length. The anterior rim of each nostril bears a triangular flap
5. Small-spotted catshark – The small-spotted catshark, also known as the lesser-spotted dogfish, Rough-hound, or Morgay, is a catshark of the family Scyliorhinidae. It can grow up to a length of 1 m, the majority of the populations are stable in most areas. S. canicula are small, shallow-water sharks with a slender body, the two dorsal fins are located towards the tail end of the body. The texture of their skin is rough, similar to the coarseness of sandpaper, the nostrils are located on the underside of the snout and are connected to the mouth by a curved groove. The upper side of the body is grayish-brown with dark brown spots, the underside is a light greyish-white color. The teeth of S. canicula are larger in males than in females, in addition, male S. canicula from West African waters have stronger, larger and they deposit egg cases protected by a horny capsule with long tendrils. Egg cases are deposited on macroalgae in shallow coastal waters. When the egg cases are deposited farther from shore, they are placed on sessile erect invertebrates, egg cases usually measure 4 cm by 2 cm, without ever exceeding 6 cm. These egg cases can be found around the coasts of Europe, the embryos develop for 5–11 months depending on the sea temperature, and the young are born with a measurement of 9–10 cm. Spawning can take place almost year round, however, there can be seasonal patterns in spawning activity as well. For example, S. canicula females located off the Mediterranean coast of France lay their eggs from March to June, in the waters surrounding Great Britain, egg laying occurs in spring with a gap between August and October. On the Tunisian coast, the lay their eggs starting in spring, peaking in the summer. Males reach sexual maturity with a length of about 37. 1-48.8 cm, females reach sexual maturity with a length of 36. 4-46.7 cm. S. canicula is an opportunistic species, preying on a wide variety of organisms. Decapod crustaceans, mollusks, and fishes are their main prey, dietary preferences change with age, younger animals prefer small crustaceans, while older animals prefer hermit crabs and mollusks. Feeding intensity is highest during the due to the higher availability of prey life. Diet composition varies with body size, there are no significant differences in feeding habits between male and female S. canicula. Use of dermal denticles to assist in feeding was first documented in this species, S. canicula is well-suited for comparative analysis of gastrulation for several reasons. Fertilization is internal, but eggs are laid at early stages of development, once laid, they can go on developing normally in the laboratory, simply in oxygenated seawater
6. Comber (fish) – Comber, is a species of fish in the family Serranidae. It lives in the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Atlantic coast from the British Isles to the Cape of Good Hope, including the Azores, Madeira, the habitat are rocky or sandy sounding-deeps at depths of 0–200 metres. Size can vary from 5–25 centimetres in normal individual to up to 40 cm, the comber feeds on other fish, cephalopods and crustaceans
7. Painted comber – The painted comber is a subtropical marine fish, classified in family Serranidae, the groupers and sea basses. It is found in the eastern Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, confusingly, a synonym of this species is Perca marina, but that name has incorrectly been used for a separate species, the rose fish. Serranus scriba grows to a length of 28 centimetres and this grouper has a squat body, a large head and a mouth very large in proportion to the body size. Jaws are filled with sharp teeth, the painted comber is orange to red in color with bluish to dark brown vertical stripes that are wider and darker towards the tail. The caudal fin is yellow to orange, the dorsal fins are yellow with orange dots. The pelvic fins and pectoral fins are usually light yellow. The head shows many lines that resemble Arabic writing. On both sides of the abdomen there is a large, bright blue area, Serranus scriba spends much of its time in rocky caves. It is usually solitary or in small groups and it comes out of hiding around dusk to feed on various crustaceans, fishes, and worms. These fish are hermaphrodites and can fertilize themselves, spawning is seasonal and controlled by the moons phase. The painted comber has minor commercial value, and, much like other species of Serranus, is considered to have tasty flesh, as most fish species, the painted comber harbours internal and external parasites. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds
8. European conger – The European conger is a species of conger of the family Congridae. It is the largest eel in the world and native to the northeast Atlantic, European congers have an average adult length of 1. Average specimens caught will weigh only 2.5 to 25 kg, females, with an average length at sexual maturity of 2 m, are much larger than males, with an average length at sexual maturity of 1.2 m. The body is long, anguilliform, without scales. The colour is grey, but can also be blackish. A row of white spots is aligned along the lateral line. The head is almost conical, and slightly depressed, the snout is rounded and prominent, with lateral olfactory holes. The large gill openings are in the lateral position, the conical teeth are arranged in rows on the jaws. The dorsal and anal fins are confluent with caudal fin, pectoral fins are present, while ventral fins are absent. Conger eels have similar to moray eels. They usually live amongst rocks in holes, or eel pits and they come out from their holes at night to hunt. These nocturnal predators mainly feed on fish, cephalopods, and crustaceans, although they are thought to scavenge on dead and rotting fish and it is sometimes seen in very shallow water by the shore, but can also go down to 1,170 m. It is usually present on rough, rocky, broken ground, conger eels then stop feeding and leave European waters and make the long migration to the subtropical areas of the Atlantic, such as the Sargasso Sea. Once in this area, they spawn, with the female producing 3 to 8 million eggs, once hatched, the larval conger eels begin to swim back to European waters, where they live until they reach maturity and then begin to migrate to repeat the cycle
9. Spiny dogfish – The spiny dogfish, spurdog, mud shark, or piked dogfish is one of the best known species of the Squalidae family of sharks, which is part of the Squaliformes order. While these common names may apply to species, Squalus acanthias is distinguished by having two spines and lacks an anal fin. It is found mostly in waters and further offshore in most parts of the world. Spiny dogfish in the northern Pacific Ocean have recently been reevaluated and found to constitute a species, now known as Pacific spiny dogfish. The spiny dogfish has dorsal spines, no anal fin, the caudal fin has asymmetrical lobes, forming a heterocercal tail. The species name refers to the sharks two spines. If captured, the shark can arch its back to pierce its captor, glands at the base of the spines secrete a mild venom. Males mature at around 11 years of age, growing to 80–100 cm in length, females mature in 18–21 years and are larger than males. Both sexes are brown in color and are countershaded. Males are identified by a pair of pelvic fins modified as sperm-transfer organs, the male inserts one clasper into the female cloaca during copulation. Reproduction is aplacental viviparous, which was before called ovoviviparity, the male inserts one clasper into the female oviduct orifice and injects sperm along a groove on the claspers dorsal section. Immediately following fertilization, the eggs are surrounded by thin shells called candles with one candle usually surrounding several eggs, mating takes place in the winter months with gestation lasting 22–24 months. Litters range between 2 and 11 but average 6 or 7, spiny dogfish are bottom-dwellers They are commonly found at depths of around 50-149m, but have been found deeper than 700m. Life span is estimated to be up to 100 years and their period is 18 to 24 months. Spiny dogfish are fished for food in Europe, the United States, Canada, New Zealand, the meat is primarily consumed in England, France, the Benelux countries and Germany. The fins and tails are processed into fin needles and are used in less expensive versions of shark fin soup in Chinese cuisine. In England this and other dogfish are sold in fish and chip shops as rock salmon or huss, in France it is sold as salmon and in Belgium. Reported catches in 2000–2009 varied between 13,800 and 31,700 tonnes, bottom trawlers and sink gillnets are the primary equipment used to harvest spiny dogfish