Karl Marx was a Prussian-born philosopher, economist, sociologist, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. Born in Trier to a family, he later studied political economy. His work has influenced subsequent intellectual, economic, and political history. These economic critiques were set out in works such as the three volumes, published between 1867 and 1894, that comprise Das Kapital. According to Marx, states are run in the interests of the class but are nonetheless represented as being in favor of the common interest of all. He predicted that, like previous socioeconomic systems, capitalism produced internal tensions which would lead to its self-destruction and replacement by a new system, socialism. Marx actively fought for its implementation, arguing that the class should carry out organised revolutionary action to topple capitalism. Marx has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history and his work in economics laid the basis for much of the current understanding of labour and its relation to capital, and subsequent economic thought. Many intellectuals, labour unions, artists and political parties worldwide have been influenced by Marxs work, Marx is typically cited as one of the principal architects of modern sociology and social science. Karl Marx was born on 5 May 1818 to Heinrich Marx and he was born at Brückengasse 664 in Trier, a town then part of the Kingdom of Prussias Province of the Lower Rhine. Marx was ancestrally Jewish, his grandfather was a Dutch rabbi, while his paternal line had supplied Triers rabbis since 1723. Marx was also a cousin once removed of German Romantic poet Heinrich Heine, also born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland. Largely non-religious, Heinrich was a man of the Enlightenment, interested in the ideas of the philosophers Immanuel Kant, a classical liberal, he took part in agitation for a constitution and reforms in Prussia, then governed by an absolute monarchy. In 1815 Heinrich Marx began work as an attorney, in 1819 moving his family to a property near the Porta Nigra. Her sister Sophie Pressburg, was Marxs aunt and was married to Lion Philips Marxs uncle through this marriage, Lion Philips was a wealthy Dutch tobacco manufacturer and industrialist, upon whom Karl and Jenny Marx would later often come to rely for loans while they were exiled in London. Little is known of Karl Marxs childhood, the third of nine children, he became the oldest son when his brother Moritz died in 1819. Young Karl was baptised into the Lutheran Church in August 1824 along with his siblings, Sophie, Hermann, Henriette, Louise, Emilie. Young Karl was privately educated, by Heinrich Marx, until 1830, by employing many liberal humanists as teachers, Wyttenbach incurred the anger of the local conservative government
Willem Drees, Sr. was a Dutch politician of the Labour Party. He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 7 August 1948 until 22 December 1958 and he served as Member of the House of Representatives from May 9,1933 until June 24,1945. He served again a short periode as a Member of the House of Representatives, after the Dutch general election of 1948, Drees became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, leading the Cabinets Drees-Van Schaik, Drees I, Drees II and Drees III. After his premiership, Drees retired from active politics and he was already seventy-two and second oldest person who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands after Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, who died in office at the age of seventy-four. On December 22,1958 he was granted the title of Minister of State. He remained an active observer of Dutch politics, publishing a substantial number of books. Willem Drees died on May 14,1988 at the age of 101 years,314 days and he is praised by many as the most important Dutch politician after World War II for his important contributions and social reforms laws. Drees was chosen as the best Prime Minister of the Netherlands after World War II after an opinion polling conducted by the VPRO in 2006, Willem Drees was born in Amsterdam on July 5,1886. After completing his education in 1903 he worked until 1906 for the Twentsche Bank in Amsterdam. This was followed by a period as a stenographer with the Municipal Council of Amsterdam, in 1904 he joined the Social Democratic Workers Party, which later was absorbed into the Labour Party in 1946. From 1910 to 1931 he was chairman of The Hague branch of the Social Democratic Workers Party, during that period he was alderman for social affairs from 1919 to 1931 and for finance and public works through to 1933. For 22 years between 1919 and 1941 Drees also held a seat on the Provincial Council of South Holland and for 19 years between 1927 and 1946 one on the Social Democratic Workers Party executive. From August 7,1948 to December 22,1958 he was Prime Minister of the Netherlands in four successive cabinets Drees I, Drees II, Drees III and Drees IV. When his Cabinet broke up in December 1958, he was appointed to the position of Minister of State. Due to impaired hearing he stopped attending its meetings in 1966 and he strongly disagreed with New Left tendencies in the membership and strategies of the Dutch Labour Party. He eventually gave up membership of a party he had served for close to 67 years, a wide range of social reforms were carried out durings Drees tenure as prime minister. A law of August 1950 established equal rights for illegitimate children, in 1950, works councils were established, and in 1957 the dismissal of female civil servants upon marriage was abolished. In the field of housing, the Implementation for Rent Act fixed rents and rent increases, while the Regional, in addition, the Reconstruction Act of 1950 established housebuilding programmes, and legislation was passed on house building standards, the uniformity of buildings, and uniform building standards
Moses Max Beer was an Austrian-born Marxist journalist, economist, and historian. Moses Beer, known to all by the nickname Max, was born August 10,1864 in the town of Tarnobrzeg, Galicia. He was of ethnic Jewish heritage, Beers father, Nathan Beer, worked as a kosher butcher. As a young boy Beer was educated in a Jewish Cheder and he finished his secondary education at the age of 15 and then spent a year learning French, with a view to working as a tutor. In May 1889 Beer moved to Germany, settling in Remscheid and he developed radical political views, however, and moved to Leipzig in 1892 where he began to make the acquaintance of various leaders of the socialist movement. He shortly relocated in Magdeburg where he became assistant editor of the Magdeburger Volksstimme, Beer was convicted of these charges and sentenced to 14 months in prison. In June 1894 Beer emigrated to Great Britain and he studied at the London School of Economics from 1895 to 1896, gaining an interest in the emerging intellectual topic of imperialism. He left school to resume his career, covering the controversial French treason case against Alfred Dreyfus for the press. Following his stint in Paris, Beer emigrated again, this time to the United States, Beer also wrote for the Encyclopaedia Judaica in this interval. In 1901 Vorwäerts lost its London correspondent, Eduard Bernstein, who returned home to Germany and he would remain in that position until 1911. Beer left his place at the Vorwäerts to pursue more scholastic writing and he signed a contract to produce a history of British socialism in the German language, a book which was published in 1913. The coming of World War I made Beers position in Great Britain untenable, back in Germany he worked as a translator for the German central trade union organization and as a freelance journalist. In 1919 Beer was named as editor of Die Glocke, a socialist periodical owned by Alexander Parvus and he would remain in that position until 1921. During the next years, Beer would author a biography of Karl Marx. Written in German, these works would be published in translation into English and other languages, in 1927 Beer was invited to Moscow to work at the Marx-Engels Institute by that facilitys director, David Ryazanov. Beer would remain in the Soviet Union through 1928, upon his return to Germany, Beer became active in the German Communist Party. He lived in the city of Frankfurt am Main, where he worked at the Institut fur Sozialforschung, when the Nazis took power in Germany in 1933, Beer fled to London, where he would remain for the rest of his life. Beer was naturalized as a British citizen in 1939, Max Beer died of tuberculosis in London on April 30,1943
Edvard Bull Sr.
Edvard Bull was a Norwegian historian and politician for the Labour Party. He took the doctorate in 1912 and became a professor at the University of Kristiania in 1917, in addition to his academic work, he is known for his work on Norsk biografisk leksikon. His Marxist leanings inspired him to take up a political career. Situated on the wing in the 1910s, he was among the architects as the Labour Party denounced the Twenty-one Conditions in 1923. He was the deputy party leader from 1923 to 1932, and he was born in Kristiania as the son of chief physician Edvard Isak Hambro Bull and his wife Ida Marie Sofie Paludan. He was a brother of theatre director Johan Peter Bull, literary professor Francis Bull, in July 1909 he married Lucie Juliane Antonette Voss. Their son Edvard Bull, Jr. became a notable historian, Bull finished his secondary education in 1899, and studied in classical philology, geography and history at the University of Kristiania. He graduated in 1906 with the cand. mag, degree—by that time he had already published his first academic work. A study trip in Germany and France from 1906 to 1907 spurred his interest of medieval Catholicism and he planned on writing a larger work incorporating church history. He released the paper Bods- og skriftevæsenet i den norske kirke i middelalderen in 1909, studier til Norges historie in 1912. The work earned him the dr. philos and he had been employed as a research fellow at the University of Kristiania since 1910, and became a lecturer in 1913. In 1917 he succeeded the deceased Ernst Sars as a professor, although he wrote several publications on miscellaneous European history, his main contribution was on Norwegian history. His main work in the field, volume two of Det norske folks liv og historie, was published as late as 1931, the study of old agricultural societies also led him on a path of local history. In 1914 and 1918 he published the two-volume Akers historie, on the history of Aker, Bull was also known as a co-editor of the biographical dictionary Norsk biografisk leksikon, the first volume of which was released by the publishing house Aschehoug in 1923. Bull was well-known at Aschehoug, having contributed to its periodical Samtiden. Long-time Samtiden editor Gerhard Gran was the second co-editor, the third was Anders Krogvig, following the early deaths of Gran and Krogvig, Einar Jansen was brought in to assist Bull. Bull was also a consultant for the Norwegian Nobel Committee from 1914 to 1918, from 1927 to 1932 he chaired the Norwegian Historical Association. Despite influences from Karl Lamprecht and Werner Sombart, Bull clearly drew most of his inspiration from Karl Marx historical materialism, publications in this vein include Karl Marx and Den russiske arbeider- og bonderevolution