The Matterhorn is a mountain of the Alps, straddling the main watershed and border between Switzerland and Italy. It is a huge and near-symmetrical pyramidal peak in the extended Monte Rosa area of the Pennine Alps, whose summit is 4,478 metres high, making it one of the highest summits in the Alps and Europe. The four steep faces, rising above the glaciers, face the four compass points and are split by the Hörnli, Leone. The mountain overlooks the Swiss town of Zermatt in the canton of Valais to the north-east, just east of the Matterhorn is Theodul Pass, the main passage between the two valleys on its north and south sides and a trade route since the Roman Era. The Matterhorn was studied by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the eighteenth century. It remained unclimbed after most of the other great Alpine peaks had been attained, the first ascent of the Matterhorn was finally made in 1865 from Zermatt by a party led by Edward Whymper but ended disastrously when four of its members fell to their deaths on the descent.
That climb and disaster, portrayed in films, marked the end of the golden age of alpinism. The north face was not climbed until 1931, and is amongst the three biggest north faces of the Alps, known as the ‘The Trilogy’, the west face, which is the highest of the four, was completely climbed only in 1962. It is estimated that over 500 alpinists have died on the Matterhorn since the first climb in 1865, making it one of the deadliest peaks in the world. The current shape of the mountain is the result of erosion due to multiple glaciers diverging from the peak, such as the Matterhorn Glacier at the base of the north face. Sometimes referred to as the Mountain of Mountains, the Matterhorn has become an emblem of the Swiss Alps. Since the end of the 19th century, when railways were built in the area, each year a large number of mountaineers try to climb the Matterhorn from the Hörnli Hut via the northeast Hörnli ridge, the most popular route to the summit. Many trekkers undertake the 10-day-long circuit around the mountain, the Matterhorn is part of the Swiss Federal Inventory of Natural Monuments since 1983.
Decomposing Matterhorn yields Matter and Horn, here Matter is Matte in the case. Commonly, prepositions related to Zermatt are dropped as in Matterhorn, Mattertal, in Sebastian Münsters Cosmography, published in 1543, the name Matter is given to the Theodul Pass, which seems to be the origin of the present German name of the mountain. On Münsters topographical map this group is marked under the names of Augstalberg, the French name Cervin, from which the Italian term Cervino derives, stems from the Latin Mons Silvanus where silva, means forest which was corrupted to Selvin and Servin. The change of the first letter s to c is attributed to Horace Bénédict de Saussure, servius Galba, in order to carry out Caesars orders, came with his legions from Allobroges to Octodurum in the Valais, and pitched his camp there. It is unknown when the new name of Servin, or Cervin, replaced the old, the Matterhorn is named Gran Becca by the Valdôtains and Horu by the local Walliser German speaking people
Third Man on the Mountain
Third Man on the Mountain is a 1959 American Walt Disney Productions film set during the golden age of alpinism about a young Swiss man who conquers the mountain that killed his father. It is based on Banner in the Sky, a James Ramsey Ullman novel about the first ascent of the Citadel, the movie inspired the Matterhorn Bobsleds attraction at Disneyland Park. The film was shot in the summer of 1958 in Zermatt, the studio portions of the film were done in London. The extraordinary difficulty of making film on the Matterhorn was chronicled in the Perilous Assignments episode of Walt Disney Presents. The musical score for Third Man on the Mountain was composed by William Alwyn, list of American films of 1959 Official website Third Man on the Mountain at the Internet Movie Database Third Man on the Mountain at the TCM Movie Database
The Matterhorn Bobsleds are a pair of intertwined steel roller coasters at Disneyland in Anaheim, California. It is modelled after the Matterhorn, a mountain in the Alps on the border with Switzerland and it is the first tubular steel continuous track roller coaster known. Located on the border between Tomorrowland and Fantasyland, it employs forced perspective to seem more impressively large, during the construction of the park, dirt from the excavation of Sleeping Beauty Castles moat was piled in an area between Fantasyland and Tomorrowland. When the park opened, the area, dubbed Holiday Hill, was improved with benches, in this period, the hill began to be known as Snow Hill. By now, instead of picnicking, the hill had come to be used primarily as a lovers lane. The structure was intended to act as a decorative overlay to camouflage the central pylon of the Skyway. Use of the Matterhorn, both in style and name, grew from Disneys extended vacation in Switzerland while filming Third Man on the Mountain.
This resulted in the merger of the toboggan ride concept with the thoughts of a coaster ride that would run around. The peak was first shown in a drawing that was once on display at The Disney Gallery. The view to the northwest shows a corner of the now-defunct Junior Autopia, one of three major new Tomorrowland attractions to open that year, the Matterhorn debuted on June 14,1959. Built by coaster builder Arrow Development and WED Imagineering, it was the first tubular steel coaster in the world. It consisted of a wood and steel infrastructure surrounded by man-made rock, trees could be seen on its sides, by making the trees at higher altitudes smaller, the Imagineers used forced perspective to augment the mountains height. Waterfalls cascaded down its sides and frequently sprayed riders, inside was a large, open space through which the bobsleds traveled. The Skyway passed through the center of the mountain via a pair of holes on the Fantasyland and Tomorrowland sides, Skyway riders could see down into the Matterhorns interior as they glided through.
In the early 1970s, the ride was made a part of Fantasyland. In 1978, the Matterhorn received a major refurbishment, most notably, the hollow interior space was broken up into a number of small, icy caves and tunnels with far more convincing theming. Some holes in the skin were filled in as well. Another major addition was a snowman, who had taken up residence in the mountain and was affectionately named Harold by the Imagineers
Second ascent of the Matterhorn
The second ascent of the Matterhorn was accomplished in July 1865, only three days after the successful expedition led by Edward Whymper on the Zermatt side. The second was effected on the Italian side by Jean-Antoine Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich with the abbé Amé Gorret, the party started from Breuil on 16 July and reached the top the following day. The successful ascent followed a series of attempts that took place on the southwest ridge of the Matterhorn. The Italian side was considered easier than the Swiss side but despite appearances, the routes were harder. On the first fine day they began their work, and about midday on the 14th got on to the Shoulder, the counsels of the party were divided. Two —Jean-Antoine Carrel and Joseph Maquignaz wished to go on, the others were not eager about it, a discussion took place, and the result was they all commenced to descend, and whilst upon the cravate they heard Whymper and others crying from the summit. Upon the 15th they went down to Breuil and reported their ill-success to Giordano, wrote the latter in his diary, dating the entry the 15th.
Early in the morning Carrel, more dead than alive, came to me he had been forestalled. He had reckoned on climbing to the top today, and expected to be able to force a passage not by the highest tower, which he considers impossible, but on the Zmutt side, where the snow is. I have decided that he and others shall at least try and ascend, so Giordano attempted to recruit men from Breuil to make another attempt. He was in a most unfavourable position, he was at any rate uncertain whether the last bit was passable, the men who had been with Carrel steadily refused to try again, as if they were overcome with terror of the mountain. The guides replies were most discouraging but the abbé Amé Gorret came forward, the latter accepted the volunteer, and thus two of those who, eight years before, had taken the first steps towards climbing the Matterhorn, were together in the last attempt. Carrel and Gorret would have set out by themselves had not Jean-Baptiste Bich, for his own credit, desired Carrel to state as much in writing.
At the end of the day he makes the note in his pocket-book, Walked a mile. A very bad night with fever, on Sunday, the 16th, after hearing mass at the chapel of Breuil, the party started. Giordano was left sad and lonely at Breuil, I have once more made the great sacrifice of waiting at the foot of the peak instead of climbing it, he wrote in another letter to Sella, and I assure you that this has been most painful to me. The four men, having left Breuil at 6.30 a. m. arrived at the third tent platform at 1 a. m. and there passed the night. The passage of the cleft that separates the Pic Tyndall from the peak, named the enjambée
Pic Tyndall is a minor summit below the Matterhorn in the Pennine Alps, on the boundary between Aosta Valley and Switzerland. Because of its small prominence it was included in the enlarged list of alpine four-thousanders and it was named in honour of John Tyndall who made the first ascent. Pic Tyndall was not considered as a goal in itself but it was located on the Lion ridge and its summit was effectively reached during one of those attempts by John Tyndall accompanied by his guides Johann Joseph Bennen and Walter. Jean-Antoine Carrel and César Carrel were engaged as porters, the five men started from Breuil on July 27,1863. A wooden ladder, which Tyndall had taken him, helped them over the most difficult passage. They could not go any higher than Pic Tyndall since the cleft that separated it from the peak of the Matterhorn, named the enjambée. It was at the time, the highest altitude reached by man on the Matterhorn, John Tyndall wrote, We reached the first summit, and planted a flag upon it.
The same thought had probably brooded in other minds, still it angered me slightly to hear misgiving obtain audible expression, from the point on which we planted our first flagstaff a hacked and extremely acute ridge ran, and abutted against the final precipice. Along this we moved cautiously, while the face of the precipice came clearer and clearer into view, the ridge on which we stood ran right against it, it was the only means of approach, while ghastly abysses fell on either side. We sat down, and inspected the place, no glass was needed, three out of the four men muttered almost simultaneously, It is impossible. Bennen was the man of the four who did not utter the word. A jagged stretch of the ridge still separated us from the precipice, I pointed to a spot at some distance from the place where we sat, and asked the three doubters whether that point might not be reached without much danger. We think so, was the reply and we reached the place, and sat down there. The men again muttered despairingly, and at length they said distinctly, I by no means wished to put on pressure, but directing their attention to a point at the base of the precipice, I asked them whether they could not reach that point without much risk.
Then, I said, let us go there and we moved cautiously along, and reached the point aimed at. The ridge was here split by a cleft which separated it from the final precipice. So savage a spot I had never seen, and I sat down upon it with the sickness of disappointed hope, the summit was within almost a stones throw of us, and the thought of retreat was bitter in the extreme. Bennen excitedly pointed out a track which he thought practicable and he spoke of danger, of difficulty, never of impossibility, but this was the ground taken by the other three men
The Matterhorn Glacier is a glacier of the Pennine Alps, located at the base of the north face of the Matterhorn, south of Zermatt. It has a width of approximately 2.5 km. The glacier lies within the basin of the Zmutt Glacier, in 1865, following the first ascent of the Matterhorn, four climbers died in a fall on the way down from the summit. Three of the dead were retrieved several days on the Matterhorn Glacier, but the remains of Lord Francis Douglas were never found
First ascent of the Matterhorn
Douglas, Hudson and Croz were killed on the descent when Hadow slipped and pulled the other three with him down the north face. The ascent followed a series of usually separate attempts by Edward Whymper. Carrels group had been 200 m below the summit on the Italian site when Croz, the climbers from Valtournenche withdrew deflated, but three days Carrel and Jean-Baptiste Bich reached the summit without incident. The Matterhorn was the last great Alpine peak to be climbed, in the summer of 1860, Edward Whymper, an athletic, twenty-year-old English artist, visited the Alps for the first time. He had been hired by a London publisher to make sketches and engravings of the mountains along the border of Switzerland. He was soon interested in mountaineering and decided to attempt the yet unconquered Matterhorn, Whymper soon found that Jean-Antoine Carrel, an Italian guide from the Valtournanche, had attempted to be the first to reach the summit of the Matterhorn since 1857. In 1865, weary of the defeats he had sustained on the south-west ridge, the stratification of the rocks on the east face seemed to him favourable, and the slope not excessive.
However, when route was attempted, the mountain discharged an avalanche of stone upon the climbers. His guides refused to make any attempts by this route. In the meantime Carrel had spoken with Whymper and had engaged himself for an attempt on the Swiss side, Carrel was engaged to the Englishman until Tuesday, the 11th, inclusive, if the weather were fine, but the weather turned bad and he was thus free. On the morning of the 9th, Whymper, as he was descending to Valtournanche, was surprised to meet Carrel with a traveler, who was coming up with a great deal of baggage. Whymper was unable to make his attempt, and Carrel left him and came with me. We immediately sent off our advance guard, with Carrel at its head, in order not to excite remark we took the rope and other materials to Avouil, a hamlet which is very remote and close to the Matterhorn, and this is to be our lower base. Out of six men, four are to work -up above, I have taken up my quarters at Breuil for the time being. The weather, the god whom we fear and on whom all will depend, has been hitherto very changeable, weather permitting, I hope in three or four days to know how I stand.
Carrel told me not to come up yet, until he should send me word, naturally he wishes to personally make sure of the last bits. As soon as I have any good news I will send a message to St. Vincent, the nearest telegraph office, with a telegram containing a few words, and do you come at once. Meanwhile, on receipt of the present, please me a few lines in reply, with some advice, because I am head over ears in difficulty here, what with the weather, the expense