Category:Medieval anti-Jewish pogroms
Pages in category "Medieval anti-Jewish pogroms"
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 15 pages are in this category, out of 15 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 1321 leper scare – The 1321 leper scare was an alleged conspiracy of French lepers to spread their disease by contaminating well water with their powders and poisons. Jews and Muslims were said to be implicated in the plot, the hysteria quickly spread to the neighbouring realms, most notably to the Kingdom of Aragon. The rumours of the conspiracy broke out in the spring of 1321, the rumours that sparked the violence in 1321 may have started here. While the Shepherds Crusade was led by rioters, the persecution of lepers was orchestrated by municipal authorities, King Philip was on a tour of the region when the stories started circulating. The Dominican inquisitor Bernard Gui was instructed to conduct extensive investigation, on 21 June, Philip ordered by edict that all lepers be imprisoned and examined under torture. Those found guilty were to be burnt at the stake, since their crimes were declared lèse-majesté, the lepers property was to be confiscated by the Crown, but this decision was successfully defied by his vassals. News of the plot spread rapidly to the neighbouring countries. King James learned of the conspiracy and associated violence almost immediately. Jamess cousin, King Sancho of Majorca, informed him of the situation in France by a letter dated 2 June, the French lepers fleeing the lash of justice, as James put it in a letter to his officials, were already seeking shelter in his realm. He cautiously commanded the arrest and expulsion of all leprous foreigners, by 27 June, James had changed his mind in favour of a harsher approach. Local inquisitions were set up in Manresa, Ejea de los Caballeros, Huesca, Montblanc, leper colonies were attacked and their goods seized, including the ancient leprosarium attached to the Church of Santa Maria de Cervera. A suspected leper was most likely examined and diagnosed with the disease by frightened lay people rather than experienced physicians. A year after the scare, a physician called Amonant decided to move from Gascony to Aragon, only to be apprehended in Huesca, the physician appealed to King Jamess son Alfons and was granted examination by local physicians, who confirmed that he was not infected. Frightened, he chose to nevertheless leave Aragon, the incident was probably one of many that helped promote medical diagnosis of leprosy. History of leprosy History of the Jews in France
2. Brussels massacre – The Brussels massacre was an anti-Semitic episode in Brussels in 1370 in connection with an alleged host desecration at the Brussels synagogue. A number of Jews, variously given as six or about twenty, were executed or otherwise killed, while the rest of the small community was banished. The event was commemorated by local Christians as the Sacrament of Miracle, as it was said that the desecrated hosts stabbed by a Jew had miraculously shed blood, the cult of the putative miracle survived until after the Second World War. Black Death Jewish persecutions had previously destroyed Brussels community in 1350, host desecration was a common anti-Semitic canard in medieval Europe, and the wafers the Jews were supposed to have tried to profane were often said to have been miraculously spared from harm. The clerical usury scandal in Brussels was the context of the accusations of host desecration. According to Premonstratensian historian Placide Lefèvre, contemporary records indicate that there were eight Jewish households in Brussels. Shortly thereafter, the Enghien merchant was murdered and his widow passed the stolen hosts to the Jews of Brussels, where in the synagogue on Good Friday 1370 some tried to stab the wafers with their daggers, causing blood to pour forth. The Duke of Brabant, on the testimony, ordered the stabbers burnt at the stake. The hosts were placed in reliquaries and preserved in the chapel of Saint Gudula, the saint of Brussels. They became a feature of the procession on her feast day. Ten stained-glass windows depicting the putative miracle were donated to the chapel in the 16th Century by Emperor Charles V and this compared perceived Jewish anti-Catholicism to the nascent Protestant Reformation, with the miraculous bleeding countering Protestant denials of transubstantiation. In the early 1580s, during a period of Calvinist rule in Brussels, from 1579 to 1585 the relics had been hidden in a house in the Korte Ridderstraat. After the end of Calvinist rule in 1585, a procession of citizens and officeholders had retrieved the hosts, the re-emergence of the cult in 1585 was primarily as a celebration of the end of Calvinist rule. The Archdukes Albert and Isabella, who ruled in Brussels 1598–1621, made the annual procession a state occasion, had emerged as doubly miraculous after the end of Calvinist rule in Brussels in 1585 when it became clear that the sacred hosts had survived intact. The 1870 quincentenary of the Miracle was marked with celebrations, after the Second World War, in light of the mass murder of Belgian Jews during The Holocaust, the anti-semitic elements of the cult were de-emphasised. In 1968, in the wake of Nostra aetate issued by the Second Vatican Council, in 1977 Cardinal Leo Joseph Suenens installed a plaque in the cathedral to highlight this. The former chapel of Saint Gudula is now the museum, displaying its treasures, including the former reliquaries. History of the Jews in Belgium
3. 12th century English pogroms – The history of the Jews in England goes back to the reign of William I where the first written record of Jewish settlement in England dates from 1070. There is no record of Jews in England before the Norman Conquest in 1066, the few references to Jews in the Anglo-Saxon laws of the Roman Catholic Church relate to Jewish practices about Easter. Believing that their skills and incoming capital would make England more prosperous, William I invited a group of Jewish merchants from Rouen, in Normandy. However, Jews were not permitted to own land nor to participate in trades and they were limited primarily to money lending. As Catholic doctrine held that money lending for interest was the sin of usury, around 1092, Gilbert Crispin, the Abbot of Westminster, issued a disputation about his exchange with a Jew, entitled Disputation of a Jew with a Christian about the Christian Bible. I know not where he was born, but he was educated at Mayence, he was well versed even in our law and literature, now on a certain day, God granted both him and me greater leisure than usual, and soon we began questioning as usual. This disputation was notable for the presentation of both the Christian and Jewish points of view, and for the congenial tone of the exchange. At first, the status of Jews was not strictly determined, however, during Henrys reign a royal charter was granted to Joseph, the chief rabbi of London, and all his followers. Special weight was attributed to a Jewish persons oath, which was valid against that of 12 Christians, the sixth clause of the charter was especially important, it granted Jews the right of movement throughout the kingdom, as if they were the kings own property. Christian-Jewish relations in England were disturbed under King Stephen who burned down the house of a Jewish man in Oxford because he refused to pay a contribution to the kings expenses. It was also during this time that the first recorded blood libel against Jews was brought in the case of William of Norwich, while the crusaders in Germany were attacking Jews, outbursts against the latter in England were, according to the Jewish chroniclers, prevented by King Stephen. With the restoration of order under Henry II, Jews renewed their activity, within five years of his accession, Jews are found at London, Oxford, Cambridge, Norwich, Thetford, Bungay, Canterbury, Winchester, Newport, Stafford, Windsor, and Reading. However, they were not permitted to bury their dead elsewhere than in London until 1177, Aaron is believed to have been the wealthiest man in 12th-century Britain, his wealth possibly exceeding that of the King. Strongbows conquest of Ireland was financed by Josce, a Jewish man from Gloucester, as a rule, however, Henry II does not appear to have limited in any way the financial activity of Jews. In 1168, when concluding an alliance with Frederick Barbarossa, Henry II seized the chief representatives of the Jews and sent them to Normandy, while tallaging the rest 5,000 marks. When, however, he asked the rest of the country to pay a tithe for the crusade against Saladin in 1186, the tithe was reckoned at £70,000, the quarter at £60,000. It is improbable, however, that the amount was paid at once. The king had probably been led to make this large demand upon English Jewry by the surprising windfall which came to his treasury at the death of Aaron of Lincoln
4. Yom Tov of Joigny – Yom Tov of Joigny, also denoted of York was a French-born rabbi and liturgical poet of the medieval era who lived in York, and died in the massacre of the Jews of York in 1190. A Hebrew language hymn attributed to him, transliterated Omnam Kayn or Omnam Ken is still recited in all Ashkenazi synagogues each year on the evening of Yom Kippur and he was a student of Rabbenu Tam. He died at York Castle on 17 March 1190, the incident was provoked by Richard de Malbis, who was in considerable debt to Aaron of Lincoln. The group, numbering about 150, then took refuge in the motte that had a wooden tower. But the motte was besieged by the mob demanding that the Jews be baptized, with no hope of escape, Rabbi Yom Tov advised the other Jews to kill themselves rather than convert. Josce began by slaying his wife Anna and two children and he was then killed by Yom Tov. The father of each family killed his wife and children and then Yom Tov stabbed the men before killing himself, the tower was set alight so their bodies could not be mutilated by the mob. A handful of Jews who did not kill themselves surrendered at daybreak on 17 March, but they were all killed by the mob. The pogrom was part of a series of massacres against other Jewish communities in England over the preceding weeks and it was in the wake of religious fervor created from preparations for the Third Crusade led by Richard I against the Saracens. Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd. p.38
5. Les Josiols – Les Josiols is a former Jewish quarter situated north of Mirabel-aux-Baronnies, a French commune in the southern Drôme department. Mirabel, which was first mentioned in 1059, had a flourishing Jewish quarter until 1348, the Jews that inhabited Les Josiols were merchants with flourishing businesses. In 1348, the inhabitants were expelled or assassinated due to the accusation that they had distributed the pest. In fact, the Black Death-outbreak of 1348 followed several years of bad harvests and had numerous victims. It was therefore that the inhabitants of Mirabel felt that somebody had to be punished, finally the Jews were accused of having poisoned the drinking water wells of Mirabel. It has to be noted that the creek Françonne served as source of drinking water for the Jews and their houses were completely destroyed, those who resisted were murdered, the ones that fled went to Carpentras. The Dauphin of the Dauphiné and even the Pope intervened, today Les Josiols is just a hillside covered with bare saffre, olive trees, vineyards and some farms. Situated on a hillside, Mirabel has a mild climate, P. Ollivier-Elliott, Les Baronnies, ISBN 2-7449-0266-7 Claude Leone-Chanot, Mirabel aux Baronnies, ISBN 2-903044-85-6
6. Rhineland massacres – Prominent leaders of crusaders involved in the massacres included Peter the Hermit and especially Count Emicho. As part of this persecution, the destruction of Jewish communities in Speyer, Worms and these were new persecutions of the Jews in which peasant crusaders from France and Germany attacked Jewish communities. A number of historians refer to the events as pogroms. The preaching of the First Crusade inspired an outbreak of anti-Jewish violence, many people wondered why they should travel thousands of miles to fight non-believers when there were already non-believers closer to home. It is also likely that the crusaders were motivated by their need for money, the Rhineland communities were relatively wealthy, both due to their isolation, and because they were not restricted as Catholics were against moneylending. Having armed themselves by assuming the debt, the crusaders rationalized the killing of Jews as an extension of their Catholic mission. There had not been so broad a movement against Jews by Catholics since the seventh centurys mass expulsions and forced conversions. ”Also many movements against Jews had been quashed by either Roman Catholicism’s papacy or its bishops. The passions aroused in the Catholic populace by Urban II’s call for the first crusade moved persecution of Jews into a new chapter in history where these previous constraints no longer held. ”Emperor Henry IV issued an order prohibiting such an action. Godfrey claimed he never intended to kill Jews, but the community in Mainz. The first outbreaks of violence occurred in France. ”Richard of Poitiers wrote that Jewish persecution was widespread in France at the beginning of the expeditions to the east, the anonymous chronicler of Mainz admired the Jews “At the time the communities in France heard, trembling… seized them. They wrote letters and sent messengers to all the communities around about the River Rhine, that they should fast…and seek mercy from Him who dwells on high, that He might save them from their hands. When the letter reached the holy ones in the land, namely the men of renown … in Mainz, they responded France as follows and we have done that which was ours. May the Lord save us and may He save you from all sorrow and we are in great fear. ’” In June and July 1095 Jewish communities in the Rhineland were attacked, but the leadership and membership of these crusader groups was not chronicled. Some Jews dispersed eastward to escape the persecution, on top of the general Catholic suspicion of Jews at the time, when the thousands of French members of the Peoples Crusade arrived at the Rhine, they had run out of provisions. To restock their supplies, they began to plunder Jewish food, not all crusaders who had run out of supplies resorted to murder, some, like Peter the Hermit, used extortion instead. While no sources claim he preached against the Jews, he carried a letter with him from the Jews of France to the community at Trier, the letter urged them to supply provisions to Peter and his men. The Solomon bar Simson Chronicle records that they were so terrified by Peter’s appearance at the gates that they agreed to supply his needs. Whatever Peters own position on the Jews was, men claiming to follow after him felt free to massacre Jews on their own initiative, after the crusaders had left the region these Jews returned to practicing Judaism
7. Strasbourg massacre – The Strasbourg massacre occurred on February 14,1349, when several hundred Jews were publicly burnt to death, and the rest of them expelled from the city as part of the Black Death persecutions. It was one of the first and worst pogroms in pre-modern history, starting in the spring of 1348, pogroms against Jews had occurred in European cities, starting in Toulon. By November of that year they spread via Savoy to German-speaking territories, in January 1349, burnings of Jews took place in Basel and Freiburg, and on 14 February the Jewish community in Strasbourg was destroyed. The causes of the increased anti-semitism are easy to make out and its development found fertile territory in the religious and social resentments against Jews that had grown deeper over the centuries. Formally, the Jews still belonged to the Kings chamber, Strasbourg therefore took in the most part of the Jews taxes, but in exchange had to take over their protection. In order to satisfy the demands, the Jews therefore had to do business accordingly, but in doing so further increased the populations. With the threat of Black Death, there were accusations of well poisoning. Unlike the majority of the population, the council and the master tradesmen remained committed to the policy of protecting the Jews and attempted to calm the people and prevent a pogrom. The Catholic clergy had been advised by two bulls of Pope Clement VI the previous year to preach against anyone accusing the Jews of poisoning wells as seduced by that liar. At first the council tried to rebut the claims of well poisoning by initiating court proceedings against a number of Jews, as expected, they did not confess to the crimes. Despite this, they were killed on the breaking wheel. Furthermore, the Jewish quarter was sealed off and guarded by armed persons, in order to protect the Jews from the population, a pogrom could easily escalate and turn into an uncontrollable revolt of the people. Furthermore, this unrest could give the opponents the possibility of taking power themselves, the bourgeoisie had after all come to occupy the leading political positions in a similar way, when they had used the dispute between the Zorn and Müllenheim noble families to their advantage. As the de facto master over the Jews, the city had a duty to protect them, peter Swarber also pointed to this, the city had collected the money, and had given in return a guarantee for their security—with a letter and a seal. The city must fulfill this duty towards the Jews and he therefore could not and would not agree to an extermination of the Jews, a stance in which he was surely strengthened by the fear of the negative effects on the economic development of the city. A weakening of the city would mean a weakening of the patrician bourgeoisie, that was reliant on stable political conditions. There were reasons enough, therefore, to remain attached to the policy of protecting the Jews, the motivations of the master tradesmen were concealed from the people of Strasbourg. It was therefore seen as important to first remove the masters from power, the chronicles have delivered a detailed overview of the process of the displacement of the masters