Pages in category "Medieval crowns"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bust of Charlemagne – The Bust of Charlemagne is a reliquary in the form of the bust of Charlemagne made around 1350, which contains the kings skullcap. The reliquary is part of the Late Medieval treasure kept in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury, made in the Mosan region, long a center of high-quality metalwork, the bust is both a masterpiece of late Gothic metalwork and figural sculpture. The Bust of Charlemagne, as a masterpiece of Mosan goldwork, created 500 years after the death of Charlemagne, the bust is an idealized representation, the facial structure, hair style and fleur-de-lys crown of which reflect 14thc. The skin is chased with silver and partially gilt, hair, damascened silver Reichsadler, the heraldic charge of the Holy Roman Empire signifying Charlemagnes imperial dignity, decorate the tunic. The eagles are surrounded by a border of filigree and precious stones, the bust stands on an octagonal pedestal equipped with an opening on either side for a wooden carrying frame and is decorated with fleurs-de-lis. According to the Aachen tradition, the Bust of Charlemagne was a donation from Charles IV and this donation is not mentioned in documentary evidence, but it is considered probable, given Charles IVs deep veneration for Charlemagne. The reliquary is a part of the thirteenth-century French tradition of royal images and depicts a portrait of the Frankish King. These are noticeably similar to a portrait of King John II of France and it is possible that the creator of the reliquary bust, a goldsmith in Aachen, had been trained in his art in France. The reliquary was carried in processions and placed opposite the king at coronations and it is probable that the hoop with its cross was added on the occasion of his coronation. Sigismund of Luxemburg was crowned with the crown in 1414. Zur Entstehung und Entwicklung der metallenen Kopf-, Büsten- und Halbfigurenreliquiare im Mittelalter, in Aachener Kunstblätter 59, 1991–93, pp. 99–238. Brimberg, Aachen 1995, ISBN 3-923773-16-1, p.27, west. art Masterpiece, Bust of Charlemagne in the Aachen Cathedral treasury
2. Crown of Charlemagne – The Crown of Charlemagne was a name given to the ancient coronation crown of Kings of the Franks, and later Kings of France after 1237. At this time a similar but open crown, the one of the queen, one of them was melted down in 1590 by the Catholic League during the siege of Paris. The remaining crown was used up to the reign of King Louis XVI, the crown of Jeanne dÉvreux was then used for the coronation of the queens. Only one of the 11 personal crowns of the Ancient Regime remains, the Crown of Louis XV, manufactured for the coronation of Louis XV in 1722, the coronation crown, the Crown of Charlemagne, was destroyed in the French Revolution, like some of the regalia. When Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of France, he called his own imperial crown the Crown of Charlemagne. Media related to Crown of Charlemagne at Wikimedia Commons
3. Crown of Princess Blanche – The Crown of Princess Blanche, also called the Palatine Crown or Bohemian Crown, is the oldest surviving royal crown known to have been in England, and probably dates to the years after 1370. It is made of gold with enamel, sapphires, rubies, emeralds, diamonds and its height and diameter are both 18 cm. It has been a property of the House of Wittelsbach since 1402, when it came with Princess Blanche of England, after the junior Bavarian branch of the house became extinct in the male line in 1777, the senior Palatinian branch replaced the former as the countrys rulers. Therefore, the crown is displayed in the treasury of the Munich Residenz. It has been there since 1782. It has been described as one of the finest achievements of the Gothic goldsmith, the crown is in a heavily jewelled version of the fleur de lys shape that was popular for medieval crowns. It has twelve lilies rising from the circlet, alternately tall, the circlets design is based on twelve gold rings beneath the lilies, mounted with hexagonal shapes in enamel and gold openwork. The placing of the jewels alternates in some respects round the crown, with for example the lowest elements, underneath the circlet, the enamel bands on the hexagons alternate between red and blue, both spotted with white. The lily stems are detachable, and the places on the crown where they fit are numbered I to XII so they are re-attached correctly, therefore, it is not thought that the crown was made for Blanche. It is most likely, though not certain, that the crown belonged to Queen Anne of Bohemia, the wife of Richard II, whom she married in 1382. It may have produced in Bohemia, but elements such as the beading on the stems suggest Paris. An origin in Venice has also been suggested, the crown came to the Palatinian line of the house of Wittelsbach as dowry of Blanche of England, a daughter of King Henry IV of England. After his ascension to the English throne, King Henry IV wanted to make important alliances in order to maintain, the marriage contract was signed on 7 March 1401 in London, the brides dowry was fixed in the amount of 40,000 Nobeln. The marriage ceremony between Blanche and Louis took place one year later, on 6 July 1402 at Cologne Cathedral in Germany and she died in 1409, leaving a son who himself died at nineteen. 421–439, Penn State University Press, DOI,10. 1353/cr.0.0044 Treasury in the Munich Residenz
4. Crown of Saint Wenceslas – The Crown of Saint Wenceslas is a crown forming part of the Bohemian Crown Jewels, and made in 1347. On the orders of Charles IV the new crown was permanently deposited in Karlštejn Castle near Prague). It was used for the last time for the coronation of Ferdinand V in 1836, the St. Wenceslas Crown is made of 21 to 22 carat gold and decorated with precious stones and pearls. It contains a total of 19 sapphires,44 spinels,1 ruby,30 emeralds and 20 pearls, unlike many other European royal treasures, the St. Wenceslas Crown is not displayed publicly, and only a replica is shown. Along with the other Bohemian crown jewels, it is kept in a chamber within St. Vitus Cathedral accessible by a door in the St. Wenceslas Chapel, the exact location of the chamber is not known to the general public. The jewels are taken from the chamber and displayed for periods of several days on notable occasions approximately once every five years. The crown was exhibited in May 2016 to mark the 700th anniversary of the birth of Charles IV, although there is no evidence proving that Heydrich did so, the legend is widely believed. Środa Treasure Official info of Prague Castle
5. Crown of Zvonimir – The Crown of Zvonimir was bestowed on King Dmitar Zvonimir of Croatia in 1076 by the papal legate. It is quite possible that the crown was lost during the 1520s when the Ottoman Turks captured and sacked the royal capitals of Solin and Knin and it is not known whether the medieval Crown of Zvonimir still exists. The distinctive long sides could be hanging pendilia as found adorning the Holy Crown of Hungary which was also an 11th-century papal gift. In 1941, the fascist Ustaše regime assumed control of Croatia and decided to reinstate a monarchy in the Independent State of Croatia and they created another Crown of Zvonimir, though with little resemblance to the original, described as a wreath of golden clover leaves surmounted by a cross. He chose the Duke of Spoleto who was then named King Tomislav II and it seems likely he came into possession of the regalia, though he was never crowned. It is unknown whether this remains in existence. Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir Croatian crown in the 17th century
6. Ducal hat of Styria – The ducal hat of the Duchy of Styria is a jagged crown made out of silver-gilt. Believed to be produced in the 15th century, it was refashioned with pearls and it was kept in Vienna until 1790, when the Styrian Estates asked it to be returned. In the 19th century, it was refitted again, the ducal hat is about 20.5 cm high, and has a diameter of 20 cm. It is kept today at the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Styria, Austria, the ducal hat is also featured on top of the coat of arms of the federal state of Styria. Austrian Crown Jewels Austrian Imperial Crown Archducal hat KULT. DOKU | Styrian Ducal Hat
7. Essen Crown – The Essen Crown is an Ottonian golden crown in the Essen Cathedral Treasury. However, this idea most probably derives from the thinking of early twentieth century historians of Essen. However it is certainly the oldest surviving lily crown in the world, in its shape the crown recalls a Byzantine circlet. The band is 3.5 cm wide and its diameter is now 12.5 cm, a regular border of precious stones runs along the whole circumference. The main circlet is made of gold which has been heavily alloyed with silver, an iron reinforcing ring is visible on the outside. The upper and lower edges of the crown are decorated with pearls strung on a wire attached to the circlet by metal rings. Numerous pearls and gemstones decorate the body of the crown. Highlights include a Late Antique engraved gem depicting the head of Medusa, comparable crowns are in the possession of the church treasuries of Hildesheim and Conques in France. The origin of the crown is unclear, for a long time it was claimed that the crown was made for the coronation of Otto III in 983 and had been gifted to Essen Abbey by him. At the beginning of February 993, therefore, Otto III made a visit to the Abbey of Essen for Candlemas, the first of these was a sword of Damascus steel which was probably made in 950 and shows signs of use on the blade. This sword was venerated, probably on account of its owner. In later times the sword was reputed to be the Sword of Saints Cosmas, for modern scholarship, a better understanding of the relationship of Essen Abbey and the Ottonian family provided an answer to the question of who the original owner of the sword really was. Otto IIIs second gift might have been the golden crown, written evidence for this is lacking, but there were circumstantial arguments for it. Firstly, based on art historical comparisons, the crown was dated to the end of the tenth century, the coronation of Otto III in 983 at Aachen Cathedral is the only coronation of a child which occurred within the right time period. Furthermore, the practice of crowning a statue of Madonna on 2 February during Michaelmas is first attested at Essen. Thus it was suggested that the practice commemorated the gift of the crown to the abbey during his visit to Essen at the beginning of February 993, modern dating puts the modification of the crown in the middle of the eleventh century. This suggests that the crowning ritual originated only a little before this, such artworks in the Essen Cathedral Treasury include the ends of the cross with the large enamels, which is believed to have been created under Abbess Sophia. In that case, the crown would have originally been made for the coronation of the golden Madonna
8. Holy Crown of Hungary – The Holy Crown of Hungary was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence, kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, no king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV, the enamels on the crown are mainly or entirely Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s. The crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary and it is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the slightly earlier Monomachus Crown, which is also in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, and the Holy Crown has probably been remodelled, the date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most commonly put around the late 12th century. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary and it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object and he also depicts that the Holy Crown is the same for the Hungarians as the Lost Ark is for the Jewish. Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building, the Crown’s shape is elliptic and is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather liner, made to fit. The weight of the Crown is 2056 g, the gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio. The lower part of the Crown is asymmetric, as is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right. According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown during the coronation to offer it to the Nagyboldogasszony to seal a contract between her and the divine crown. After this, the Nagyboldogasszony was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary and this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called Doctrine of the Holy Crown. Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona, at the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary. It is superior to the monarch, who rules in the name of the crown. It was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence, the crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, who was later canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001
9. Homagial Crown – The Homagial Crown, also known under its Latin name as the Corona Homagialis, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was mentioned for the first time in the 15th century in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury and it was probably the coronation crown of Władysław II Jagiełło. In the 15th century crown inventories of treasures of Wawel Castle there appear two crowns called homagial, which are considered to have been the property of Jadwiga of Anjou and Jogaila. From the 16th century, the coronation regalia inventories mention only one of these insignia and this crown was worn by the Polish kings during the homage ceremony, replacing the Crown of Bolesław I the Brave. It was used for the last time during a ceremony in Warsaw in 1764, the crown was stolen from Wawel Castle by Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collection of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed and melted down, as was the case with the majority of Polish regalia, the Homagial Crown was made of pure gold in the form of rims covered with a globe and a cross at their intersection. It consisted of nine segments, each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis, in total there were 178 precious stones. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Casimir III the Great by Marcello Bacciarelli, tajemnica polskich koron, czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia. Media related to Homagial Crown at Wikimedia Commons