Pages in category "Medieval crowns"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Holy Crown of Hungary – The Holy Crown of Hungary was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence, kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, no king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV, the enamels on the crown are mainly or entirely Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s. The crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary and it is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the slightly earlier Monomachus Crown, which is also in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, and the Holy Crown has probably been remodelled, the date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most commonly put around the late 12th century. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary and it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object and he also depicts that the Holy Crown is the same for the Hungarians as the Lost Ark is for the Jewish. Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building, the Crown’s shape is elliptic and is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather liner, made to fit. The weight of the Crown is 2056 g, the gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio. The lower part of the Crown is asymmetric, as is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right. According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown during the coronation to offer it to the Nagyboldogasszony to seal a contract between her and the divine crown. After this, the Nagyboldogasszony was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary and this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called Doctrine of the Holy Crown. Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona, at the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary. It is superior to the monarch, who rules in the name of the crown. It was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence, the crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, who was later canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001
2. Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire – The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire was the hoop crown of the Holy Roman Emperor from the 11th century to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The crown was used in the coronation of the King of the Romans and it was made in the late 10th or early 11th century. Unlike many other crowns, it has a rather than a circular shape. The plate in the front of the crown is surmounted by a cross, the crown is now exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna. The crown was probably somewhere in Western Germany, either under Otto I, by Conrad II or Conrad III during the late 10th. The first preserved mention of it is from the 12th century—assuming it is the same crown, most of the Kings of the Romans of the Holy Roman Empire were crowned with it. Along with the Imperial Cross, the Imperial Sword, and the Holy Lance, during the coronation, it was given to the new king along with the sceptre and the Imperial Orb. The Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire, especially the Imperial Crown, were kept from 1349–1421 in Bohemia, between 1424–1796 they were all kept in Nuremberg, Franconia—and could only leave the city for the coronation. Currently, the crown and the rest of the Imperial Regalia are exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna—officially until there is again a Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, an identical copy is in Aachen in Germany in the Krönungssaal of Charlemagnes former palace, now the town hall. The newest authorised copy is kept in the Czech castle of Karlštejn along with a copy of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas, the Imperial Crown does not look like most more modern crowns. The crown does not have a shape, but an octagonal one. Instead of a ring, it has eight hinged plates which are arched at the top, two strips of iron, riveted with golden rivets to the plates, hold the crown together and give it its octagonal shape. At what point these iron strips were installed is unknown, before the addition of the rings the plates were held together by long golden pins thus making it possible to separate the plates and the arch for easier transport. Each plate of the crown is made out of a high gold, around 22 carats, which gives the crown a buttery colour. The stones are not cut into facets, but rather polished into rounded shapes and this technique is an ancient one and gemstones like this are described as being en cabochon, which are still made to this day. The pearls and the stones were put into openings that were cut into the metal, the effect was that when the light shone in, the stones looked as if they would shine from within. The crown is decorated with 144 precious stones and about the number of pearls. Emmeram and Codex Aureus of Echternach, four smaller plaques bear pictorial representations of figures and scenes from the Bible and inscriptions in cloisonné enamel, in the Byzantine senkschmelz style
3. Monomachus Crown – The Monomachus Crown is a piece of engraved Byzantine goldwork, decorated with cloisonné enamel, in the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, Hungary. It consists of seven gold plates depicting Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, his wife Zoe, her sister Theodora, the piece has puzzling aspects that have long made it the subject of scholarly debate, it was probably made in Constantinople in 1042. It was unearthed in 1860 by a farmer in what is now called Ivanka pri Nitre in Slovakia, if it is a crown, it is, with the Holy Crown of Hungary of a few decades later, one of the only two Byzantine crowns to survive. In 1860 a farmer near Nyitraivánka discovered the treasure while plowing, also sold were the two smaller cloisonee medallions found with the crown plaques, with busts of the apostles Peter and Andrew. These medallions lack holes for nails, unlike the gold plates, in the view of Magda von Bárány-Oberschall and most scholars they almost certainly do not belong to the Monomachus Crown. The general assumption was for long that the crown seems almost certainly to be a crown and was presumably a gift to the wife of a Hungarian king. According to the account, Andrew or his queen would have received the crown from Constantine IX at this juncture. He was in need of a new crown, since Henry III had captured the crown from King Samuel Aba in 1045 after the Battle of Ménfő and had sent it back to Rome. According to popular legend this was the Holy Crown of Hungary, or some version of it, in 1057 the young King Solomon was also crowned with this crown. Other, very different, possibilities have been suggested and are covered below, in 1057 Solomon was besieged by Geza I and escaped with the crown and treasure in the direction of Bratislava in order to seek the protection of his brother-in-law Emperor Henry IV. Soldiers of Geza apprehended him as he was fording the Váh near Ivanka pri Nitre, Solomon had the treasure and the crown buried and barricaded himself behind the walls of Bratislava. Possibly this was an attempt to recover the buried crown near the ford of Ivanka pri Nitre. The seven gold plates are 3.5 cm wide and between 10 and 4.5 cm tall and they have asymmetrically cut holes whose size and arrangement suggests that the plates were originally connected by a fabric or leather band. It is possible remains of golden bands for connecting the plates were found. It is also possible that the seven plates were fastened to a fabric cap, the coarse finish of the decoration, the low purity of the gold plates and the presence of errors in the depiction of the clothing and in the inscriptions are notable. The central and largest plate shows Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, who was Byzantine Emperor from 1042 to 1055, a Greek inscription on the panel reads, Κῶνστάντινος Αυτοκράτο<ρ> Ρομεον ο Μονομαχο<ς>, Constantine, Emperor of the Romans, the Monomachos. On the plate to his right is his wife and on the plate to the left, on the smaller panels to the right and left of the Empresses are two dancing female figures. The smallest plates depict the personifications of two Virtues, the figures have halos on their heads and are surrounded by flowering vines, birds and cypresses
4. Papal tiara – The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign, from 1143 to 1963, the papal tiara was solemnly placed on the popes head during a papal coronation. The surviving papal tiaras are all in the form, the oldest being of 1572. A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on documents, buildings. The papal tiara originated from a conical Phrygian cap or frigium, shaped like a candle-extinguisher, the papal tiara and the episcopal mitre were identical in their early forms. Names used for the tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum, pileus. A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, the first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century. When the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes. However, a fresco in the Chapel of Saint Sylvester in the church of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome seems to represent the Pope wearing a tiara with two bands and with lappets. The addition of a crown is attributed to Pope Benedict XI or Pope Clement V. The first years of the 16th century saw the addition of a little globe, the third crown was added to the papal tiara during the Avignon Papacy, giving rise to the form called the triregnum. After Pope Clement V at Avignon, various versions of the three-crown tiara have been worn by popes also in Rome down to Pope Paul VI, who was crowned with one in 1963. The increased length had the meaning of dominion of the una sancta ecclesia over the earth. At the summit was a large ruby. Boniface VIII was succeeded in 1303 by Benedict XI, who took the tiara to Perugia, after his death in 1304 there was a period of eleven months before a new Pope succeeded. The Archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen and took the title of Clement V and he removed the papal seat from Rome to Avignon and the tiara was brought to Lyons from Perugia for his coronation on 14 November 1305. In the inventory which was taken in 1315–16 Boniface VIIIs tiara is again described and can be identified by the mention of the large ruby and it is described as having three circlets corona quae vocatur, regnum cum tribus circuitis aureis. It therefore must have been between the taking of the two inventories in 1295 and 1315 that the second and third circlets were added to the tiara and it was during this period that the fleur-de-lis was used to decorate the circlets