Pages in category "Medieval crowns"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Bust of Charlemagne – The Bust of Charlemagne is a reliquary in the form of the bust of Charlemagne made around 1350, which contains the kings skullcap. The reliquary is part of the Late Medieval treasure kept in the Aachen Cathedral Treasury, made in the Mosan region, long a center of high-quality metalwork, the bust is both a masterpiece of late Gothic metalwork and figural sculpture. The Bust of Charlemagne, as a masterpiece of Mosan goldwork, created 500 years after the death of Charlemagne, the bust is an idealized representation, the facial structure, hair style and fleur-de-lys crown of which reflect 14thc. The skin is chased with silver and partially gilt, hair, damascened silver Reichsadler, the heraldic charge of the Holy Roman Empire signifying Charlemagnes imperial dignity, decorate the tunic. The eagles are surrounded by a border of filigree and precious stones, the bust stands on an octagonal pedestal equipped with an opening on either side for a wooden carrying frame and is decorated with fleurs-de-lis. According to the Aachen tradition, the Bust of Charlemagne was a donation from Charles IV and this donation is not mentioned in documentary evidence, but it is considered probable, given Charles IVs deep veneration for Charlemagne. The reliquary is a part of the thirteenth-century French tradition of royal images and depicts a portrait of the Frankish King. These are noticeably similar to a portrait of King John II of France and it is possible that the creator of the reliquary bust, a goldsmith in Aachen, had been trained in his art in France. The reliquary was carried in processions and placed opposite the king at coronations and it is probable that the hoop with its cross was added on the occasion of his coronation. Sigismund of Luxemburg was crowned with the crown in 1414. Zur Entstehung und Entwicklung der metallenen Kopf-, Büsten- und Halbfigurenreliquiare im Mittelalter, in Aachener Kunstblätter 59, 1991–93, pp. 99–238. Brimberg, Aachen 1995, ISBN 3-923773-16-1, p.27, west. art Masterpiece, Bust of Charlemagne in the Aachen Cathedral treasury
2. Crown of Charlemagne – The Crown of Charlemagne was a name given to the ancient coronation crown of Kings of the Franks, and later Kings of France after 1237. At this time a similar but open crown, the one of the queen, one of them was melted down in 1590 by the Catholic League during the siege of Paris. The remaining crown was used up to the reign of King Louis XVI, the crown of Jeanne dÉvreux was then used for the coronation of the queens. Only one of the 11 personal crowns of the Ancient Regime remains, the Crown of Louis XV, manufactured for the coronation of Louis XV in 1722, the coronation crown, the Crown of Charlemagne, was destroyed in the French Revolution, like some of the regalia. When Napoleon proclaimed himself Emperor of France, he called his own imperial crown the Crown of Charlemagne. Media related to Crown of Charlemagne at Wikimedia Commons
3. Crown of Princess Blanche – The Crown of Princess Blanche, also called the Palatine Crown or Bohemian Crown, is the oldest surviving royal crown known to have been in England, and probably dates to the years after 1370. It is made of gold with enamel, sapphires, rubies, emeralds, diamonds and its height and diameter are both 18 cm. It has been a property of the House of Wittelsbach since 1402, when it came with Princess Blanche of England, after the junior Bavarian branch of the house became extinct in the male line in 1777, the senior Palatinian branch replaced the former as the countrys rulers. Therefore, the crown is displayed in the treasury of the Munich Residenz. It has been there since 1782. It has been described as one of the finest achievements of the Gothic goldsmith, the crown is in a heavily jewelled version of the fleur de lys shape that was popular for medieval crowns. It has twelve lilies rising from the circlet, alternately tall, the circlets design is based on twelve gold rings beneath the lilies, mounted with hexagonal shapes in enamel and gold openwork. The placing of the jewels alternates in some respects round the crown, with for example the lowest elements, underneath the circlet, the enamel bands on the hexagons alternate between red and blue, both spotted with white. The lily stems are detachable, and the places on the crown where they fit are numbered I to XII so they are re-attached correctly, therefore, it is not thought that the crown was made for Blanche. It is most likely, though not certain, that the crown belonged to Queen Anne of Bohemia, the wife of Richard II, whom she married in 1382. It may have produced in Bohemia, but elements such as the beading on the stems suggest Paris. An origin in Venice has also been suggested, the crown came to the Palatinian line of the house of Wittelsbach as dowry of Blanche of England, a daughter of King Henry IV of England. After his ascension to the English throne, King Henry IV wanted to make important alliances in order to maintain, the marriage contract was signed on 7 March 1401 in London, the brides dowry was fixed in the amount of 40,000 Nobeln. The marriage ceremony between Blanche and Louis took place one year later, on 6 July 1402 at Cologne Cathedral in Germany and she died in 1409, leaving a son who himself died at nineteen. 421–439, Penn State University Press, DOI,10. 1353/cr.0.0044 Treasury in the Munich Residenz
4. Crown of Saint Wenceslas – The Crown of Saint Wenceslas is a crown forming part of the Bohemian Crown Jewels, and made in 1347. On the orders of Charles IV the new crown was permanently deposited in Karlštejn Castle near Prague). It was used for the last time for the coronation of Ferdinand V in 1836, the St. Wenceslas Crown is made of 21 to 22 carat gold and decorated with precious stones and pearls. It contains a total of 19 sapphires,44 spinels,1 ruby,30 emeralds and 20 pearls, unlike many other European royal treasures, the St. Wenceslas Crown is not displayed publicly, and only a replica is shown. Along with the other Bohemian crown jewels, it is kept in a chamber within St. Vitus Cathedral accessible by a door in the St. Wenceslas Chapel, the exact location of the chamber is not known to the general public. The jewels are taken from the chamber and displayed for periods of several days on notable occasions approximately once every five years. The crown was exhibited in May 2016 to mark the 700th anniversary of the birth of Charles IV, although there is no evidence proving that Heydrich did so, the legend is widely believed. Środa Treasure Official info of Prague Castle
5. Crown of Zvonimir – The Crown of Zvonimir was bestowed on King Dmitar Zvonimir of Croatia in 1076 by the papal legate. It is quite possible that the crown was lost during the 1520s when the Ottoman Turks captured and sacked the royal capitals of Solin and Knin and it is not known whether the medieval Crown of Zvonimir still exists. The distinctive long sides could be hanging pendilia as found adorning the Holy Crown of Hungary which was also an 11th-century papal gift. In 1941, the fascist Ustaše regime assumed control of Croatia and decided to reinstate a monarchy in the Independent State of Croatia and they created another Crown of Zvonimir, though with little resemblance to the original, described as a wreath of golden clover leaves surmounted by a cross. He chose the Duke of Spoleto who was then named King Tomislav II and it seems likely he came into possession of the regalia, though he was never crowned. It is unknown whether this remains in existence. Medal of the Crown of King Zvonimir Croatian crown in the 17th century
6. Ducal hat of Styria – The ducal hat of the Duchy of Styria is a jagged crown made out of silver-gilt. Believed to be produced in the 15th century, it was refashioned with pearls and it was kept in Vienna until 1790, when the Styrian Estates asked it to be returned. In the 19th century, it was refitted again, the ducal hat is about 20.5 cm high, and has a diameter of 20 cm. It is kept today at the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Styria, Austria, the ducal hat is also featured on top of the coat of arms of the federal state of Styria. Austrian Crown Jewels Austrian Imperial Crown Archducal hat KULT. DOKU | Styrian Ducal Hat
7. Essen Crown – The Essen Crown is an Ottonian golden crown in the Essen Cathedral Treasury. However, this idea most probably derives from the thinking of early twentieth century historians of Essen. However it is certainly the oldest surviving lily crown in the world, in its shape the crown recalls a Byzantine circlet. The band is 3.5 cm wide and its diameter is now 12.5 cm, a regular border of precious stones runs along the whole circumference. The main circlet is made of gold which has been heavily alloyed with silver, an iron reinforcing ring is visible on the outside. The upper and lower edges of the crown are decorated with pearls strung on a wire attached to the circlet by metal rings. Numerous pearls and gemstones decorate the body of the crown. Highlights include a Late Antique engraved gem depicting the head of Medusa, comparable crowns are in the possession of the church treasuries of Hildesheim and Conques in France. The origin of the crown is unclear, for a long time it was claimed that the crown was made for the coronation of Otto III in 983 and had been gifted to Essen Abbey by him. At the beginning of February 993, therefore, Otto III made a visit to the Abbey of Essen for Candlemas, the first of these was a sword of Damascus steel which was probably made in 950 and shows signs of use on the blade. This sword was venerated, probably on account of its owner. In later times the sword was reputed to be the Sword of Saints Cosmas, for modern scholarship, a better understanding of the relationship of Essen Abbey and the Ottonian family provided an answer to the question of who the original owner of the sword really was. Otto IIIs second gift might have been the golden crown, written evidence for this is lacking, but there were circumstantial arguments for it. Firstly, based on art historical comparisons, the crown was dated to the end of the tenth century, the coronation of Otto III in 983 at Aachen Cathedral is the only coronation of a child which occurred within the right time period. Furthermore, the practice of crowning a statue of Madonna on 2 February during Michaelmas is first attested at Essen. Thus it was suggested that the practice commemorated the gift of the crown to the abbey during his visit to Essen at the beginning of February 993, modern dating puts the modification of the crown in the middle of the eleventh century. This suggests that the crowning ritual originated only a little before this, such artworks in the Essen Cathedral Treasury include the ends of the cross with the large enamels, which is believed to have been created under Abbess Sophia. In that case, the crown would have originally been made for the coronation of the golden Madonna
8. Holy Crown of Hungary – The Holy Crown of Hungary was the coronation crown used by the Kingdom of Hungary for most of its existence, kings have been crowned with it since the twelfth century. The Crown was bound to the Lands of the Hungarian Crown, no king of Hungary was regarded as having been truly legitimate without being crowned with it. In the history of Hungary, more than fifty kings were crowned with it, up to the last, Charles IV, the enamels on the crown are mainly or entirely Byzantine work, presumed to have been made in Constantinople in the 1070s. The crown was presented by the Byzantine Emperor Michael VII Doukas to King Géza I of Hungary and it is one of the two known Byzantine crowns to survive, the other being the slightly earlier Monomachus Crown, which is also in Budapest, in the Hungarian National Museum. However, the Monomachus Crown may have had another function, and the Holy Crown has probably been remodelled, the date assigned to the present configuration of the Holy Crown varies, but is most commonly put around the late 12th century. The Hungarian coronation insignia consists of the Holy Crown, the sceptre, the orb, the orb has the coat-of-arms of Charles I of Hungary. In popular tradition the Holy Crown was thought to be older, dating to the time of the first King Stephen I of Hungary and it was first called the Holy Crown in 1256. During the 14th century, royal power came to be represented not simply by a crown, but by just one specific object and he also depicts that the Holy Crown is the same for the Hungarians as the Lost Ark is for the Jewish. Since 2000, the Holy Crown has been on display in the central Domed Hall of the Hungarian Parliament Building, the Crown’s shape is elliptic and is larger than a human head. During coronations, the king had to wear a leather liner, made to fit. The weight of the Crown is 2056 g, the gold-silver alloys in the upper and the lower parts of the Crown differ in alloy ratio. The lower part of the Crown is asymmetric, as is the case with all European Christian crowns, it symbolizes a halo and thus signifies that the wearer rules by Divine Right. According to popular tradition, St Stephen I held up the crown during the coronation to offer it to the Nagyboldogasszony to seal a contract between her and the divine crown. After this, the Nagyboldogasszony was depicted not only as patrona for the Kingdom of Hungary and this contract was supposed to empower the crown with divine force to help the future kings of Hungary and did help reinforce the political system based on the so-called Doctrine of the Holy Crown. Péter Révay, a Crown Guard, expounded this doctrine in his works Commentarius De Sacra Regni Hungariae Corona, at the core of this doctrine was the notion that the crown itself had personhood and as a legal entity is identical to the state of Hungary. It is superior to the monarch, who rules in the name of the crown. It was created during the reign of Béla III under Byzantine influence, the crowning of Stephen I, the first king of Hungary, who was later canonized Saint Stephen, marks the beginning of Hungarian statehood. The date is given as Christmas 1000 or 1 January 1001
9. Homagial Crown – The Homagial Crown, also known under its Latin name as the Corona Homagialis, was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels. It was mentioned for the first time in the 15th century in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury and it was probably the coronation crown of Władysław II Jagiełło. In the 15th century crown inventories of treasures of Wawel Castle there appear two crowns called homagial, which are considered to have been the property of Jadwiga of Anjou and Jogaila. From the 16th century, the coronation regalia inventories mention only one of these insignia and this crown was worn by the Polish kings during the homage ceremony, replacing the Crown of Bolesław I the Brave. It was used for the last time during a ceremony in Warsaw in 1764, the crown was stolen from Wawel Castle by Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collection of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed and melted down, as was the case with the majority of Polish regalia, the Homagial Crown was made of pure gold in the form of rims covered with a globe and a cross at their intersection. It consisted of nine segments, each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis, in total there were 178 precious stones. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Casimir III the Great by Marcello Bacciarelli, tajemnica polskich koron, czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia. Media related to Homagial Crown at Wikimedia Commons
10. Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire – The Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire was the hoop crown of the Holy Roman Emperor from the 11th century to the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806. The crown was used in the coronation of the King of the Romans and it was made in the late 10th or early 11th century. Unlike many other crowns, it has a rather than a circular shape. The plate in the front of the crown is surmounted by a cross, the crown is now exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna. The crown was probably somewhere in Western Germany, either under Otto I, by Conrad II or Conrad III during the late 10th. The first preserved mention of it is from the 12th century—assuming it is the same crown, most of the Kings of the Romans of the Holy Roman Empire were crowned with it. Along with the Imperial Cross, the Imperial Sword, and the Holy Lance, during the coronation, it was given to the new king along with the sceptre and the Imperial Orb. The Imperial Regalia of the Holy Roman Empire, especially the Imperial Crown, were kept from 1349–1421 in Bohemia, between 1424–1796 they were all kept in Nuremberg, Franconia—and could only leave the city for the coronation. Currently, the crown and the rest of the Imperial Regalia are exhibited at the Hofburg in Vienna—officially until there is again a Holy Roman Emperor of the German Nation, an identical copy is in Aachen in Germany in the Krönungssaal of Charlemagnes former palace, now the town hall. The newest authorised copy is kept in the Czech castle of Karlštejn along with a copy of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas, the Imperial Crown does not look like most more modern crowns. The crown does not have a shape, but an octagonal one. Instead of a ring, it has eight hinged plates which are arched at the top, two strips of iron, riveted with golden rivets to the plates, hold the crown together and give it its octagonal shape. At what point these iron strips were installed is unknown, before the addition of the rings the plates were held together by long golden pins thus making it possible to separate the plates and the arch for easier transport. Each plate of the crown is made out of a high gold, around 22 carats, which gives the crown a buttery colour. The stones are not cut into facets, but rather polished into rounded shapes and this technique is an ancient one and gemstones like this are described as being en cabochon, which are still made to this day. The pearls and the stones were put into openings that were cut into the metal, the effect was that when the light shone in, the stones looked as if they would shine from within. The crown is decorated with 144 precious stones and about the number of pearls. Emmeram and Codex Aureus of Echternach, four smaller plaques bear pictorial representations of figures and scenes from the Bible and inscriptions in cloisonné enamel, in the Byzantine senkschmelz style
11. Iron Crown of Lombardy – The Iron Crown of Lombardy is both a reliquary and one of the oldest royal insignias of Christendom. It was made in the Early Middle Ages, consisting of a circlet of gold fitted around a silver band. The crown became one of the symbols of the Kingdom of the Lombards and it is kept in the Cathedral of Monza, outside Milan. The Iron Crown is so called because it was believed to contain a one centimetre-wide band of iron within it, the outer circlet of the crown is made of six segments of beaten gold, partly enameled, joined together by hinges. It is set with twenty-two gemstones that stand out in relief, in the form of crosses and its small size and hinged construction have suggested to some that it was originally a large armlet or perhaps a votive crown. According to other opinions, however, the size is due to a readjustment after the loss of two segments, as described in historical documents. According to tradition, the nail was first given to Emperor Constantine I by his mother St. Helena and she used her nail as part of her crown, the famous Iron Crown of Lombardy. It is unclear when the nail was incorporated into a crown, legends involve Theodelinda, the queen of the Lombards, who resided at Monza in the late 6th century, converting the Lombards to Christianity. Theodelinda supposedly donated the crown to the Italian church at Monza in 628, ambrose in his funeral oration De obituu Theosdosii. The Byzantines then sent him the diadem, holding the helmet, King Theoderic then adopted the diadem gemmis insignitum, quas pretiosior ferro innexacrucis redemptoris divinae gemma connecteretas as his crown. This is the Iron Crown, passed by the Goths to the Lombards when they invaded Italy, in some accounts, the crown was used in Charlemagnes coronation as King of the Lombards. Contemporary or nearly contemporary accounts of the initiations of the kings of the Lombards stress the importance of the kings tholding the holy lance. The crown was certainly in use for the coronation of the kings of Italy by the 14th century, old research dates the crown to the 8th or early 9th century. But according to a latest one, the crown in its current state is the result of two different works made between the 4-5th and the 9th century. This seems to validate the legends about the origin of the crown, that date it back to the Lombard era and the coronation of their kings. Twining also notes that the Imperial Museum at St. Petersburg includes in its collection two medieval crowns found at Kazan in 1730 made in the style and of the same size as the Iron Crown. However, subsequently Archbishop Visconti of Milan gave his own decision that the ring in the Monza crown should be considered as one of the Nails of the Holy Cross. Twining notes that the clergy of Monza assert that despite the centuries that the Iron Crown has been exposed to public veneration, lipinsky, in his examination of the Iron Crown in 1985, noted that the inner ring does not attract a magnet
12. Monomachus Crown – The Monomachus Crown is a piece of engraved Byzantine goldwork, decorated with cloisonné enamel, in the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, Hungary. It consists of seven gold plates depicting Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, his wife Zoe, her sister Theodora, the piece has puzzling aspects that have long made it the subject of scholarly debate, it was probably made in Constantinople in 1042. It was unearthed in 1860 by a farmer in what is now called Ivanka pri Nitre in Slovakia, if it is a crown, it is, with the Holy Crown of Hungary of a few decades later, one of the only two Byzantine crowns to survive. In 1860 a farmer near Nyitraivánka discovered the treasure while plowing, also sold were the two smaller cloisonee medallions found with the crown plaques, with busts of the apostles Peter and Andrew. These medallions lack holes for nails, unlike the gold plates, in the view of Magda von Bárány-Oberschall and most scholars they almost certainly do not belong to the Monomachus Crown. The general assumption was for long that the crown seems almost certainly to be a crown and was presumably a gift to the wife of a Hungarian king. According to the account, Andrew or his queen would have received the crown from Constantine IX at this juncture. He was in need of a new crown, since Henry III had captured the crown from King Samuel Aba in 1045 after the Battle of Ménfő and had sent it back to Rome. According to popular legend this was the Holy Crown of Hungary, or some version of it, in 1057 the young King Solomon was also crowned with this crown. Other, very different, possibilities have been suggested and are covered below, in 1057 Solomon was besieged by Geza I and escaped with the crown and treasure in the direction of Bratislava in order to seek the protection of his brother-in-law Emperor Henry IV. Soldiers of Geza apprehended him as he was fording the Váh near Ivanka pri Nitre, Solomon had the treasure and the crown buried and barricaded himself behind the walls of Bratislava. Possibly this was an attempt to recover the buried crown near the ford of Ivanka pri Nitre. The seven gold plates are 3.5 cm wide and between 10 and 4.5 cm tall and they have asymmetrically cut holes whose size and arrangement suggests that the plates were originally connected by a fabric or leather band. It is possible remains of golden bands for connecting the plates were found. It is also possible that the seven plates were fastened to a fabric cap, the coarse finish of the decoration, the low purity of the gold plates and the presence of errors in the depiction of the clothing and in the inscriptions are notable. The central and largest plate shows Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus, who was Byzantine Emperor from 1042 to 1055, a Greek inscription on the panel reads, Κῶνστάντινος Αυτοκράτο<ρ> Ρομεον ο Μονομαχο<ς>, Constantine, Emperor of the Romans, the Monomachos. On the plate to his right is his wife and on the plate to the left, on the smaller panels to the right and left of the Empresses are two dancing female figures. The smallest plates depict the personifications of two Virtues, the figures have halos on their heads and are surrounded by flowering vines, birds and cypresses
13. Monomakh's Cap – Monomakhs Cap, also called the Golden Cap, is a chief relic of the Russian Grand Princes and Tsars. It is a symbol-crown of the Russian autocracy, and is the oldest of the crowns currently exhibited at the Kremlin Armoury, the cap is surmounted by a simple gold cross with pearls at each of the extremities. It is not to be confused with the Monomachus Crown in Budapest, boris Uspensky, in particular, argues that the Tatar headgear was originally used in coronation ceremonies to signify the Muscovite rulers subordination to the khan. According to Sergey Solovyov after the death of Ivan Kalita all Russian princes traveled to the Horde. and the Khan announced the eldest son of Kalita, Simeon, the Grand Prince of Vladimir. Also Solovyov writes that the first who introduced the coronation of the Russian monarch was Ivan III, at some point in the 15th or 16th century the crown was surmounted by a cross. The legend was elaborated in The Tale of the Princes of Vladimir, accordingly, the crown became known as Monomakhs Cap, the term first recorded in a Russian document from 1518. However the fact that Constantine IX Monomachus died 50 years before the coronation of Vladimir Monomakh makes the statement really a legend, the first version of the orient origin of the Cap was arisen by George Vernadsky. Vernadsky was pointing to a fact that according to Paul Pelliot Özbäg can be interpreted as a freeman. After Ivan the Terrible had himself crowned the first Russian Tsar with this headgear, Ivan was presumably not aware that at the time of Constantine IX Monomachus death, Vladimir Monomakh was only two years old and he was not the Kievan sovereign yet. The Monomakh Cap was last used in the coronation of Ivan V and Peter the Great in 1682. When Peter assumed the title of emperor, a new crown was fashioned
14. Papal tiara – The papal tiara is a crown that was worn by popes of the Catholic Church from as early as the 8th century to the mid-20th. It was last used by Pope Paul VI in 1963 and only at the beginning of his reign, from 1143 to 1963, the papal tiara was solemnly placed on the popes head during a papal coronation. The surviving papal tiaras are all in the form, the oldest being of 1572. A representation of the triregnum combined with two crossed keys of Saint Peter continues to be used as a symbol of the papacy and appears on documents, buildings. The papal tiara originated from a conical Phrygian cap or frigium, shaped like a candle-extinguisher, the papal tiara and the episcopal mitre were identical in their early forms. Names used for the tiara in the 8th and 9th centuries include camelaucum, pileus. A circlet of linen or cloth of gold at the base of the tiara developed into a metal crown, the first of these appeared at the base of the traditional white papal headgear in the 9th century. When the popes assumed temporal power in the Papal States, the crown became decorated with jewels to resemble the crowns of princes. However, a fresco in the Chapel of Saint Sylvester in the church of the Santi Quattro Coronati in Rome seems to represent the Pope wearing a tiara with two bands and with lappets. The addition of a crown is attributed to Pope Benedict XI or Pope Clement V. The first years of the 16th century saw the addition of a little globe, the third crown was added to the papal tiara during the Avignon Papacy, giving rise to the form called the triregnum. After Pope Clement V at Avignon, various versions of the three-crown tiara have been worn by popes also in Rome down to Pope Paul VI, who was crowned with one in 1963. The increased length had the meaning of dominion of the una sancta ecclesia over the earth. At the summit was a large ruby. Boniface VIII was succeeded in 1303 by Benedict XI, who took the tiara to Perugia, after his death in 1304 there was a period of eleven months before a new Pope succeeded. The Archbishop of Bordeaux was chosen and took the title of Clement V and he removed the papal seat from Rome to Avignon and the tiara was brought to Lyons from Perugia for his coronation on 14 November 1305. In the inventory which was taken in 1315–16 Boniface VIIIs tiara is again described and can be identified by the mention of the large ruby and it is described as having three circlets corona quae vocatur, regnum cum tribus circuitis aureis. It therefore must have been between the taking of the two inventories in 1295 and 1315 that the second and third circlets were added to the tiara and it was during this period that the fleur-de-lis was used to decorate the circlets
15. Queen's Crown – The Queens Crown was a part of the Polish Crown Jewels until it was destroyed in 1809. It was mentioned for the first time in the inventory of the Wawel Royal Treasury in the 15th century. The Polish Queens coronation insignia were made for Jadwiga of Kalisz, wife of Władysław I the Elbow-high in 1320. Since that time it served as the main insignium of the Polish Queens till the end of the 17th century, the crown was stolen from the Wawel Castle by the Prussian troops in 1794 and found its place in the collections of the Hohenzollerns in Berlin. After 1809 it was destroyed and melted down just as the majority of Polish regalia, the Queens Crown consisted of eight segments each crowned with heraldic fleur-de-lis and interspersed with smaller pinnacles. It was made of gold in the form of the rims covered with the globe. The 18th century surveys of the Wawel Royal Treasury indicate that it was decorated with 40 rubies,40 sapphires and 63 pearls. In the 18th century the crown was depicted in the portrait of Saint King Jadwiga of Poland by Marcello Bacciarelli, ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Media related to Queens Crown at Wikimedia Commons
16. Reliquary Crown of Henry II – After the process of German Mediatisation, Bamberg became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria and the crown was transferred to the treasury of the Munich Residenz, where it still can be seen today. This lily crown consists of six plates which are joined together by hinges fixed with pins, each of the plates carries a large fleur-de-lis. The pins are surmounted by praying angels standing on acanthus leaves, four of the segments and all fleur-de-lis are adorned with precious stones while two carry antique cameos. The decoration of the frame with foliage work seems to be of later date than the frame, due to fitting slots at the front and back segment it is possible to add an imperial arch and cross to the frame. German article dealing with the plans of creating a copy of the crown for the Cathedral of Bamberg
17. Votive crown – A votive crown is a votive offering in the form of a crown, normally in precious metals and often adorned with jewels. Especially in the Early Middle Ages, they are of a form, designed to be suspended by chains at an altar. Later examples are more often typical crowns in the style of the period, either designed to be placed on the head of a statue, there were pagan votive crowns in the ancient world, although these are essentially known only from literary references. From other references, it seems that in times not just statues of the gods. These were excavated in 1859, and are now divided between the National Archaeological Museum of Spain in Madrid and the Musée de Cluny in Paris. However the type was originally Roman or Byzantine, and adopted widely across Europe, nearly all these have been lost, in the example above, the letters on the pendilia spell RECCESVINTHVS REX OFFERET, or King Recceswinth offered this. These royal donations signified the submission of the monarchy to God, the main body of suspended crowns is usually flat around the top as well as the bottom rim, some are merely an open framework of flexibly linked metal pieces. The Iron Crown of Lombardy was perhaps made as a votive crown. Another gold crown was a source of contention in Constantinople, it was given to the Emperor Maurice by his wife Constantina, instead, he had it suspended by chains over the main altar of Hagia Sophia, upsetting the two ladies. It hung there for two centuries, until Emperor Leo IV coveted it and took it for his own use. Another Byzantine votive crown, given by Leo VI is now in the Treasury of San Marco, Venice, and is decorated with cloisonné enamels. In England, a medieval source says that King Canute gave a, or his, crown to be placed on or over the head of the rood, or large crucifix. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that Hereward the Wakes men looted a solid gold crown from the head of the rood on the altar of Peterborough Cathedral in 1070. It was designed to be worn on top of an elaborate headress and hairstyle, or perhaps on a hennin and this is now a rare example of a medieval votive crown that has survived above ground. A few years later, in 1487, the crown that had used by the pretender Lambert Simnel was given to a statue of the Virgin in Dublin. Statues of the Virgin Mary and the Infant Jesus, of the Infant Jesus of Prague type, are among those most commonly crowned and it is now in private hands in the US. Votive crowns have continued to be produced in Catholic countries in modern times, often such crowns were kept in the church treasury except for special occasions such as relevant feast-days, when they are worn by the statue. In Greece a tama or votive offering of, or depicting, actual crowns used in ceremonies were normally retained by the couple