The Gigliato, Gillat or Carlino, was a coin of pure silver established in 1303 by Charles II of Anjou in Naples, and also in Provence from 1330. Its name derives from the Lilies depicted on the reverse entwined around a cross and this type of coin was widely copied in the Eastern Mediterranean, especially by the Turks, such as the Emir of Saruhan. Charles I of Anjou, the brother of Louis IX of France, left his son the Kingdom of Naples. Charles II of Anjou initially continued this coinage, but he took office in a period of financial difficulty throughout Europe, attempts to fix the problem with legislation in 1293,1298 and 1301 only made matters worse. Seeing his coins exported, Charles II of Anjou made a change in 1303. He stopped minting gold coins entirely, and replaced his father’s silver saluto d’argento with a silver coin officially called a carlino. It contained 4.01 grams of.929 fine silver and its types were more typical of French gold coins, especially Philip the Fair’s petit royal d’or, than Italian silver coins.
The obverse shows the king in majestatum, i. e. seated on his throne, in this case the throne had lions on either side and the king holds a scepter and an orb topped with a cross. The legend, KAROL SCD DEI GRA IERL ET SICIL REX, i. e. Charles the second king of Jerusalem and Sicily, by 1303, the last remnant of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, was lost too, but the title was still prestigious. Moreover, the island of Sicily, which Charles I of Anjou had conquered in 1266, had been lost in a 1282 revolt called the Sicilian Vespers. Charles II of Anjou himself was captured in the war and had renounced his claims to Sicily as a condition of his release in 1288. The reverse shows a cross with fleur-de-lis on the ends of its arms and this profusion of lilies gave the coin its nickname, after the Provençal name for them, gillat. The legend, HONOR REGIS IVDICIVM DILIGIT, i. e. the honor of the king loves judgment, is from Psalm 99.4 and was appropriate to the pious Charles II, the same legend was used again much on coins of James VI of Scotland.
Charles II of Anjou’s third son and successor, Robert the Wise became a leader of the Guelph, i. e. pro-papal and he paid for his campaigns against the Ghibelline, i. e. pro-imperial, party by minting vast numbers of gigliati. In the reign of Ladislaus the Magnanimous, however, a shortage of silver throughout Western Europe forced him to downscale his coinage to half, the gigliati was such a success that it outlasted the Angevin dynasty. After the revolt of 1285 separated them for Naples, Sicily had adopted its own coin denominations, when Alfonso V of Aragon reunited Naples and Sicily in 1442, he adopted the gigliato of his now conquered arch-enemy. If this amounted to admitting that the Neapolitans had created a superior coinage, the marriage of Charles I of Anjou and the countess of Provence in 1246 had given the his dynasty control of that French region. In 1330, Robert the Wise began striking gigliati there, at the time, Provence hosted the Avignon Papacy and Pope John XXII began striking a version of the gigliato at Avignon
Groschen was the name for a coin used in various German-speaking states as well as some non-German-speaking countries of Central Europe and the Danubian Principalities. The name, like that of the English groat, derives from the Italian denaro grosso, or large penny, via the Czech form groš. The Qirsh, Ethiopian, Hebrew and Turkish names for currency denominations in, historically it was equal to between several and a dozen denarii. The type was introduced in 1271 by Duke Meinhard II of Tyrol in Merano, the 1286 example depicted here weighs 1. In Poland for example, since 1526 these included coins of 1⁄2 grosz,1 grosz and their weight gradually dropped to 1.8 grams of silver and since 1752 they were replaced by copper coins of the same name. The word has lost popularity with the introduction of the Euro, although it can still be heard on occasion, in Ukraine, grosh is still a slang term for the kopiyka, a 1⁄100 part of a hryvnia. The Ukrainian and Belarusian word for money, ultimately derives from this term also, in Bulgaria, the grosh was used as a currency until the lev was introduced in the 19th century.
In Palestine during the British Mandate, a grush was a coin with a hole in it and it was named after an Ottoman coin. When the pound was replaced by the lira after Israeli statehood in 1948, the name persisted for a while after the lira was replaced by the shekel in 1980, but it gradually lost its standing as the name of a certain coin. Now it is a slang for a small value. In Germany, the name Groschen replaced Schilling as the name for a 12 pfennig coin. In the 18th century it was used predominantly in the states as a coin worth 1⁄24 of a Reichsthaler. Following German unification and decimalisation, the Groschen was replaced by the 10 pfennig coin, for the same reason, the name Sechser remained in use regionally for the half-Groschen coin,5 Pfennigs. There is a Beethoven rondo for piano, opus 129 entitled Die Wut über den verlorenen Groschen, austria introduced the Groschen in 1924 as the subdivision of the schilling. It was restored, along with the schilling, in 1945, prague groschen Kraków grosz Guldengroschen Silbergroschen Neugroschen Die Dreigroschenoper, The Threepenny Opera Qirsh Kuruş Groat Venetian grosso
Kahavanu is a medieval currency from Sri Lanka. Like other Lankan coins from around 11th Century no date is indicated and it is not certain whether the Kahavanu was introduced at Ruhuna, the region in the south of the island to which the Sinhala court had been obliged to move as a result of Rajarajas conquests. The elbow is over a symbol but with a plain shank. To the right is a number of annulets or balls. There is a circle along the periphery of the coin. The right arm is pendant over the knee, which is drawn up. In field to right, there is a Devanagari legend in three lines, Sri Lanka Vibu, vibhu is a title of Vishnu. There is a circle along the periphery of coin. The three main types and subtypes as defined in Codrington are adopted in general, types I and II are more rare and characterized by elaborate formations of the Sri, the fineness of the lettering and the more sinuous lines of the body. In Type III with coarser figures the Sri resembles that of the Chola King Rajaraja, in 1907 John Still puts a footnote to the word genuine, How rare genuine specimens are I am inclined to think very few people thoroughly recognize.
Gold Lankesvaras and Vijaya Bahus are turned out wholesale in Kandy now, the improved manufacture of late is marked Gold Type 1A Kahavanu - Sun and Moon
The franc, commonly distinguished as the French franc, was a currency of France. Between 1450 and 1999, it was the name of coins worth 1 livre tournois and it was revalued in 1960, with each new franc being worth 100 old francs. The French franc was a commonly held reserve currency of reference in the 19th and 20th centuries. The first franc was a gold coin introduced in 1360 to pay the Ransom of King John II of France and this coin secured the kings freedom and showed him on a richly decorated horse earning it the name franc à cheval. The obverse legend, like other French coins, gives the title as Francorum Rex. Its value was set as one livre tournois, john’s son, Charles V, continued this type. It was copied exactly at Brabant and Cambrai and, with the arms on the horse cloth changed, conquests led by Joan of Arc allowed Charles VII to return to sound coinage and he revived the franc à cheval. John II, was not able to strike enough francs to pay his ransom, John II died as a prisoner in England and his son, Charles V was left to pick up the pieces.
Charles V pursued a policy of reform, including stable coinage, an edict dated 20 April 1365 established the centerpiece of this policy, a gold coin officially called the denier d’or aux fleurs de lis which had a standing figure of the king on its obverse. Its value in money of account was one livre tournois, just like the franc à cheval, in accordance with the theories of the mathematician and royal advisor Nicolas Oresme, Charles struck fewer coins of better gold than his predecessors. In the accompanying deflation both prices and wages fell, but wages fell faster and debtors had to settle up in better money than they had borrowed, the Mayor of Paris, Etienne Marcel, exploited their discontent to lead a revolt which forced Charles V out of the city. The States General which met at Blois in 1577 added to the pressure to stop currency manipulation. Henry III agreed to do this and he revived the franc and this coin and its fractions circulated until 1641 when Louis XIII of France replaced it with the silver Écu.
Nevertheless, the franc continued in accounting as a synonym for the livre tournois. The decimal franc was established as the currency by the French Revolutionary Convention in 1795 as a decimal unit of 4.5 g of fine silver. This was slightly less than the livre of 4.505 g, silver coins now had their denomination clearly marked as “5 FRANCS” and it was made obligatory to quote prices in francs. e. Coinage with explicit denominations in decimal fractions of the franc began in 1795, decimalization of the franc was mandated by an act of 7 April 1795, which dealt with of weights and measures. France’s first decimal coinage used allegorical figures symbolizing revolutionary principles, like the designs the United States had adopted in 1793
The ducat /ˈdʌkət/ was a gold or silver coin used as a trade coin in Europe from the medieval centuries until as late as the 20th century. Many types of ducats had various metallic content and purchasing power throughout the period, the gold ducat of Venice gained wide international acceptance, like the medieval Byzantine hyperpyron and the Florentine florin, or the modern British pound sterling and the United States dollar. The word ducat is from Medieval Latin ducatus = relating to a duke, Doge Enrico Dandolo of Venice, whose title means duke, introduced a silver ducat whose types are related to the ducats of Roger II. Later gold ducats of Venice, became so important that the name ducat was associated exclusively with them, the Venetian business model of the 13th century was importing goods from the East and selling them at a profit north of the Alps. They paid for goods with Byzantine gold coins but when the Byzantine emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos backed a rebellion called the Sicilian Vespers in 1282.
This was just one more in a series of debasements of the hyperpyron, both Florence and Genoa had introduced gold coins in 1252 and the florin of Florence had become the standard European gold coin. Venice modeled the size and weight of their ducat on the florin, the Venetian ducat contained 3.545 grams of 99. 47% fine gold, the highest purity medieval metallurgy could produce. Gold ducat types derive from silver ducat types, which were ultimately Byzantine, the obverse shows the Doge of Venice kneeling before St. Mark, the patron saint of Venice. Saint Mark holds the gospel, which is his usual attribute, the legend on the left identifies the saint as S M VENET, i. e. Saint Mark of Venice, and the legend on the right identifies the doge, with his title DVX in the field. On the reverse, Christ stands among a field of stars in an oval frame, the reverse legend is the same as on Roger II’s ducats. Succeeding doges of Venice continued striking ducats, changing only their name on the obverse, during the 15th century, the value of the ducat in terms of silver money was stable at 124 Venetian soldi, i. e. schillings.
The term ducat became identified with this amount of money as well as the gold coin. Conflict between England and Spain in 1567, increased the price of gold and upset this equivalence, at this point, the coin was called the ducato de zecca, i. e. ducat of the mint, which was shortened to zecchino and corrupted to sequin. Leonardo Loredan extended the coinage with a half ducat and subsequent doges added a quarter, all of these coins continued to use the designs and weight standards of the original 1284 ducat. Even after dates became a feature of western coinage, Venice struck ducats without them until Napoleon ended the Venetian Republic in 1797. Instead, the Roman coin showed a senator kneeling before St. Peter on the obverse, the Popes subsequently changed these designs, but continued to strike ducats of the same weight and size into the 16th century. Most imitations of the Venetian ducat were made in the Levant, the Knights of Saint John struck ducats with grand master Dieudonné de Gozon, 1346-1353, kneeling before Saint John on the obverse and an angel seated on the Sepulcher of Christ on the reverse.
Subsequent Grand masters, found it expedient to copy the Venetian types more exactly, first at Rhodes and they struck ducats at Chios that could be distinguished from the Venetian originals only by their workmanship
The fals was a medieval copper coin first produced by the Umayyad caliphate beginning in the late 7th century. The name is a corruption of follis, a Roman and Byzantine copper coin, the fals usually featured ornate Arabic script on both sides. Various copper fals were produced until the 19th century and their weight varied, from one gram to ten grams or more. The term is used in modern spoken Arabic for money
Medieval Bulgarian coinage
Medieval Bulgarian coinage are the coins minted by the Bulgarian Emperors during the Middle Ages at the time of the Second Bulgarian Empire. There is no evidence that coins were minted during the First Bulgarian Empire and they were gold, silver and copper coins, all flat and hollow. The inscriptions were usually in Bulgarian language and rarely in Greek, due to the limited space the inscriptions were abbreviated, often written with a few letters and special signs. Artistically, they continued the Byzantine numismatic tradition but the designs were often more schematic, the main means of expression were lines and dots. The Bulgarian coins had images different from the Byzantine and Slav coinage, the coins are an important source for the history of the Second Bulgarian Empire. Tsar Ivan Asen II is the first Bulgarian ruler from whose reign coins are preserved and it is known that his predecessors Kaloyan and Boril minted imitations of Byzantine coins. Although Kaloyan was given the right to mint coins by Pope Innocent III, there are no surviving coins of theirs, gold perpera - It is the only surviving gold coin, not only of a medieval Bulgarian monarch, but of any Slavonic ruler of the period.
One example was found in 1934 among other coins in the area of Prilep and it is now in the National Archaeological Museum of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences. Its weight is 4.33 g, the diameter is 33 mm, on one side Ivan Asen II and Saint Demetrius of Thessaloniki are depicted upright. With one of his hands the Saint gives the Emperor a sword, the inscription is in Bulgarian and abbreviated, and says, Ivan Asen and Saint Dimitar. On the other side of the coin is depicted Christ Pantocrator, the inscription is Jesus Christ, Tsar of the Glory. Due to similarities with the coins of Theodore Komnenos Doukas, it is presumed that the coins might have been minted in the Thessalonica mint, the uniqueness of Ivan Asens gold perpera and the peculiarity of its iconography have ledt a minority of researchers to doubt its authenticity. Its peculiarity is the gesture of Saint Demetrius who simultaneously crowns the Emperor and gives him a sword. Billon coins - There are around one hundred preserved coins of that type, on one side is the image of the Emperor and Saint Demetrius upright and holding a scepter with a star.
On the other side is depicted Christ Pantocrator and these coins were probably minted in the Thessalonica mint. Their weight is between 3.00 and 3.08 grams, billon coins - On one side is depicted the Emperor in 3/4 length, holding a cross in his left and a scepter in his right hand. On the other side is Saint Nicholas in half-length, the inscription Saint Nicholas is in Greek. The saint is protector of the sailors and was a patron of the Emperor probably because the lands of Mitso Asen included the port of Nesebar
Florin derives from the city of Florence in Italy and frequently refers to the gold coin struck in 1252. Recent research indicates that the florin was once the dominant currency of Europe until accommodative policymaking led to the loss of its status as the de facto reserve currency. By 1419, the weight had been reduced and the alloy was substantially reduced. By 1626, the alloy had been reduced again, while the weight was more substantially reduced. In 1409, the Rheingulden standard was adopted for the Holy Roman Empires Reichsgulden
A bracteate is a flat, single-sided gold medal worn as jewelry that was produced in Northern Europe predominantly during the Migration Period of the Germanic Iron Age. Gold bracteates commonly denote a type of jewelry, made mainly in the 5th to 7th century AD. Bead-rimmed and fitted with a loop, most were intended to be suspended by a string around the neck. The gold for the bracteates came from coins paid as peace money by the Roman Empire to their Northern Germanic neighbors, the motifs are commonly those of Germanic mythology and some are believed to be Germanic pagan icons giving protection or for divination. For this reason the bracteates are a target of iconographic studies by scholars interested in Germanic religion, several bracteates feature runic alphabet inscriptions. Numerous Bracteates feature swastikas as a common motif, of these,135 bear Elder Futhark inscriptions which are often very short, the most notable inscriptions are found on the Seeland-II-C, Vadstena and Tjurkö bracteates.
To these can be added the ca.270 E-bracteates, which belong to the Vendel Period and they were produced only on Gotland, and while the earlier bracteates all were made from gold, many E-bracteates were made from silver or bronze. This has been published in three volumes in German named Die Goldbrakteaten der Völkerwanderungszeit, a catalogue supplement is included in Heizmann & Axboe 2011. In some cantons of Switzerland, bracteate-like rappen, the term bracteate for these coins was not used contemporarily. It was first used in the 17th century, the bracteates were usually called back regularly, about once or twice a year, and could be exchanged for new coins with a deduction. This system worked like a demurrage, People wouldnt hoard their coins, so this money was used more as a medium of exchange than for storing value. This increased the velocity of money and stimulated the economy, medieval silver bracteates may be large, but most are about 15 millimeters across and weigh about 1 gram. Sometimes the coins could be divided to pay smaller amounts, the town leagues were not interested in such a system and introduced in 1413 the Ewiger Pfennig without this decay.
Pesch, Die Goldbrakteaten der Völkerwanderungszeit – Thema und Variation, hoards from the Roman Iron Age – Early Viking Age Evidence of the Jutes BBC list of Danish bracteates with runic inscriptions