Category:Medieval male composers
Pages in category "Medieval male composers"
The following 94 pages are in this category, out of 94 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 94 pages are in this category, out of 94 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Composer – A composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music, instrumental music or music which combines both instruments and voices. The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation, many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists, and/or conductors. Examples of composers who are well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach, Mozart. In many popular genres, such as rock and country. For a singer or instrumental performer, the process of deciding how to perform music that has previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers interpretations of the work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others, although a musical composition often has a single author, this is not always the case. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or, in the 20th and 21st century, a culture eventually developed whereby faithfulness to the composers written intention came to be highly valued. This musical culture is almost certainly related to the esteem in which the leading classical composers are often held by performers. The movement might be considered a way of creating greater faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In Classical music, the composer typically orchestrates her own compositions, in some cases, a pop songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and then play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European classical music, the function of composing music initially did not have greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. In as much as the role of the composer in western art music has seen continued solidification, for instance, in certain contexts the line between composer and performer, sound designer, arranger, producer, and other roles, can be quite blurred. The term composer is often used to refer to composers of music, such as those found in classical, jazz or other forms of art. In popular and folk music, the composer is usually called a songwriter and this is distinct from a 19th-century conception of instrumental composition, where the work was represented solely by a musical score to be interpreted by performers
2. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
3. Peter Abelard – Peter Abelard was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician. His love for, and affair with, Héloïse dArgenteuil have become legendary, the Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century. Abelard, originally called Pierre le Pallet, was born c. 1079 in Le Pallet, about 10 miles east of Nantes, in Brittany, as a boy, he learned quickly. Instead of entering a career, as his father had done. During his early academic pursuits, Abelard wandered throughout France, debating and learning and he first studied in the Loire area, where the nominalist Roscellinus of Compiègne, who had been accused of heresy by Anselm, was his teacher during this period. Around 1100, Abelards travels finally brought him to Paris, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris, he was taught for a while by William of Champeaux, the disciple of Anselm of Laon, a leading proponent of Realism. During this time he changed his surname to Abelard, sometimes written Abailard or Abaelardus, and William thought Abelard was too arrogant. It was during this time that Abelard would provoke quarrels with both William and Roscellinus and his teaching was notably successful, though for a time he had to give it up and spend time in Brittany, the strain proving too great for his constitution. Abelard was once more victorious, and Abelard was almost able to hold the position of master at Notre Dame, for a short time, however, William was able to prevent Abelard from lecturing in Paris. Abelard accordingly was forced to resume his school at Melun, which he was able to move, from c. 1110-12, to Paris itself, on the heights of Montagne Sainte-Geneviève. From his success in dialectic, he turned to theology and in 1113 moved to Laon to attend the lectures of Anselm on biblical exegesis. Unimpressed by Anselms teaching, Abelard began to offer his own lectures on the Book of Ezekiel, Anselm forbade him to continue this teaching, and Abelard returned to Paris where, in around 1115, he became master of Notre Dame and a canon of Sens. Distinguished in figure and manners, Abelard was seen surrounded by crowds – it is thousands of students – drawn from all countries by the fame of his teaching. Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and entertained with universal admiration, he came, as he says, but a change in his fortunes was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had lived a very regular life, enlivened only by philosophical debate, now, at the height of his fame. Héloïse dArgenteuil lived within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle and she was remarkable for her knowledge of classical letters, which extended beyond Latin to Greek and Hebrew. Abelard sought a place in Fulberts house and, in 1115 or 1116, the affair interfered with his career, and Abelard himself boasted of his conquest. Once Fulbert found out, he separated them, but they continued to meet in secret, Héloïse became pregnant and was sent by Abelard to be looked after by his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to a son whom she named Astrolabe after the scientific instrument
4. Denis of Portugal – Denis, called the Farmer King and the Poet King, was King of Portugal and the Algarve. The eldest son of Afonso III of Portugal by his wife, Beatrice of Castile. His marriage to Elizabeth of Aragon, who was canonised as a saint of the Roman Catholic Church, was arranged in 1281 when she was 10 years old. He worked to reorganise his countrys economy and gave an impetus to Portuguese agriculture and he ordered the planting of a large pine forest near Leiria to prevent the soil degradation that threatened the region and as a source of raw materials for the construction of the royal ships. He was also known for his poetry, which constitutes a major contribution to the development of Portuguese as a literary language and his policies encouraged economic development with the creation of numerous towns and trade fairs. In 1289 Denis had signed an agreement with Pope Nicholas IV, the new order was designed to be a continuation of the Order of the Temple. Denis negotiated with Clements successor, John XXII, for recognition of the new order and its right to inherit the Templar assets, during Denis reign, Lisbon became one of Europes centres of culture and learning. The first university in Portugal, then called the Estudo Geral, was founded with his signing of the document Scientiae thesaurus mirabilis in Leiria on 3 March 1290. Lectures in the arts, civil law, canon law, and medicine were given, and on 15 February 1309, the granted the university a charter. The university was moved between Lisbon and Coimbra several times, and finally installed permanently in Coimbra in 1537 by order of King John III and he patronised troubadours, and wrote lyric poetry in the troubadour tradition himself. His best-known work is the Cantigas de Amigo, a collection of songs as well as satirical songs. These poems are found in the order in the two previously known codices. As heir-apparent to the throne, Infante Denis was summoned by his father Afonso III to share governmental responsibilities. The country was again in conflict with the Catholic Church at the time, Afonso having been excommunicated in 1277, consequently, the church was favorably inclined to reach an agreement with the new monarch upon his accession to the throne. The next year he took steps against ecclesiastical power when he promulgated amortisation laws. These prohibited the church and religious orders from buying lands, several years later he issued another decree forbidding them to inherit the estates of recruits to the orders. In 1288, Denis managed to persuade Pope Nicholas IV to issue a papal Bull that separated the Order of Santiago in Portugal from that in Castile, to which it had been subordinate. With the extinction of the Knights Templar, he was able to transfer their assets in the country to the Order of Christ, Denis was essentially an administrator and not a warrior king
5. Godric of Finchale – Saint Godric of Finchale was an English hermit, merchant and popular medieval saint, although he was never formally canonised. He was born in Walpole in Norfolk and died in Finchale in County Durham, Saint Godrics life was recorded by a contemporary of his, a monk named Reginald of Durham. Several other hagiographies are also extant and this encounter changed his life, and he devoted himself to Christianity and service to God thereafter. After many pilgrimages around the Mediterranean, Godric returned to England and he had previously served as doorkeeper, the lowest of the minor orders, at the hospital church of nearby St Giles Hospital in Durham. He is recorded to have lived at Finchale for the sixty years of his life. As the years passed, his reputation grew, and Thomas Becket, Reginald describes Godrics physical attributes, For he was vigorous and strenuous in mind, whole of limb and strong in body. St Godric is perhaps best remembered for his kindness toward animals, according to one of these, he hid a stag from pursuing hunters, according to another, he even allowed snakes to warm themselves by his fire. Reginald of Durham recorded four songs of St Godrics, they are the oldest songs in English for which the musical settings survive. Reginald describes the circumstances in which Godric learnt the first song, in a vision the Virgin Mary appeared to Godric with at her side two maidens of surpassing beauty clad in shining white raiments. They pledged to come to his aid in times of need, the novel Godric by Frederick Buechner is a fictional retelling of his life and travels. It was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize, Reginald of Durham, Life of St. Godric, in G. G. Coulton, ed. Social Life in Britain from the Conquest to the Reformation Cambridge, Cambridge University Press,1918, – digital copy Frederick Buechner, Godric,1981, ISBN 0-06-061162-6, a historical novel. Entry for Godric, first edition of the Dictionary of National Biography, victoria M. Tudor, Reginald of Durham and St. Godric of Finchale, a study of a twelfth-century hagiographer and his subject, Reading PhD thesis,1979. Victoria M. Tudor, Reginald of Durham and Saint Godric of Finchale, learning and religion on a personal level, Studies in Church History,17,1981. Susan J. Ridyard, Functions of a Twelfth-Century Recluse Revisited, The Case of Godric of Finchale, in Belief and Culture in the Middle Ages, Studies Presented to Henry Mayr-Harting. Henry Mayr-Harting, Henrietta Leyser and Richard Gameson, pp. Francis Rice, rector of St Godrics The Hermit of Finchdale, Life of Saint Godric Pentland Press ISBN 1-85821-151-4 Trend, J. B. Anglo-Norman Durham, 1093–1193, Boydell & Brewer, ISBN 0-85115-654-1 Medieval SourceBook, Reginald of Durham, Life of Saint Godric, the Hermit in Lore, Frederick Buechners Godric. Santë Marië Virginë performed by the music group La Reverdie
6. John Koukouzelis – John Koukouzelis or Jan Kukuzeli was an Albanian-Bulgarian medieval Orthodox Christian composer, singer and reformer of Orthodox Church music. Koukouzelis was born in Durazzo, at the part of the Angevin Kingdom of Albania in the late 13th century to an Albanian father. According to some sources he was born in Džerminci, near Debar, Koukouzelis last name is allegedly derived from the Greek word for broad beans and a Slavic word for cabbage. Most scholars, including David Marshall Lang, state that his mother was simply of Bulgarian origin, however, according to Raymond Detrez, despite that his mother may have been a Bulgarian, her Slavic origin is obscure. At a young age, he was noted and accepted into the school at the court at Constantinople. Koukouzelis received his education at the Constantinople court vocal school and established himself as one of the authorities in his field during the time. A favourite of the Byzantine emperor and a principal choir chanter, he moved to Mount Athos, because of his singing abilities, he was called Angel-voiced. Koukouzelis established a new style of singing out of the sticherarion. Despite his innovations, Manuel assured that John Koukouzelis never contradicted the traditional method of the old sticherarion, do not think therefore, that the performance of chant is simple, but rather that it is complex and of many forms. Thus even in the kalophonic stichera the composers of these do not depart from their original melodies but follow them accurately, step by step, and retain them. Therefore, they take over some melodies unchanged from tradition and from the music thus preserved, the second composer always follows his predecessor and his successor follows him and, to put it simply, everyone retains the technique of the art. But, had he acted thus, he would neither acted correctly nor would he have thought that he had interpreted the science of composition befittingly. Therefore, he follows the path of the old stichera precisely and does not alter them at all, the school of John Glykys and his followers like John and Xenos Korones created the Late Byzantine system of round notation. But the use of just one system could seduce to the conclusion. Instead a huge number of different methods had to be observed, John Koukouzelis was obviously just one among a group of very talented musicians and reformers. Nevertheless, his reputation caused that he is often identified with the reform itself. This identification is a phenomenon in many Oriental and Andalusian traditions whose orally based transmission had never been completely abandoned. The kalophonic method of John Koukouzelis can be studied by means of a vocal exercise Mega Ison which offered 60 designations of vocal signs
7. Guilhem Ademar – Guilhem Ademar was a troubadour from the Gévaudan in France. He travelled between the courts of Albi, Toulouse, Narbonne, and Spain and he achieved fame enough during his life to be satirised by the nobleman and monk, Monge de Montaudon. Guilhem entered holy orders towards the end of his life, sixteen poems—fourteen cansos, a sirventes, and a partimen with Eble dUssel—form his surviving corpus. His cansos are his most famous pieces, usually humorous, several mock the poetry of Ademars more illustrious contemporary Arnaut Daniel. One canso survives with a tune, according to his vida, Guilhem was the son of a poor knight from Meyrueis, the lord of which castle created him a knight. He was an eloquent man who knew well how to invent poetry, when he was no longer able to support himself as a knight he took to minstrelsy and was greatly honoured by all the high society. Towards the end of his life he joined the Order of Grandmont, Guilhem Ademars career can be dated from a reference in a poetic satire of contemporary troubadours by the Monge de Montaudon around 1195. The Monge playfully insults Guilhem as a bad joglar who always wears old clothes and whose lady has thirty lovers. The earliest reference to a W. Ademars, a petty noble of the Gévaudan, occurs in 1192, though this figure, who appears in documents until 1217, cannot be definitively identified with the troubadour. One of Guilhems more famous pieces is Non pot esser sofert ni atendut and it has presented a riddle for its dating through references to two Spanish kings, a rey Ferrans and reis NAmfos, cui dopton li masmut / e. l mieiller coms de la crestiantat. Ferrans may be either Ferdinand II of León or Ferdinand III of Castile, the Alfonso could be Alfonso II of Aragon, who was also the Count of Barcelona. Guilhem may thus have had in mind the events of Las Navas, Guilhem may have even been at Las Navas with Raymond. Guilhems poetry is in light, easy-going, and characterised by irony. Like Peire Raimon, his contemporary at the court of Raymond VI of Toulouse, Guilhems lone surviving piece of music is neumatic in texture and motivic in phrasing. In his primary love songs, Guilhem praises two ladies, one from Albi and another from Narbonne, despite this, Guilhem has been accused of misogyny for his poem El temps destui, qan par la flors el bruoill. His love song Ben foroimais sazos e locs is written as a message to his lover to be delivered by her porter, who is strictly warned to follow through. In his only sirventes, Ieu ai ja vista manhta rey, Guilhem moralises in a slightly Marcabrunian fashion on how loyal and generous suitors are rejected in favour fools, los trovadores, historia literaria y textos
8. Folquet de Marselha – Folquet de Marselha, alternatively Folquet de Marseille, Foulques de Toulouse, Fulk of Toulouse came from a Genoese merchant family who lived in Marseille. He is known as a trobadour, and then as a fiercely anti-Cathar bishop of Toulouse. He is known primarily for his songs, which were lauded by Dante, there are 14 surviving cansos, one tenson, one lament, one invective. A contemporary, John of Garlande, later described him as renowned on account of his spouse, his progeny, Folquets life and career abruptly changed around 1195 when he experienced a profound religious conversion and decided to renounce his former life. He joined the strict Cistercian Order, entering the monastery of Thoronet and he soon rose in prominence and was elected abbot of Thoronet which allowed him to help found the sister house of Géménos to house women, quite possibly including his wife. He was elected Bishop of Toulouse in 1205, after two Cistercian Papal legates had been sent to the region to reform it, pope Innocent III was particularly concerned by the prevalence of both heresy and episcopal corruption in the Languedoc and used the Cistercians to combat both. The legates had deposed the previous Bishop, Raimon de Rabastens, as Bishop of Toulouse, Folquet took a very active role in combatting heresy. Throughout his episcopal career he sought to create and encourage outlets for religious enthusiasm that were Catholic in an effort to woo away from preachers of heresy. In 1206 he created what would become the convent of Prouille to offer women a religious community that would rival those of the Cathars and he participated in the initial preaching mission of Saint Dominic that was led by Dominics superior, Bishop Diego of Osma. Bishop Foulques had tumultuous relations with his diocese, primarily on account of his support of the Albigensian Crusade, hated by many Toulousains and by Count Raymond VI of Toulouse he left Toulouse on 2 April 1211, after the crusaders laid siege to Lavaur. Soon afterwards he instructed all clerics to leave the city and he was present at the siege in April–May 1211, he then travelled north to France, where he preached the Crusade alongside Guy of les Vaux-de-Cernay. In July 1215 Foulques issued a letter instituting Dominics brotherhood of preachers. In November 1215 he and Dominic, with Guy of Montfort, were in Rome at the Fourth Lateran Council, in October 1217, when Simon was besieging Toulouse once more, he sent a group of sympathisers to Paris to plead for the help of king Philippe-Auguste. This group included Simons wife, the countess Alix de Montmorency and they began their journey clandestinely, through the forest, to avoid attacks by faidits. They returned more flamboyantly, in May 1218, bringing a party of new Crusaders including the dashing Amaury de Craon, Foulques spent much of the following decade outside his diocese, assisting the crusading army and the Churchs attempts to bring order to the region. He was at the Council of Sens in 1223, after the Peace of Paris finally ended the crusade in 1229, Foulques returned to Toulouse and began to construct the institutions that were designed to combat heresy in the region. He helped to create the University of Toulouse and administered the newly created Episcopal Inquisition. He died in 1231 and was buried, beside the tomb of William VII of Montpellier, at the abbey of Grandselves, near Toulouse, stanislaw Stronski, Le troubadour Folquet de Marseille
9. Francesco Landini – Francesco degli Organi, Francesco il Cieco, or Francesco da Firenze, called by later generations Francesco Landini or Landino was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet and instrument maker. He was one of the most famous and revered composers of the half of the 14th century. Most of the biographical data on him comes from a 1385 book on famous Florentine citizens by chronicler Filippo Villani. The reason is that the surname Landini or Landino has not been linked to the composer in any sources of the 14th century nor in secondary references in the 15th century. The evidence linking Francesco to the Landini family via his presumed father and it can therefore also no longer be maintained that the painter Jacopo del Casentino was his father or that Cristoforo Landino was his great-nephew. Landini was most likely born in Florence, though Cristoforo Landino, blind from childhood, Landini became devoted to music early in life, and mastered many instruments, including the lute, as well as the art of singing, writing poetry, and composition. Despite his young age, Landini was already active in the early 1350s, according to Villani, Landini was given a crown of laurel by the King of Cyprus, who was in Venice for several periods during the 1360s. Landini probably spent some time in northern Italy prior to 1370 and he was employed as organist at the Florentine monastery of Santa Trinità in 1361, and at the church of San Lorenzo from 1365 onward. He was heavily involved in the political and religious controversies of his day, according to Villani, around or shortly after 1375, Andreas hired him as a consultant to help build the organ at the Servite house in Florence. Among the surviving records are the receipts for the wine that the two consumed during the three days it had taken to tune the instrument. Landini also helped build the new organ at SS Annunziata in 1379, and in 1387 he was involved in yet another organ-building project and this book, written in 1389 contains short stories, one of which supposedly was related by Landini himself. His reputation for moving an audience with his music was so powerful that writers noted the sweetness of his melodies was such that hearts burst from their bosoms and he is buried in the church of San Lorenzo in Florence. His tombstone, lost until the 19th century and now displayed in the church. Landini was the foremost exponent of the Italian Trecento style, sometimes called the Italian ars nova. His output was almost exclusively secular, while there are records that he composed sacred music, none of it has survived. What have survived are eighty-nine ballate for two voices, forty-two ballate for three voices, and another nine which exist in two and three-voice versions. In addition to the ballate, a number of madrigals have survived. Landini is assumed to have written his own texts for many of his works and his output, preserved most completely in the Squarcialupi Codex, represents almost a quarter of all surviving 14th-century Italian music
10. Martin Codax – Martin Codax or Martim Codax was a Galician medieval joglar - possibly from Vigo, Galicia in present day Spain. He may have been active during the middle of the thirteenth century and he is one of only two out of a total of 88 authors of cantigas damigo who used only the archaic strophic form aaB. He employed an archaic rhyme-system whereby i~o / a~o were used in alternating strophes, in addition Martin Codax consistently utilised a strict parallelistic technique known as leixa-pren. There is no biographical information concerning the poet, dating the work at present remains based on theoretical analysis of the text. The body of work attributed to him consists of seven cantigas damigo which appear in the Galician-Portuguese songbooks, in all three manuscripts he is listed as the author of the compositions, in all three the number and order of the songs is the same. The identification of authorship of the poems may contribute to a viewpoint that the seven songs of Codax reflect an original performance set, consequently the sets of poems by other poets might also have been organized for performance. They are the only cantigas damigo for which the music is known, the Pergaminho Sharrer contains seven melodies for cantigas damor of Denis of Portugal, also in fragmentary form. Here is the third of his songs Cantiga de amigo Galician-Portuguese Galician-Portuguese lyric Pergaminho Sharrer Cohen, the Cantigas d’Amigo, An English Translation Cohen, Rip. 500 Cantigas d’ Amigo, Edição Crítica / Critical Edition, porto, Campo das Letras Cunha, Celso. Cancioneiros dos Trovadores do Mar, edição preparada por Elsa Gonçalves, sobre a dimensão musical da lírica galego-portuguesa. Lisbon, UNISYS/ Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda, “Codax Revisitado”, Anuario de Estudios Literarios Galegos, 157–68. Para a análise grafemática dos testemuños poéticos en galego da segunda metade do século XIII”, in Ferreiro, a edición da Poesia Trobadoresca en Galiza. Xograres do mar de Vigo, Johán de Cangas, Martín Codax, historia da literatura galega I, Das orixes a 1853. Portal de Martin Codax en la Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes Digital edition Visualization
11. Adam de la Halle – Adam de la Halle, also known as Adam le Bossu was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician. He was a member of the Confrérie des jongleurs et bourgeois dArras, Adams other nicknames, le Bossu dArras and Adam dArras, suggest that he came from Arras, France. The sobriquet the Hunchback was probably a name, Adam himself points out that he was not one. His father, Henri de la Halle, was a well-known Citizen of Arras, and Adam studied grammar, theology, father and son had their share in the civil discords in Arras, and for a short time took refuge in Douai. Adam had been destined for the church, but renounced this intention, and married a certain Marie, who figures in many of his songs, rondeaux, motets and jeux-partis. Afterwards he joined the household of Robert II, Count of Artois, and then was attached to Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX, whose fortunes he followed in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Italy. At the court of Charles, after Charles became king of Naples, Adam wrote his Jeu de Robin et Marion, Adams shorter pieces are accompanied by music, of which a transcript in modern notation, with the original score, is given in Coussemakers edition. His Jeu de Robin et Marion is cited as the earliest French play with music on a secular subject, the pastoral, which tells how Marion resisted the knight, and remained faithful to Robert the shepherd, is based on an old chanson, Robin maime, Robin ma. It consists of dialogue varied by refrains already current in popular song, the melodies to which these are set have the character of folk music, and are more spontaneous and melodious than the more elaborate music of his songs and motets. Fétis considered Le Jeu de Robin et Marion and Le Jeu de la feuillée forerunners of the comic opera. An adaptation of Le Jeu Robin et Marion, by Julien Tiersot, was played at Arras by a company from the Paris Opéra-Comique on the occasion of a festival in 1896 in honour of Adam de le Hale. His other play, Le jeu Adan or Le jeu de la Feuillee, is a drama in which he introduces himself, his father. His known works include thirty-six chansons, forty-six rondets de carole, eighteen jeux-partis, fourteen rondeaux, five motets, one rondeau-virelai, one ballette, one dit damour, Le jeu de Robin et Marion,13 rondeaux. Pro Musica Antiqua, Brussels, Safford Cape, conductor, recorded June 23,1953, in the Palais des Academies, Brussels. Research Period, The Central Middle Ages, Series A, Troubadours, Trouvères and Minnesingers, Series B, Music of the Minstrels, Series C, Early Polyphony before 1300. LP recording,1 disc, analog, monaural, 33⅓ rpm,12 in, Le jeu de Robin et Marion. CD recording,1 disc, digital, stereo, 4¾ in, Le jeu de Robin et Marion. Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, Thomas Binkley, cond, recorded May 1987 at the Barfüsserkirche in Basel, Switzerland