Category:Medieval male composers
Pages in category "Medieval male composers"
The following 94 pages are in this category, out of 94 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 94 pages are in this category, out of 94 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Composer – A composer is a person who creates or writes music, which can be vocal music, instrumental music or music which combines both instruments and voices. The core meaning of the term refers to individuals who have contributed to the tradition of Western classical music through creation of works expressed in written musical notation, many composers are also skilled performers, either as singers, instrumentalists, and/or conductors. Examples of composers who are well known for their ability as performers include J. S. Bach, Mozart. In many popular genres, such as rock and country. For a singer or instrumental performer, the process of deciding how to perform music that has previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. Different performers interpretations of the work of music can vary widely, in terms of the tempos that are chosen. Composers and songwriters who present their own music are interpreting, just as much as those who perform the music of others, although a musical composition often has a single author, this is not always the case. A piece of music can also be composed with words, images, or, in the 20th and 21st century, a culture eventually developed whereby faithfulness to the composers written intention came to be highly valued. This musical culture is almost certainly related to the esteem in which the leading classical composers are often held by performers. The movement might be considered a way of creating greater faithfulness to the original in works composed at a time that expected performers to improvise. In Classical music, the composer typically orchestrates her own compositions, in some cases, a pop songwriter may not use notation at all, and instead compose the song in her mind and then play or record it from memory. In jazz and popular music, notable recordings by influential performers are given the weight that written scores play in classical music. The level of distinction between composers and other musicians varies, which issues such as copyright and the deference given to individual interpretations of a particular piece of music. In the development of European classical music, the function of composing music initially did not have greater importance than that of performing it. The preservation of individual compositions did not receive attention and musicians generally had no qualms about modifying compositions for performance. In as much as the role of the composer in western art music has seen continued solidification, for instance, in certain contexts the line between composer and performer, sound designer, arranger, producer, and other roles, can be quite blurred. The term composer is often used to refer to composers of music, such as those found in classical, jazz or other forms of art. In popular and folk music, the composer is usually called a songwriter and this is distinct from a 19th-century conception of instrumental composition, where the work was represented solely by a musical score to be interpreted by performers
2. Middle Ages – In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or Medieval Period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century. It began with the fall of the Western Roman Empire and merged into the Renaissance, the Middle Ages is the middle period of the three traditional divisions of Western history, classical antiquity, the medieval period, and the modern period. The medieval period is subdivided into the Early, High. Population decline, counterurbanisation, invasion, and movement of peoples, the large-scale movements of the Migration Period, including various Germanic peoples, formed new kingdoms in what remained of the Western Roman Empire. In the seventh century, North Africa and the Middle East—once part of the Byzantine Empire—came under the rule of the Umayyad Caliphate, although there were substantial changes in society and political structures, the break with classical antiquity was not complete. The still-sizeable Byzantine Empire survived in the east and remained a major power, the empires law code, the Corpus Juris Civilis or Code of Justinian, was rediscovered in Northern Italy in 1070 and became widely admired later in the Middle Ages. In the West, most kingdoms incorporated the few extant Roman institutions, monasteries were founded as campaigns to Christianise pagan Europe continued. The Franks, under the Carolingian dynasty, briefly established the Carolingian Empire during the later 8th, the Crusades, first preached in 1095, were military attempts by Western European Christians to regain control of the Holy Land from Muslims. Kings became the heads of centralised nation states, reducing crime and violence, intellectual life was marked by scholasticism, a philosophy that emphasised joining faith to reason, and by the founding of universities. Controversy, heresy, and the Western Schism within the Catholic Church paralleled the conflict, civil strife. Cultural and technological developments transformed European society, concluding the Late Middle Ages, the Middle Ages is one of the three major periods in the most enduring scheme for analysing European history, classical civilisation, or Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and the Modern Period. Medieval writers divided history into periods such as the Six Ages or the Four Empires, when referring to their own times, they spoke of them as being modern. In the 1330s, the humanist and poet Petrarch referred to pre-Christian times as antiqua, leonardo Bruni was the first historian to use tripartite periodisation in his History of the Florentine People. Bruni and later argued that Italy had recovered since Petrarchs time. The Middle Ages first appears in Latin in 1469 as media tempestas or middle season, in early usage, there were many variants, including medium aevum, or middle age, first recorded in 1604, and media saecula, or middle ages, first recorded in 1625. The alternative term medieval derives from medium aevum, tripartite periodisation became standard after the German 17th-century historian Christoph Cellarius divided history into three periods, Ancient, Medieval, and Modern. The most commonly given starting point for the Middle Ages is 476, for Europe as a whole,1500 is often considered to be the end of the Middle Ages, but there is no universally agreed upon end date. English historians often use the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485 to mark the end of the period
3. Peter Abelard – Peter Abelard was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian and preeminent logician. His love for, and affair with, Héloïse dArgenteuil have become legendary, the Chambers Biographical Dictionary describes him as the keenest thinker and boldest theologian of the 12th Century. Abelard, originally called Pierre le Pallet, was born c. 1079 in Le Pallet, about 10 miles east of Nantes, in Brittany, as a boy, he learned quickly. Instead of entering a career, as his father had done. During his early academic pursuits, Abelard wandered throughout France, debating and learning and he first studied in the Loire area, where the nominalist Roscellinus of Compiègne, who had been accused of heresy by Anselm, was his teacher during this period. Around 1100, Abelards travels finally brought him to Paris, in the great cathedral school of Notre-Dame de Paris, he was taught for a while by William of Champeaux, the disciple of Anselm of Laon, a leading proponent of Realism. During this time he changed his surname to Abelard, sometimes written Abailard or Abaelardus, and William thought Abelard was too arrogant. It was during this time that Abelard would provoke quarrels with both William and Roscellinus and his teaching was notably successful, though for a time he had to give it up and spend time in Brittany, the strain proving too great for his constitution. Abelard was once more victorious, and Abelard was almost able to hold the position of master at Notre Dame, for a short time, however, William was able to prevent Abelard from lecturing in Paris. Abelard accordingly was forced to resume his school at Melun, which he was able to move, from c. 1110-12, to Paris itself, on the heights of Montagne Sainte-Geneviève. From his success in dialectic, he turned to theology and in 1113 moved to Laon to attend the lectures of Anselm on biblical exegesis. Unimpressed by Anselms teaching, Abelard began to offer his own lectures on the Book of Ezekiel, Anselm forbade him to continue this teaching, and Abelard returned to Paris where, in around 1115, he became master of Notre Dame and a canon of Sens. Distinguished in figure and manners, Abelard was seen surrounded by crowds – it is thousands of students – drawn from all countries by the fame of his teaching. Enriched by the offerings of his pupils, and entertained with universal admiration, he came, as he says, but a change in his fortunes was at hand. In his devotion to science, he had lived a very regular life, enlivened only by philosophical debate, now, at the height of his fame. Héloïse dArgenteuil lived within the precincts of Notre-Dame, under the care of her uncle and she was remarkable for her knowledge of classical letters, which extended beyond Latin to Greek and Hebrew. Abelard sought a place in Fulberts house and, in 1115 or 1116, the affair interfered with his career, and Abelard himself boasted of his conquest. Once Fulbert found out, he separated them, but they continued to meet in secret, Héloïse became pregnant and was sent by Abelard to be looked after by his family in Brittany, where she gave birth to a son whom she named Astrolabe after the scientific instrument
4. Adam de la Halle – Adam de la Halle, also known as Adam le Bossu was a French-born trouvère, poet and musician. He was a member of the Confrérie des jongleurs et bourgeois dArras, Adams other nicknames, le Bossu dArras and Adam dArras, suggest that he came from Arras, France. The sobriquet the Hunchback was probably a name, Adam himself points out that he was not one. His father, Henri de la Halle, was a well-known Citizen of Arras, and Adam studied grammar, theology, father and son had their share in the civil discords in Arras, and for a short time took refuge in Douai. Adam had been destined for the church, but renounced this intention, and married a certain Marie, who figures in many of his songs, rondeaux, motets and jeux-partis. Afterwards he joined the household of Robert II, Count of Artois, and then was attached to Charles of Anjou, brother of Louis IX, whose fortunes he followed in Egypt, Syria, Palestine, and Italy. At the court of Charles, after Charles became king of Naples, Adam wrote his Jeu de Robin et Marion, Adams shorter pieces are accompanied by music, of which a transcript in modern notation, with the original score, is given in Coussemakers edition. His Jeu de Robin et Marion is cited as the earliest French play with music on a secular subject, the pastoral, which tells how Marion resisted the knight, and remained faithful to Robert the shepherd, is based on an old chanson, Robin maime, Robin ma. It consists of dialogue varied by refrains already current in popular song, the melodies to which these are set have the character of folk music, and are more spontaneous and melodious than the more elaborate music of his songs and motets. Fétis considered Le Jeu de Robin et Marion and Le Jeu de la feuillée forerunners of the comic opera. An adaptation of Le Jeu Robin et Marion, by Julien Tiersot, was played at Arras by a company from the Paris Opéra-Comique on the occasion of a festival in 1896 in honour of Adam de le Hale. His other play, Le jeu Adan or Le jeu de la Feuillee, is a drama in which he introduces himself, his father. His known works include thirty-six chansons, forty-six rondets de carole, eighteen jeux-partis, fourteen rondeaux, five motets, one rondeau-virelai, one ballette, one dit damour, Le jeu de Robin et Marion,13 rondeaux. Pro Musica Antiqua, Brussels, Safford Cape, conductor, recorded June 23,1953, in the Palais des Academies, Brussels. Research Period, The Central Middle Ages, Series A, Troubadours, Trouvères and Minnesingers, Series B, Music of the Minstrels, Series C, Early Polyphony before 1300. LP recording,1 disc, analog, monaural, 33⅓ rpm,12 in, Le jeu de Robin et Marion. CD recording,1 disc, digital, stereo, 4¾ in, Le jeu de Robin et Marion. Schola Cantorum Basiliensis, Thomas Binkley, cond, recorded May 1987 at the Barfüsserkirche in Basel, Switzerland
5. Guilhem Ademar – Guilhem Ademar was a troubadour from the Gévaudan in France. He travelled between the courts of Albi, Toulouse, Narbonne, and Spain and he achieved fame enough during his life to be satirised by the nobleman and monk, Monge de Montaudon. Guilhem entered holy orders towards the end of his life, sixteen poems—fourteen cansos, a sirventes, and a partimen with Eble dUssel—form his surviving corpus. His cansos are his most famous pieces, usually humorous, several mock the poetry of Ademars more illustrious contemporary Arnaut Daniel. One canso survives with a tune, according to his vida, Guilhem was the son of a poor knight from Meyrueis, the lord of which castle created him a knight. He was an eloquent man who knew well how to invent poetry, when he was no longer able to support himself as a knight he took to minstrelsy and was greatly honoured by all the high society. Towards the end of his life he joined the Order of Grandmont, Guilhem Ademars career can be dated from a reference in a poetic satire of contemporary troubadours by the Monge de Montaudon around 1195. The Monge playfully insults Guilhem as a bad joglar who always wears old clothes and whose lady has thirty lovers. The earliest reference to a W. Ademars, a petty noble of the Gévaudan, occurs in 1192, though this figure, who appears in documents until 1217, cannot be definitively identified with the troubadour. One of Guilhems more famous pieces is Non pot esser sofert ni atendut and it has presented a riddle for its dating through references to two Spanish kings, a rey Ferrans and reis NAmfos, cui dopton li masmut / e. l mieiller coms de la crestiantat. Ferrans may be either Ferdinand II of León or Ferdinand III of Castile, the Alfonso could be Alfonso II of Aragon, who was also the Count of Barcelona. Guilhem may thus have had in mind the events of Las Navas, Guilhem may have even been at Las Navas with Raymond. Guilhems poetry is in light, easy-going, and characterised by irony. Like Peire Raimon, his contemporary at the court of Raymond VI of Toulouse, Guilhems lone surviving piece of music is neumatic in texture and motivic in phrasing. In his primary love songs, Guilhem praises two ladies, one from Albi and another from Narbonne, despite this, Guilhem has been accused of misogyny for his poem El temps destui, qan par la flors el bruoill. His love song Ben foroimais sazos e locs is written as a message to his lover to be delivered by her porter, who is strictly warned to follow through. In his only sirventes, Ieu ai ja vista manhta rey, Guilhem moralises in a slightly Marcabrunian fashion on how loyal and generous suitors are rejected in favour fools, los trovadores, historia literaria y textos
6. Johannes Alanus – Johannes Alanus was an English composer. He wrote the motet Sub arturo plebs/Fons citharizancium/In omnem terram, also attributed to him are the songs Min frow, min frow and Min herze wil all zit frowen pflegen, both lieds, and Sen vos por moy pitié ne truis, a virelai. O amicus/Precursoris, attributed simply to Johannes, may be the work of the same composer, as with many medieval composers, there is some confusion as to Alanuss identity. For the composer represented in the Old Hall Manuscript, who has sometimes been conflated with Johannes Alanus, the composer of Sub Arturo plebs, is identified as Jo. Alani and referring to J. Alani Minimus. He received many other favors which indicate royal patronage, probably from Queen Philippa of Hainault, Sub Arturo plebs/Fons citharizancium/In omnem terram is an ars nova mensuration motet with a different text in each voice. The triplum, or third voice, is on a text which names 14 musicians and these mentions, in some cases, are the sole extant references to these active musicians. Brian Trowell has identified many of those named with royal households, there has been significant debate as to the dating of this motet. The earliest dating assumes that it was written for the 1349 founding of the Order of the Garter, roger Bowers suggests that the list of musicians includes musicians who were no longer active at the time of the writing. Margaret Bent and others argue for a date because of the style of the music itself. This later dating, however, does not fall in with the theory that the composer is the same as the chaplain Johannes Aleyn, a certain date earlier than 1370 for this work would lead to a change in accepted ideas about the mid-14th-century style. All the named musicians which have been identified were active in the English Chapel Royal between 1340 and 1405 or in the chapel of Edward, the Black Prince, below are some of the musicians as named in Sub Arturo plebs along with possible alternate names. Alanus, Johannes, Grove Music Online, ed. Deane Root, composer bibliography at La Trobe University Library
7. Albertet de Sestaro – Albertet de Sestaro, sometimes called Albertet de Terascon, was a Provençal jongleur and troubadour from the Gapençais. Of his total oeuvre, twenty three poems survive, Albertet or Albertetz is the Occitan diminutive of Albert. Unqualified it usually refers to Albertet de Sestaro, but there was an Albertet Cailla, according to his vida he was the son of a noble jongleur named Asar, one of whose pieces may survive. Albertet was reputed for his voice and for the melodies of his short cansós. Fellow troubadour Uc de Lescura praised Albertets votz a ben dir and he was a welcomed performer and conversationalist in court society. Much of his life was spent at Orange, where he grew wealthy before moving to Lombardy, in Italy he frequented the courts of Savoy, Montferrat, Malaspina, Genoa, and the Este in Ferrara. At the Este court he probably came into contact with Guillem Augier Novella, Aimeric de Pegulhan, and Aimeric de Belenoi. He also travelled west of Provence as far as Montferrand, where he met Dalfí dAlvernha, Gaucelm Faidit, and Peirol, eventually he returned to Sisteron in the Forcalquier, where he died. One of Albertets most famous works is a satire which heaps praise on seven prominent women of his time, notably Beatrice of Savoy, there is also a tensó between Albertet and Aimeric de Pegulhan, NAlbertz, chausetz a vostre sen. This tensó is evidence that Albertet called himself Albert, though later scribes usually employed the diminutive, Albertet also composed a tenso with Aimeric de Belenoi. Mi no fai chantar foilla ni flors —have complete melodies, though one other is partially extant, another trouvère, Mahieu le Juif, was probably influenced by a piece of Albertets in composing the text for his song beginning Par grant. Each piece of Albertets surviving musical work is distinct, though on the whole it is conservative, written within one tenth interval, syllabic with melismas only at the ends of phrases
8. Der wilde Alexander – Der wilde Alexander, also known as Meister Alexander, was a medieval Minnesänger who was active from the mid-1200s until after 1288. His works are considered to be part of the Sangspruchdichtung and his works date mostly from the latter half of the 13th century, being first mentioned in 1247. Whether Alexander was part of the gentry is not known, five of Alexanders songs remain, one of which is fragmentary. He uses complex imagery, which suggests that he had a high level of education. The majority of his poems deplore the decadence of the age, Alexander also wrote a minneleich, Mín trûclîchez klagen, which invokes the essence of Cupid, as well as mentioning the destruction of Troy. List of Works Ein wunder in der werlde vert Hie vor dô wir kinder wâren Mín trûclîchez klagen Owê daz nach liebe gât Sîôn trûre