Category:Members of the Chamber of Representatives (France)
Pages in category "Members of the Chamber of Representatives (France)"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Lazare Carnot – Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French politician, engineer, freemason and mathematician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars, born on May 13,1753 in the village of Nolay, Côte-dOr, Carnot was the son of local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier. He was the second oldest of eighteen children, at the age of fourteen, Lazare and his brother were enrolled at the Collège d’Autun, in Burgundy where he focused on the study of philosophy and the classics. He held a belief in stoic philosophy and was deeply influenced by Roman civilization. When he turned fifteen, he left the Collège d’Autun to strengthen his philosophical knowledge, during his short time with them, he studied logic, mathematics and theology under the Abbe Bison. Here, he was enrolled in M. de Longpres pension school in 1770 until he was ready to enter one of two engineering and artillery schools in Paris. A year later, in February of 1771, he was ranked the third highest among twelve who were out of his class of more than one hundred who took the entrance exams. It was at point when he entered the Mézières School of Engineering appointed as second lieutenant. Studies at the Mézières included geometry, mechanics, geometrical designing, geography, hydraulics, on January 1,1773, he graduated the school ranked as first lieutenant. It was here where he met and studied with Benjamin Franklin and at the age of twenty, at this moment, he made a name for himself both in the line of theoretical engineering and in his work in the field of fortifications. While in the army, he continued his study of mathematics and this publication earned him the honor of admittance to a literary society. In that same year, he received a promotion to the rank of captain. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Carnot entered political life and he became a delegate to the Legislature in 1791. While a member of the Legislative Assembly, Carnot was elected to the Committee for Public Instruction, after the Legislative Assembly was dissolved, Carnot was elected to the National Convention in 1792. He spent the last few months of 1792 on a mission to Bayonne, upon returning to Paris, Carnot voted for the death of King Louis XVI, although he had been absent for the debates surrounding the king’s trial. On 14 August 1793 Carnot was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, with the establishment of the Directory in 1795, Carnot became one of the five initial directors. For the first year, the Directors did well working harmoniously together as well as with the Councils, Carnot and Barthélemy supported concessions to end the war, and hoped to oust the triumvirate and replace them with more conservative men. Carnot took refuge in Geneva, and there in 1797 issued his La métaphysique du calcul infinitésimal, the creation of the French Revolutionary Army was largely due to his powers of organization and enforcing discipline
2. Dominique Joseph Garat – Dominique Joseph Garat was a French writer and politician. Garat was born at Bayonne, in the French Basque Country and he gained a reputation by an éloge on Michel de lHôpital in 1778, and was afterwards crowned three times by the Académie française for éloges on Suger, Montausier and Fontenelle. In 1785 he was named professor of history at the Lycée, elected as a deputy to the Estates-General in 1789, Garat rendered important service to the popular cause by his narrative of the proceedings of the Assembly, in the Journal de Paris. His elder brother, Dominique, with whom he is confused, was also a deputy to the states-general. Georges Danton named him minister of justice in 1792, and in this capacity entrusted to him what he called the commission affreuse of communicating to King Louis XVI his sentence of death, in 1793 Garat became minister of the interior, in which position he proved quite inefficient. At last, disgusted with the excesses which he had unable to control. On 2 October he was arrested for Girondist sympathies but soon released, on the 9th Thermidor, however, he took sides against Robespierre, and on 12 September 1794 he was named by the Convention as a member of the executive committee of public instruction. When French Revolution broke out in Paris, both attended the last Third Estate session turned into National Assembly. He was confronted with decisions regarding a makeover of the institutional reality in Labourd. Up to that point the Basque province was ruled according to its native and he was bitterly criticized and even disenfranchised back by the Assembly of Ustaritz for his vote. In 1790 and 1791, Joseph delivered outstanding addresses in the National Assembly defending before an audience the Basque particularism. In the following reports of over-zeal and abuses committed against the Basques of Labourd and Gipuzkoa got to Garat. Garat went on to elaborate a blueprint for the creation of a cross-border Basque principality attached to France and this new territory would include two or three districts, namely the present-day Basque Autonomous Community, Navarre, and French Basque Country. However, the new French Emperor postponed any decision in that direction, on 5 February 1809, after a plot was discovered to overthrow Bonaparte, Garat was summoned to his presence after the senators delivery of a speech fraught with flattery to him. Dominique Joseph Garat was actually involved in the conspiracy, but he was not detained, any institutional alterations to these districts were ultimately overridden by military concerns on the ground. Les Neuf Sœurs End of Basque home rule in France Article about a Garats unpublished work of 1811, Garat et le projet de “La Nouvelle Phénicie”»
3. Georges Washington de La Fayette – Georges Washington Louis Gilbert de La Fayette was the son of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, the French officer and hero of the American Revolution, and Adrienne de La Fayette. The elder Levieux de La Fayette named his son in honor of George Washington, from 1783, La Fayette grew up in the Hôtel de La Fayette at 183 rue de Bourbon, Paris. Their home was the headquarters of Americans in Paris, people such as Benjamin Franklin, Mr. and Mrs. John Jay, and Mr. and Mrs. John Adams met there every Monday. They dined with the La Fayette family as well as with the nobility, such as Clermont-Tonnerre, Madame de Staël, Morellet. In 1789, the French Revolution began, after 10 September 1792, in the wake of the September Massacres, La Fayette went into hiding with his tutor, Felix Frestrel. His mother was put under house arrest and, later, in prison, in April 1795, Georges was sent to America with Frestrel. While there, he studied at Harvard, and he was a house guest of George Washington at the mansion in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 15 October 1795, Georges mother was sent to join his father and his sisters, Anastasie and Virginie, all of their money and baggage were confiscated. On 18 September 1797, the family was released under the terms of the treaty of Campo-Formio and they recuperated at Lehmkuhlen, Holstein, near his aunt Madame de Montagu and great-aunt Madame de Tessé. In 1798, Georges returned from America, in 1799, the family moved to Vianen, near Utrecht during the brief time it was the Batavian Republic. Since Georges was turned back at the French border as an exile, he stayed behind with his father, after Napoleons plebiscite, on 1 March 1800, he restored La Fayettes citizenship, and removed their names from the émigrés list. Georges entered the army and was wounded at the Battle of Mincio in 1800, later, he was aide-de-camp to General Grouchy at the Battle of Eylau,1807, where he gave up his horse, after Grouchys had been killed, at the risk of his own life. Napoleons distrust of Georges fathers independence rendered promotion improbable, and Georges de La Fayette retired into private life in 1807 and he entered the Chamber of Deputies and voted consistently on the Liberal side. He was away from Paris during the revolution of July 1830, but he took a part in the Campagne des banquets. Georges accompanied his father on the latters triumphant visit to America in 1824 and 1825, throughout most of the long tour, he kept close company with his fathers secretary, Auguste Levasseur. They observed a fire company turnout in New York City. He met George Washington Parke Custis at Arlington House and he visited Mount Vernon, and he met Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Georges Washington de Lafayette married Emilie de Tracy, daughter of the Comte de Tracy, in 1802, sons, Oscar Thomas Gilbert Motier de La Fayette was educated at the École Polytechnique and served as an artillery officer in Algeria
4. Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette – A close friend of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson, Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France and he followed its martial tradition, and was commissioned an officer at age 13. He became convinced that the American cause in its war was noble. There, he was made a general, however, the 19-year-old was initially not given troops to command. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he managed to organize an orderly retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island, in the middle of the war, he returned home to lobby for an increase in French support. He again sailed to America in 1780, and was given positions in the Continental Army. In 1781, troops in Virginia under his command blocked forces led by Cornwallis until other American, Lafayette returned to France and, in 1787, was appointed to the Assembly of Notables, which was convened in response to the fiscal crisis. He was elected a member of the Estates-General of 1789, where representatives met from the three orders of French society—the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. He helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, after the storming of the Bastille, Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the French Revolution. In August 1792, the radical factions ordered his arrest, fleeing through the Austrian Netherlands, he was captured by Austrian troops and spent more than five years in prison. Lafayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release in 1797, after the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, he became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, a position he held for most of the remainder of his life. During Frances July Revolution of 1830, Lafayette declined an offer to become the French dictator, instead, he supported Louis-Philippe as king, but turned against him when the monarch became autocratic. Lafayette died on 20 May 1834, and is buried in Picpus Cemetery in Paris, for his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States, he is sometimes known as The Hero of the Two Worlds. Lafayettes lineage was likely one of the oldest and most distinguished in Auvergne and, perhaps, males of the Lafayette family enjoyed a reputation for courage and chivalry and were noted for their contempt for danger. One of Lafayettes early ancestors, Gilbert de Lafayette III, a Marshal of France, had been a companion-at-arms of Joan of Arcs army during the Siege of Orléans in 1429, according to legend, another ancestor acquired the crown of thorns during the Sixth Crusade. Lafayettes father likewise died on the battlefield, on 1 August 1759, Michel de Lafayette was struck by a cannonball while fighting a British-led coalition at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia. Lafayette became marquis and Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother, in 1768, when Lafayette was 11, he was summoned to Paris to live with his mother and great-grandfather at the comtes apartments in Luxembourg Palace
5. Jean Denis, comte Lanjuinais – Jean Denis, comte Lanjuinais, was a French politician, lawyer, jurist, journalist, and historian. At this period he wrote two important works which, owing to the state of public affairs, remained unpublished, Institutiones juris ecciesiastici. He refused to vote for the death of Louis XVI, alleging that the nation had no right to despatch a vanquished prisoner. Placed under arrest with the Girondists, he escaped to Rennes where he drew up a pamphlet denouncing the Montagnard Constitution under the curious title Le Dernier Crime de Lanjuinais. Together with Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target, Joseph-Marie Portalis and others he founded under the Empire an academy of legislation in Paris, closely associated with oriental scholars, and a keen student of oriental religions, he entered the Académie des Inscriptions in 1808. After the Bourbon Restoration, Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy and he was President of the Chamber of Representatives from 4 June to 13 July 1815. His son, Victor Ambroise, vicomte de Lanjuinais, was also a politician and his interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot. He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Lanjuinais, Jean Denis
6. Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai – Philippe-Antoine Merlin, known as Merlin de Douai was a French politician and lawyer. Merlin de Douai was born at Arleux, Nord, and was called to the Flemish bar association in 1775 and he collaborated in the Répertoire de jurisprudence, the later editions of which appeared under Merlins superintendence, and contributed to other important legal compilations. In 1782 he purchased a position as secretary at the chancellery of the Flanders parlement. His reputation spread to Paris and he was consulted by leading magistrates, the Duke of Orléans selected him to be a member of his privy council. He carried legislation for the abolition of primogeniture, secured equality of inheritance between relatives of the degree, and between men and women. He also prepared the report for the Assembly which argued that no compensation should be paid to the German princes whose lands in Alsace were forfeit when France incorporated them and his numerous reports were supplemented by popular exposition of current legislation in the Journal de legislation. On the dissolution of the Assembly, he became judge of the court at Douai. He exercised missions in his region, and accused General Charles François Dumouriez of having betrayed the country during the Campaign of the Low Countries. His efforts were directed to the prevention of any new gathering of powers by the Jacobin Club, the Commune. Merlin de Douai convinced the Committee of Public Safety to agree with the closing of the Jacobin Club, Merlins code abolished confiscation, branding, and life imprisonment, and was based chiefly on the penal code drawn up in September 1791. He was made Minister of Justice and later Minister of the General Police under the Directory, after the coup détat known as 18 Fructidor, he became one of the five Directors on 5 September 1797. He was accused of the bankruptcy and various other failures of the government and was forced to retire into private life during the Coup of 30 Prairial VII on 18 June 1799, Merlin de Douai had no share in Napoleon Bonapartes 18 Brumaire coup. Under the Consulate, Merlin de Douai accepted a position in the Cour de cassation. Although he had no share in drawing up the Napoleonic code and he became a member of the Conseil dÉtat, Count of the Empire, and Grand Officier de la Légion dhonneur. Having resumed his functions during the Hundred Days, he was one of those banished on the Second Bourbon Restoration, the years of Merlin de Douais exile were devoted to his Répertoire de jurisprudence and to his Recueil alphabétique des questions de droit. Merlin de Douai died in Paris, Merlin de Douais son, Antoine François Eugène Merlin, was a well-known general in the French army, and served through most of the Napoleonic Wars. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Merlin, Philippe Antoine. In turn, it gives the reference, François Auguste Alexis Mignet, Portraits et notices historiques