Category:Members of the Chamber of Representatives (France)
Pages in category "Members of the Chamber of Representatives (France)"
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 23 pages are in this category, out of 23 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Lazare Carnot – Lazare Nicolas Marguerite, Count Carnot was a French politician, engineer, freemason and mathematician. He was known as the Organizer of Victory in the French Revolutionary Wars, born on May 13,1753 in the village of Nolay, Côte-dOr, Carnot was the son of local judge and royal notary, Claude Carnot and his wife, Marguerite Pothier. He was the second oldest of eighteen children, at the age of fourteen, Lazare and his brother were enrolled at the Collège d’Autun, in Burgundy where he focused on the study of philosophy and the classics. He held a belief in stoic philosophy and was deeply influenced by Roman civilization. When he turned fifteen, he left the Collège d’Autun to strengthen his philosophical knowledge, during his short time with them, he studied logic, mathematics and theology under the Abbe Bison. Here, he was enrolled in M. de Longpres pension school in 1770 until he was ready to enter one of two engineering and artillery schools in Paris. A year later, in February of 1771, he was ranked the third highest among twelve who were out of his class of more than one hundred who took the entrance exams. It was at point when he entered the Mézières School of Engineering appointed as second lieutenant. Studies at the Mézières included geometry, mechanics, geometrical designing, geography, hydraulics, on January 1,1773, he graduated the school ranked as first lieutenant. It was here where he met and studied with Benjamin Franklin and at the age of twenty, at this moment, he made a name for himself both in the line of theoretical engineering and in his work in the field of fortifications. While in the army, he continued his study of mathematics and this publication earned him the honor of admittance to a literary society. In that same year, he received a promotion to the rank of captain. At the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Carnot entered political life and he became a delegate to the Legislature in 1791. While a member of the Legislative Assembly, Carnot was elected to the Committee for Public Instruction, after the Legislative Assembly was dissolved, Carnot was elected to the National Convention in 1792. He spent the last few months of 1792 on a mission to Bayonne, upon returning to Paris, Carnot voted for the death of King Louis XVI, although he had been absent for the debates surrounding the king’s trial. On 14 August 1793 Carnot was elected to the Committee of Public Safety, with the establishment of the Directory in 1795, Carnot became one of the five initial directors. For the first year, the Directors did well working harmoniously together as well as with the Councils, Carnot and Barthélemy supported concessions to end the war, and hoped to oust the triumvirate and replace them with more conservative men. Carnot took refuge in Geneva, and there in 1797 issued his La métaphysique du calcul infinitésimal, the creation of the French Revolutionary Army was largely due to his powers of organization and enforcing discipline
2. Jacques Defermon des Chapelieres – Jacques Defermon des Chapelieres was a French statesman during the French Revolution and a supporter of Napoleon Bonaparte and the French Empire. In some sources his baptismal names are given as Jacques, Joseph and he can also be referred to as comte Defermon, comte de lEmpire from 23 March 1808. Born in Basse-Chapelière, near Maumusson, in what would become the Department of Loire-Atlantique, he was educated at the Collège de Châtillon, in Châteaubriant and he became a lawyer in the Parlement of Rennes in 1782. Defermon was elected as a representative of the Third Estate of Rennes to the Estates General and he served as President of the National Assembly 19–30 July 1791, a vital period of time following the Flight to Varennes. During the tenure of the Legislative Assembly he served as president of the Criminal Tribunal of Rennes, elected to the Convention as a deputy for the département of Ille-et-Vilaine. He was President of the Convention 13–27 December 1792, during much of the surrounding the question of the Trial of Louis XVI. He would be exiled as a following the Restoration. Defermon supported the Girondists and signed a petition against their exclusion from the Convention by the Montagnards, for acting against the ascendent faction he was declared traître à la patrie, and eventually was forced to go into hiding to escape the arrest decreed by the Convention. Defermon returned to exercising his duties as deputy in December 1794 as supporters of the Girondists are rehabilitated by an increasingly conservative Convention and he was elected a member of the Committee of Public Safety and served from 4 May 1795 to 1 September 1795). He was elected to the Corps législatif by the Département of Ille-et-Vilaine and subsequently selected to sit in the Council of Five Hundred and he retired from the legislature upon his appointment as a commissioner of the National Treasury. Defermon supported the Coup of 18 Brumaire of Napoleon Bonaparte and was appointed a member of the Tribunat and he chaired the department of finance, was appointed intendant général, and named minister of state. Napoleon awarded him the title of comte Defermon, comte de lEmpire, during the Cent Jours, was elected a deputy of the Chamber of Representatives from Ille-et-Vilaine. Banished as a regicide, he lived in Brussels before returning to France and he died in Paris in 1831 at age 78
3. Jacques-Charles Dupont de l'Eure – Jacques-Charles Dupont de lEure was a French lawyer and statesman. He is best known as the first head of state of the Second Republic, born in Le Neubourg, Normandy, he was a lawyer at the parlement of Normandy when the French Revolution began. During the First Republic and the First Empire, he filled successive judicial offices at Louviers, Rouen and he had adopted revolutionary principles, and in 1798 began his political life as a member of the French Directorys Council of Five Hundred. In 1813 he became a member of the Corps législatif and, when the Seventh Coalition armies entered Paris, he drew up the declaration asserting the necessity of maintaining the principles of government that had been established at the Revolution. He was chosen as one of the commissioners to negotiate with the Coalition sovereigns, from 1817 until 1849 he was, without interruption, a member of the chamber of deputies, and he acted consistently with the Liberal opposition, of which he was the virtual leader. For a few months in 1830 he held office as Minister of Justice, when the 1848 Revolution began, Dupont de lEure was made President of the provisional assembly, being its oldest member. On the same day, he was made President of the Provisional Government and his prestige and popularity prevented the heterogeneous republican coalition from having to immediately agree upon a common leader. Due to his age, Dupont de lEure effectively delegated part of his duties to Minister of Foreign Affairs Alphonse de Lamartine. On 4 May, he resigned in order to make way for the Executive Commission and he supported Louis-Eugène Cavaignac against Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte. In 1849, having failed to secure his re-election to the chamber, he retired from public life
4. Dominique Joseph Garat – Dominique Joseph Garat was a French writer and politician. Garat was born at Bayonne, in the French Basque Country and he gained a reputation by an éloge on Michel de lHôpital in 1778, and was afterwards crowned three times by the Académie française for éloges on Suger, Montausier and Fontenelle. In 1785 he was named professor of history at the Lycée, elected as a deputy to the Estates-General in 1789, Garat rendered important service to the popular cause by his narrative of the proceedings of the Assembly, in the Journal de Paris. His elder brother, Dominique, with whom he is confused, was also a deputy to the states-general. Georges Danton named him minister of justice in 1792, and in this capacity entrusted to him what he called the commission affreuse of communicating to King Louis XVI his sentence of death, in 1793 Garat became minister of the interior, in which position he proved quite inefficient. At last, disgusted with the excesses which he had unable to control. On 2 October he was arrested for Girondist sympathies but soon released, on the 9th Thermidor, however, he took sides against Robespierre, and on 12 September 1794 he was named by the Convention as a member of the executive committee of public instruction. When French Revolution broke out in Paris, both attended the last Third Estate session turned into National Assembly. He was confronted with decisions regarding a makeover of the institutional reality in Labourd. Up to that point the Basque province was ruled according to its native and he was bitterly criticized and even disenfranchised back by the Assembly of Ustaritz for his vote. In 1790 and 1791, Joseph delivered outstanding addresses in the National Assembly defending before an audience the Basque particularism. In the following reports of over-zeal and abuses committed against the Basques of Labourd and Gipuzkoa got to Garat. Garat went on to elaborate a blueprint for the creation of a cross-border Basque principality attached to France and this new territory would include two or three districts, namely the present-day Basque Autonomous Community, Navarre, and French Basque Country. However, the new French Emperor postponed any decision in that direction, on 5 February 1809, after a plot was discovered to overthrow Bonaparte, Garat was summoned to his presence after the senators delivery of a speech fraught with flattery to him. Dominique Joseph Garat was actually involved in the conspiracy, but he was not detained, any institutional alterations to these districts were ultimately overridden by military concerns on the ground. Les Neuf Sœurs End of Basque home rule in France Article about a Garats unpublished work of 1811, Garat et le projet de “La Nouvelle Phénicie”»
5. Antoine Jay – Antoine Jay was a French writer, journalist, historian and politician. At first an Oratorian at Niort, he studied law at Toulouse then became a lawyer and he travelled to Canada and the United States between 1795 and 1802 to escape the French Revolution, making friends with Thomas Jefferson and teaching French to Lemuel Shaw. From 1803 to 1809, he was tutor to the sons of Joseph Fouché, before serving as a servant in the Ministry of Police. He contributed to the Journal des Voyages and LAbeille, participated in the foundation of Constitutionnel and La Minerve française and he was mayor of Lagorce, conseiller général for the Gironde and deputy for the Gironde. He came to note for his Histoire du ministère du cardinal de Richelieu and his elogies of Corneille and Montaigne
6. Georges Washington de La Fayette – Georges Washington Louis Gilbert de La Fayette was the son of Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de La Fayette, the French officer and hero of the American Revolution, and Adrienne de La Fayette. The elder Levieux de La Fayette named his son in honor of George Washington, from 1783, La Fayette grew up in the Hôtel de La Fayette at 183 rue de Bourbon, Paris. Their home was the headquarters of Americans in Paris, people such as Benjamin Franklin, Mr. and Mrs. John Jay, and Mr. and Mrs. John Adams met there every Monday. They dined with the La Fayette family as well as with the nobility, such as Clermont-Tonnerre, Madame de Staël, Morellet. In 1789, the French Revolution began, after 10 September 1792, in the wake of the September Massacres, La Fayette went into hiding with his tutor, Felix Frestrel. His mother was put under house arrest and, later, in prison, in April 1795, Georges was sent to America with Frestrel. While there, he studied at Harvard, and he was a house guest of George Washington at the mansion in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. On 15 October 1795, Georges mother was sent to join his father and his sisters, Anastasie and Virginie, all of their money and baggage were confiscated. On 18 September 1797, the family was released under the terms of the treaty of Campo-Formio and they recuperated at Lehmkuhlen, Holstein, near his aunt Madame de Montagu and great-aunt Madame de Tessé. In 1798, Georges returned from America, in 1799, the family moved to Vianen, near Utrecht during the brief time it was the Batavian Republic. Since Georges was turned back at the French border as an exile, he stayed behind with his father, after Napoleons plebiscite, on 1 March 1800, he restored La Fayettes citizenship, and removed their names from the émigrés list. Georges entered the army and was wounded at the Battle of Mincio in 1800, later, he was aide-de-camp to General Grouchy at the Battle of Eylau,1807, where he gave up his horse, after Grouchys had been killed, at the risk of his own life. Napoleons distrust of Georges fathers independence rendered promotion improbable, and Georges de La Fayette retired into private life in 1807 and he entered the Chamber of Deputies and voted consistently on the Liberal side. He was away from Paris during the revolution of July 1830, but he took a part in the Campagne des banquets. Georges accompanied his father on the latters triumphant visit to America in 1824 and 1825, throughout most of the long tour, he kept close company with his fathers secretary, Auguste Levasseur. They observed a fire company turnout in New York City. He met George Washington Parke Custis at Arlington House and he visited Mount Vernon, and he met Thomas Jefferson at Monticello. Georges Washington de Lafayette married Emilie de Tracy, daughter of the Comte de Tracy, in 1802, sons, Oscar Thomas Gilbert Motier de La Fayette was educated at the École Polytechnique and served as an artillery officer in Algeria
7. Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette – A close friend of George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, and Thomas Jefferson, Lafayette was a key figure in the French Revolution of 1789 and the July Revolution of 1830. Born in Chavaniac, in the province of Auvergne in south central France and he followed its martial tradition, and was commissioned an officer at age 13. He became convinced that the American cause in its war was noble. There, he was made a general, however, the 19-year-old was initially not given troops to command. Wounded during the Battle of Brandywine, he managed to organize an orderly retreat. He served with distinction in the Battle of Rhode Island, in the middle of the war, he returned home to lobby for an increase in French support. He again sailed to America in 1780, and was given positions in the Continental Army. In 1781, troops in Virginia under his command blocked forces led by Cornwallis until other American, Lafayette returned to France and, in 1787, was appointed to the Assembly of Notables, which was convened in response to the fiscal crisis. He was elected a member of the Estates-General of 1789, where representatives met from the three orders of French society—the clergy, the nobility, and the commoners. He helped write the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, after the storming of the Bastille, Lafayette was appointed commander-in-chief of the National Guard and tried to steer a middle course through the French Revolution. In August 1792, the radical factions ordered his arrest, fleeing through the Austrian Netherlands, he was captured by Austrian troops and spent more than five years in prison. Lafayette returned to France after Napoleon Bonaparte secured his release in 1797, after the Bourbon Restoration of 1814, he became a liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies, a position he held for most of the remainder of his life. During Frances July Revolution of 1830, Lafayette declined an offer to become the French dictator, instead, he supported Louis-Philippe as king, but turned against him when the monarch became autocratic. Lafayette died on 20 May 1834, and is buried in Picpus Cemetery in Paris, for his accomplishments in the service of both France and the United States, he is sometimes known as The Hero of the Two Worlds. Lafayettes lineage was likely one of the oldest and most distinguished in Auvergne and, perhaps, males of the Lafayette family enjoyed a reputation for courage and chivalry and were noted for their contempt for danger. One of Lafayettes early ancestors, Gilbert de Lafayette III, a Marshal of France, had been a companion-at-arms of Joan of Arcs army during the Siege of Orléans in 1429, according to legend, another ancestor acquired the crown of thorns during the Sixth Crusade. Lafayettes father likewise died on the battlefield, on 1 August 1759, Michel de Lafayette was struck by a cannonball while fighting a British-led coalition at the Battle of Minden in Westphalia. Lafayette became marquis and Lord of Chavaniac, but the estate went to his mother, in 1768, when Lafayette was 11, he was summoned to Paris to live with his mother and great-grandfather at the comtes apartments in Luxembourg Palace
8. Jacques Laffitte – Jacques Laffitte was a leading French banker, governor of the Bank of France and liberal member of the Chamber of Deputies during the Bourbon Restoration and July Monarchy. He was an important figure in the development of new banking techniques during the stages of industrialization in France. After a brief ministry of 131 days, his Party of Movement gave way before the Party of Order led by the banker Casimir-Pierre Perier, Laffitte left office discredited politically and financially ruined. The Caisse Générale did not survive the crisis caused by the Revolution of 1848. Laffitte was born in 1767 at Bayonne in southwestern France, one of four sons and six daughters of Pierre Laffitte and he apprenticed with his father for a time, but also found clerking positions with a local notary and merchant. It was a position that offered Laffitte valuable learning experiences. Perregaux was a banker with a clientele, important foreign connections. He was a shrewd, cosmopolitan businessman who prospered from the Revolution and he helped to bankroll Napoleons rise to power and became a founder of the Bank of France in 1800 and president of its directing Council of Regents. Laffitte became Perregauxs right-hand man in the bank and was promoted to a partnership in 1806. In 1807, because of Perregauxs declining health, he was named managing director, the banks name was changed to Perregaux, Laffitte and Company. Perregauxs son, Alphonse, and his sister, were sleeping partners, virginie Monnier observes, For the first time in the history of banks in France, a clerk took over his patrons position directly. When Perregaux died in 1808, Laffitte also took over his place as one of the fifteen regents of the Bank of France and he became president of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris and was appointed as a judge of the Tribunal of Commerce of the Seine. After the defeat of Napoleon in 1814, he was named governor of the Bank of France by the incoming Bourbon king Louis XVIII. Napoleon, when on his way into exile after Waterloo. When Napoleons estate was being contested later in 1826, Laffitte calculated his banks obligation at 3,856,121 francs, the capital resources of such early 19th century banks were limited, but they associated for underwriting major government loans and for financing promising private business ventures. Earlier, in 1816, he took the lead with Delessert in founding the Compagnie Royale dAssurances Maritimes, Laffitte was president and Casimir and Scipion Perier were among the administrators of this capital mobilizing venture. In 1818, along with fellow banker and industrialist Benjamin Delessert, Laffitte was a key figure in the establishment of the first French savings bank, the Caisse dÉpargne et de Prévoyance de Paris. Practically all of the members of the board of regents of the Bank of France, Laffitte was reaching the peak of his good fortune by 1818
9. Jean Denis, comte Lanjuinais – Jean Denis, comte Lanjuinais, was a French politician, lawyer, jurist, journalist, and historian. At this period he wrote two important works which, owing to the state of public affairs, remained unpublished, Institutiones juris ecciesiastici. He refused to vote for the death of Louis XVI, alleging that the nation had no right to despatch a vanquished prisoner. Placed under arrest with the Girondists, he escaped to Rennes where he drew up a pamphlet denouncing the Montagnard Constitution under the curious title Le Dernier Crime de Lanjuinais. Together with Gui-Jean-Baptiste Target, Joseph-Marie Portalis and others he founded under the Empire an academy of legislation in Paris, closely associated with oriental scholars, and a keen student of oriental religions, he entered the Académie des Inscriptions in 1808. After the Bourbon Restoration, Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy and he was President of the Chamber of Representatives from 4 June to 13 July 1815. His son, Victor Ambroise, vicomte de Lanjuinais, was also a politician and his interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot. He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Lanjuinais, Jean Denis
10. Philippe-Antoine Merlin de Douai – Philippe-Antoine Merlin, known as Merlin de Douai was a French politician and lawyer. Merlin de Douai was born at Arleux, Nord, and was called to the Flemish bar association in 1775 and he collaborated in the Répertoire de jurisprudence, the later editions of which appeared under Merlins superintendence, and contributed to other important legal compilations. In 1782 he purchased a position as secretary at the chancellery of the Flanders parlement. His reputation spread to Paris and he was consulted by leading magistrates, the Duke of Orléans selected him to be a member of his privy council. He carried legislation for the abolition of primogeniture, secured equality of inheritance between relatives of the degree, and between men and women. He also prepared the report for the Assembly which argued that no compensation should be paid to the German princes whose lands in Alsace were forfeit when France incorporated them and his numerous reports were supplemented by popular exposition of current legislation in the Journal de legislation. On the dissolution of the Assembly, he became judge of the court at Douai. He exercised missions in his region, and accused General Charles François Dumouriez of having betrayed the country during the Campaign of the Low Countries. His efforts were directed to the prevention of any new gathering of powers by the Jacobin Club, the Commune. Merlin de Douai convinced the Committee of Public Safety to agree with the closing of the Jacobin Club, Merlins code abolished confiscation, branding, and life imprisonment, and was based chiefly on the penal code drawn up in September 1791. He was made Minister of Justice and later Minister of the General Police under the Directory, after the coup détat known as 18 Fructidor, he became one of the five Directors on 5 September 1797. He was accused of the bankruptcy and various other failures of the government and was forced to retire into private life during the Coup of 30 Prairial VII on 18 June 1799, Merlin de Douai had no share in Napoleon Bonapartes 18 Brumaire coup. Under the Consulate, Merlin de Douai accepted a position in the Cour de cassation. Although he had no share in drawing up the Napoleonic code and he became a member of the Conseil dÉtat, Count of the Empire, and Grand Officier de la Légion dhonneur. Having resumed his functions during the Hundred Days, he was one of those banished on the Second Bourbon Restoration, the years of Merlin de Douais exile were devoted to his Répertoire de jurisprudence and to his Recueil alphabétique des questions de droit. Merlin de Douai died in Paris, Merlin de Douais son, Antoine François Eugène Merlin, was a well-known general in the French army, and served through most of the Napoleonic Wars. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Merlin, Philippe Antoine. In turn, it gives the reference, François Auguste Alexis Mignet, Portraits et notices historiques
11. Jean-Baptiste Teste – Jean-Baptiste Teste was a French politician of the July Monarchy. He fell from grace in the Teste-Cubières scandal, the son of Antoine Teste, lawyer to the Parliament of Provence, and of his wife Élisabeth Boyer, Jean-Baptiste Teste studied under the Joséphites in Lyon. He distinguished himself early in his education, according to Joseph Marie Portalis and he was received as a lawyer in Paris and at first enrolled at the Paris bar, where he pleaded successfully several times, before returning to set up as a lawyer in Nîmes. Acquiring a great reputation in Nîmes, during the Hundred Days Napoleon made him Lyons police chief and he was elected on 17 May 1815 as deputy to the Hundred Days Chamber for Gard but was unable to attend the parliament due to his administrative duties. King William I of the Netherlands charged him with managing the royal lands and he also pleaded for the house of Orléans in a trial with the Rohans about the duchy of Bouillon, merged into the kingdom of the Netherlands in 1814. It was during that trial that he met André Dupin, lawyer to the house of Orléans. He was able to return to Paris and re-enrol at the Paris bar after the July Revolution, in the general elections of 5 July 1831, Jean-Baptiste Teste was elected député by the first electoral college of Gard. He sat with the liberal Tiers Party of his friend Dupin aîné, with discretion and skill, he participated most especially in debates on legislation, commerce and public works. He was then elected vice-president of the Chambre des députés and won re-election on 13 December 1834 and he thus voted with the majority but entered into the coalition which, in 1839, led to the fall of Molés first ministry. He was re-elected as a député on 2 March 1839 and was minister for Justice. He was re-elected as a député on 22 June 1839, during his time as minister, he formed a committee to look into ways of suppressing bribery in government ministries. Soult appreciated him and made him minister of works in his third ministry of 29 October 1840. Teste voted for the grande loi of 1841 on expropriation for the cause of public use, the law of 1842 on roads, and the law of 1843 on industrial property. On 16 December 1843, Guizot removed Teste from the ministry but gave him major compensation, including making him a peer of France, a member of the royal family even intervened in his favour by requesting the retiring president of the civil chamber to name Teste as his successor. Becoming a grand officer of the Légion dhonneur in 1846, he had reached the highest honours. The Teste-Cubières scandal erupted in 1847, general Despans-Cubières, temporary Minister for War in 1839 and 1840, in need of money, speculated in various areas, particularly a mining operation. In 1843, to get the concession for a mine at Gouhenans renewed, he. The affair came out in May 1847 during a trial of Despans-Cubièress associates before the tribunal of the Seine