Category:Members of the Delian League
Pages in category "Members of the Delian League"
The following 131 pages are in this category, out of 131 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 131 pages are in this category, out of 131 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Aegina – Aegina is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf,27 kilometres from Athens. Tradition derives the name from Aegina the mother of the hero Aeacus, during ancient times Aegina was a rival of Athens, the great sea power of the era. The municipality of Aegina consists of the island of Aegina and a few offshore islets and it is part of the Islands regional unit, Attica region. The municipality is subdivided into the five communities, Aegina Kypseli Mesagros Perdika Vathy The capital is the town of Aegina. Due to its proximity to Athens, it is a vacation place during the summer months. The province of Aegina was one of the provinces of the Piraeus Prefecture and its territory corresponded with that of the current municipalities Aegina and Agkistri. Aegina is roughly triangular in shape, approximately 15 km from east to west and 10 km from north to south, with an area of 87.41 km2, an extinct volcano constitutes two thirds of Aegina. Economically, the fisheries are of notable importance. The southern volcanic part of the island is rugged and mountainous and its highest rise is the conical Mount Oros in the south, and the Panhellenian ridge stretches northward with narrow fertile valleys on either side. The beaches are also a popular tourist attraction, hydrofoil ferries from Piraeus take only forty minutes to reach Aegina, the regular ferry takes about an hour, with ticket prices for adults within the 4–15 euro range. There are regular bus services from Aegina town to destinations throughout the island such as Agia Marina, portes is a fishing village on the east coast. Aegina, according to Herodotus, was a colony of Epidaurus and its placement between Attica and the Peloponnesus made it a site of trade even earlier, and its earliest inhabitants allegedly came from Asia Minor. Minoan ceramics have been found in contexts of ca.2000 BC, the famous Aegina Treasure, now in the British Museum is estimated to date between 1700 and 1500 BC. It is probable that the island was not doricised before the 9th century BC. e. not later than the half of the 7th century BC. Its early history reveals that the importance of the island dates back to pre-Dorian times. It is usually stated on the authority of Ephorus, that Pheidon of Argos established a mint in Aegina, the first city-state to issue coins in Europe, one stamped stater can be seen in the Bibliothèque Nationale of Paris. It is an electrum stater of a turtle, a sacred to Aphrodite. The fact that the Aeginetic standard of weights and measures was one of the two standards in use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island
2. Amorgos – Amorgos is the easternmost island of the Greek Cyclades island group, and the nearest island to the neighboring Dodecanese island group. Along with several neighboring islets, the largest of which is Nikouria Island, it comprises the municipality of Amorgos, which has an area of 126.346 square kilometres. Throughout history, Amorgos was also known as Yperia, Patagy, or Platagy, Pagali, Amorgos features a lot of remnants of ancient civilizations. At the time of Archaic Greece, there were three independent city-states there and they are believed to have featured autonomous constitutions but the same currency. Due to the name Minoa we suspect that Amorgos had been colonised by the Cretans from ancient times, almost a dozen separate inhabited centres are known in this period. Amorgos is the origin of many famous Cycladic figurines, ‘Dokathismata style’ figurines were originally found here. Cycladic sculptures had been discovered from the cemeteries at Aghia Paraskevi, Aghios Pavlos, Dokathismata, Kapros, Kapsala, Nikouria, Kapsala Cycladic figurines, dating around 2700 B. C. are named after a find place in Amorgos. This is the earliest of the canonical types – a reclining female with folded arms and they tend to have slender and elongated proportions. At this time, anatomical features such as arms are modeled three-dimensionally, with the later types, sculptors tended to render this feature with incised lines. Dokathismata Cycladic figurines date from a later period of 2400–2100 BC. Part of the island is named Aspis, where the ancient temple of the goddess Aphrodite stood, in approximately 630 BC, the poet Semonides led the foundation of a Samian colony on Amorgos. The Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax mentions it as Tripolis, with the passing of time, the islands name changed to Amolgon and Amourgon. In the 5th century, Bishop Theodore, who attended a synod in Constantinople, signed as Bishop of the Parians, Sifnians and it was known as Yamurgi during Ottoman rule between 1566–1829. On 9 July 1956, a large earthquake occurred that generated a local tsunami of up to 30 m. The shock had a moment magnitude of 7.8 and had a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX, fifty-three people were killed and 100 were injured. The names of the three cities given by Stephanus Byzantinus are Arkesini, Minoa, Aigiali or Melania which, according to inscriptions, are the most correct. The three towns are on the islands west coast because that is where bays and natural ports that could provide the proper positioning for seaside towns and forts exist. Aigiali was on the north East Side of the close to the present day locations of Tholaria and Stroumvos
3. Anafi – Anafi is a Greek island community in the Cyclades. In 2011, it had a population of 271 and its land area is 40.370 square kilometres. It lies east of the island of Thíra, Anafi is part of the Thira regional unit. According to mythology, the island was given the name Anafi because Apollo made it appear to the Argonauts as a shelter from a bad storm, using his bow to shed light upon it. If the name of the island derives from word, and means revelation, then Anafi is linked to Delos. Others say that the name is due to the non-existence of snakes on the island, despite its small size, Anafi offers archaeological as well as mythological interest. At the monastery of Panagia Kalamiotisa there are ruins of a built as an offering to the god Apollo Aegletus. Some of the inscriptions from the island refer to the god Apollo as asgelatos ασγελατος, however, one scholar links this epithet to a Sumerian goddess of healing and to Apollos son Asclepius. Ruins can also be found at Kasteli, and most of the findings, such as the statues, are now located at the Archaeological Museum at the Chora, in Roman times the island was used as a place of exile. After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, when the Cyclades were taken over by Venetians, in 1307 the island was captured by Januli Gozzadini, of Bolognese origin, who established himself as its independent lord. Much later the ruler of Anafi, William Crispo, became regent of the Duchy of the Archipelago, William is said to have built the fortifications above the present village. He is also claimed to have built a fortress, sometimes referred to as Gibitroli, in 1481, the island passed to the Pisani family as part of a dowry. The Pisani ruled it until 1537, when the Ottoman admiral Hayreddin Barbarossa raided it, the island was eventually resettled, and acquired a set of privileges from the Ottoman court in 1700 in exchange for 500 crowns. Thereafter it was largely to fend for itself, except for the annual visit of the Ottoman fleet to collect tribute. The island was visited in 1700 by Joseph Pitton de Tournefort and he describes Mount Kalamos as une des plus effroyables roches qui soit au monde. Some of the ancient remains from the island were acquired by French and British antiquaries, one Hellenistic statue from Kastelli can be found in the Hermitage Museum, St Petersburg. During the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774, it was held and used as a base by the Russian fleet under Alexey Orlov from 1770 until the wars end, during the Greek War of Independence the Anafiots sent two Caïques of men to join the struggle. Many men left the island to help in the building of Athens as capital city of Greece and they built houses for themselves on the slopes of the Acropolis rock, in an area still known as Anafiotika
4. Andros – Andros is the northernmost island of the Greek Cyclades archipelago, approximately 10 km south east of Euboea, and about 3 km north of Tinos. It is nearly 40 km long, and its greatest breadth is 16 km and its surface is for the most part mountainous, with many fruitful and well-watered valleys. The municipality, which includes the island Andros and several small, the largest towns are Andros, Gavrio, Batsi, and Ormos Korthiou. The island is famous for its Sariza spring at Apoikia where the water out of a lionhead. Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, was built into a hillside. Andros also offers great hiking options for activity diggers, during the Final Neolithic, Andros had a fortified village on its west coast, which archaeologists have named Strofilias, after the plateau on which it was built. Strofilas was related to the Attica-Kephala culture, and predates the Cycladic culture of the Bronze Age and it was an important maritime center and one of the earliest examples of fortification in Greece. It is notable for rock carvings on its walls, which animals such as jackals, goats, deer, fish and dolphins. The island in ancient times contained an Ionian population, perhaps with an admixture of Thracian ancestry, though originally dependent on Eretria, by the 7th century BC it had become sufficiently prosperous to send out several colonies, to Chalcidice. The ruins of Palaeopolis, the ancient capital, are on the west coast, in 480 BC, it supplied ships to Xerxes and was subsequently harried by the Greek fleet. As a member of the second Delian League it was controlled by a garrison. In the Hellenistic period, Andros was contended for as a frontier-post by the two powers of the Aegean Sea, Macedon and Ptolemaic Egypt. In 333, it received a Macedonian garrison from Antipater, in 308 it was freed by Ptolemy I of Egypt, in the Chremonidean War it passed again to Macedon after a battle fought off its shores. During the long centuries of Byzantine rule, Andros was relatively obscure, first part of the Roman province of the Islands, it later became part of the theme of the Aegean Sea. Like other Aegean islands, it suffered from Saracen raids, but during the Komnenian period the island flourished due to its production, exporting gossamer. Andros was captured by the Fourth Crusade on its way to Constantinople in 1203, probably sometime around 1239, Dandolo was expelled from the island by Geremia Ghisi, ruler of Skiathos, Skopelos, and Skyros. Dandolo died soon after and a case was brought before the Venetian courts against Ghisi by Dandolos widow Felisa, Felisa was soon aided by the influential lord of Astypalaia, Jacopo Querini, who became her second husband. Although the Venetian court found in their favour in August 1243 and ordered the Ghisi brothers to give up Andros, the case dragged on until after Geremias death, when Duke Angelo Sanudo took over the island
5. Aspendos – Aspendos or Aspendus was an ancient Greco-Roman city in Antalya province of Turkey. The site is located 7 kilometres northeast of central Serik, Aspendos was an ancient city in Pamphylia, Asia Minor, located about 40 km east of the modern city of Antalya, Turkey. It was situated on the Eurymedon River about 16 km inland from the Mediterranean Sea, it shared a border with, some scholars associate the citys name with Azatiwadaya. The known city of that name was founded by Azatiwada of Quwê on his eastern frontier, according to later tradition, Aspendos was founded rather earlier by Greeks who may have come from Argos. The wide range of its coinage throughout the ancient world indicates that, in the 5th century BC, at that time the Eurymedon River was navigable as far as Aspendos, and the city derived great wealth from a trade in salt, oil and wool. Aspendos did not play an important role in antiquity as a political force and its political history during the colonisation period corresponded to the currents of the Pamphylian region. Within this trend, after the period, it remained for a time under Lycian hegemony. In 546 BC it came under Persian domination, the fact that the city continued to mint coins in its own name, however, indicates that it had a great deal of freedom even under the Persians. Circa 465 BCE Cimon led an Athenian navy against a Persian navy in the Battle of the Eurymedon, Aspendos then became a member of the Delian League. The Persians captured the city again in 411 BC and used it as a base. In 389 BC Thrasybulus of Athens, in an effort to some of the prestige that city had lost in the Peloponnesian Wars. Hoping to avoid a new war, the people of Aspendos collected money among themselves and gave it to the commander, even though he took the money, he had his men trample all the crops in the fields. Enraged, the Aspendians stabbed and killed Thrasybulus in his tent, when Alexander the Great marched into Aspendos in 333 BC after capturing Perge, the citizens sent envoys asking him not to garrison soldiers there. He agreed, provided he would be given the taxes and horses that they had paid as tribute to the Persian king. After reaching this agreement Alexander went to Side, leaving a garrison there on the citys surrender, going back through Sillyon, he learned that the Aspendians had failed to ratify the agreement their envoys had proposed and were preparing to defend themselves. Alexander marched to the city immediately, when they saw Alexander returning with his troops, the Aspendians, who had retreated to their acropolis, again sent envoys to sue for peace. This time, however, they had to agree to harsh terms. In 190 BC the city surrendered to the Romans, who later pillaged its artistic treasures, toward the end of the Roman period the city began a decline that continued throughout Byzantine times
6. Astypalaia – Astypalaia, is a Greek island with 1,334 residents. It belongs to the Dodecanese, an archipelago of twelve major islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, the island is 18 kilometres long,13 kilometres wide at the most, and covers an area of 97 km2. Along with numerous smaller uninhabited islets, it forms the Municipality of Astypalaia. The municipality has an area of 114.077 km2, the capital and the previous main harbour of the island is Astypalaia or Chora, as it is called by the locals. Astypalaia was believed to be named after Astypalaea, an ancient Greek mythological figure, the island is known in Italian as Stampalia and in Ottoman Turkish as İstanbulya The coasts of Astypalaia are rocky with many small pebble-strewn beaches. A small band of land of roughly 126 metres wide almost separates the island in two sections at Sterno, a new harbour has been built in Agios Andreas on the mid island from where now the connections are west and east with Piraeus and the other islands of the Dodecanese. Flight connections with Athens from the close to Maltezana. The island was colonized by Megara or possibly Epidaurus, and its governing system, pliny the Elder records that Rome accorded Astypalaia the status of a free state. It was assigned to the Aegean Roman province of Insulae, during the Middle Ages it belonged to the Byzantines until 1207, when - in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade - it became a fief of the Querini, a noble Venetian family, until 1522. The Querini built a castle that is still in place and added the name of the island to their family name, which became Querini Stampalia. On April 12,1912, during the Italo-Turkish War, a detachment of the Regia Marina landed on Astypalaia, from there the Italians, on the night between the 3rd and 4 May, landed on Rhodes. The island remained under Italian governance until World War II, in 1947, through the Treaty of Paris, it became part of Greece along with the rest of the Dodecanese island group. The religious and political center of the classical city-state of Astypalaia was the crowned by the Querini castle. The modern town of Chora occupies the site, and worked stones from ancient monuments are reused in older houses as well as the castle. A one-room museum at Pera Gialos, on the shore near the old port, displays inscriptions, grave monuments, the earliest material on display is fragments of neolithic pottery. One case contains intact pottery, bronze weapons, and stone tools from a pair of richly furnished Mycenaean chamber tombs excavated at Armenochori, at Kylindra, on the west flank of the castle hill, a unique graveyard has been excavated by the Greek archaeological service. At least 2700 newborns and small children, below the age of two, were buried in ceramic pots between approximately 750 B. C. and Roman times. Since 2000, a team from University College London has undertaken systematic study of these remains and they dated the nearby adult cemetery, Katsalos, from the Geometric to the Roman Period
7. Chalcedon – Chalcedon was an ancient maritime town of Bithynia, in Asia Minor. It was located almost directly opposite Byzantium, south of Scutari, the name Chalcedon is a variant of Calchedon, found on all the coins of the town as well as in manuscripts of Herodotuss Histories, Xenophons Hellenica, Arrians Anabasis, and other works. The site of Chalcedon is located on a peninsula on the north coast of the Sea of Marmara. A stream, called the Chalcis or Chalcedon in antiquity and now known as the Kurbağalıdere, there Greek colonists from Megara in Attica founded the settlement of Chalcedon in 685 BC, some seventeen years before Byzantium. The Greek name of the ancient town is from the Greek name of the ancient Phoenician city of Carthage, the mineral Chalcedony is named for where it came from outside Chalcedon. The mound of Fikirtepe has yielded remains dating to the Chalcolithic period, phoenicians were active traders in this area. Chalcedon originated as a Megarian colony in 685 BCE, nevertheless, trade thrived in Chalcedon, the town flourished and built many temples, including one to Apollo, which had an oracle. Important villages in Chalcedonia included Chrysopolis and Panteicheion, strabo notes that a little above the sea in Chalcedonia lies the fountain Azaritia, which contains small crocodiles. In its early history Chalcedon shared the fortunes of Byzantium, later, the 6th-century BCE Persian satrap Otanes captured it. The city vacillated for a long while between the Lacedaemonian and the Athenian interests, darius the Greats bridge of boats, built in 512 BC for his Scythian campaign, extended from Chalcedonia to Thrace. Chalcedon formed a part of the kingdom of Bithynia, whose king Nicomedes willed Bithynia to the Romans upon his death in 74 BCE, the city was partly destroyed by Mithridates. The governor of Bithynia, Cotta, had fled to Chalcedon for safety along with thousands of other Romans, three thousand of them were killed, sixty ships captured, and four ships destroyed in Mithridates assault on the city. During the Empire, Chalcedon recovered, and was given the status of a free city, Chalcedon suffered somewhat from its proximity to the new imperial capital at Constantinople. First the Byzantines and later the Ottoman Turks used it as a quarry for building materials for Constantinoples monumental structures, Chalcedon also fell repeatedly to armies attacking Constantinople from the east. In 361 AD it was the location of the Chalcedon tribunal, in 451 AD an ecumenical council of Christian leaders convened here. See below for this Council of Chalcedon, the general Belisarius probably spent his years of retirement on his estate of Rufinianae in Chalcedonia. Beginning in 616 and for at least a decade thereafter, Chalcedon furnished an encampment to the Persians under Chosroes II and it later fell for a time to the Arabs under Yazid. Chalcedon was badly damaged during the Fourth Crusade and it came definitively under Ottoman rule under Orhan Gazi a century before the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople
8. Chalcis – Chalcis or Chalkida is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point. The name is preserved from antiquity and is derived from the Greek χαλκός, in the late Middle Ages, it was known as Negropont, a name that was applied to the entire island of Euboea as well. The earliest recorded mention of Chalcis is in the Iliad, where it is mentioned in the line as its rival Eretria. It is also documented that the set for the Trojan War gathered at Aulis. Chamber tombs at Trypa and Vromousa dated to the Mycenaean period were excavated by Papavasiliou in 1910. In the 8th and 7th centuries BC, colonists from Chalcis founded thirty townships on the peninsula of Chalcidice and several important cities in Magna Graecia, such as Naxos, Rhegion and Cumae. Its mineral produce, metal-work, purple and pottery not only found markets among these settlements, early in the 6th century BC, its prosperity was broken by a disastrous war with the Athenians, who expelled the ruling aristocracy and settled a cleruchy on the site. Chalcis subsequently became a member of both the Delian Leagues, in the Hellenistic period, it gained importance as a fortress by which the Macedonian rulers controlled central Greece. It was used by kings Antiochus III of Syria and Mithradates VI of Pontus as a base for invading Greece, under Roman rule, Chalcis retained a measure of commercial prosperity. The city is recorded as a city in the 6th-century Synecdemus and mentioned by the contemporary historian Procopius of Caesarea, the town survived an Arab naval raid in the 880s and its bishop is attested in the 869–70 Church council held at Constantinople. By the 12th century, the featured a Venetian trading station, being attacked by the Venetian fleet in 1171 and eventually seized by Venice in 1209. For Westerners, its name was Negropont or Negroponte. The town was a condominium between Venice and the Veronese barons of the rest of Euboea, known as the triarchs, who resided there. Chalcis or Negroponte became a Latin Church diocese, the first bishop being Theodorus, the Greek bishop of the see, a large hoard of late medieval jewellery dating from Venetian times was found in Chalcis Castle in the nineteenth century and is now in the British Museum. The synagogue dated to around 1400 and that siege is the subject of the Rossini opera Maometto II. The Ottomans made it the seat of the Admiral of the Archipelago, in 1688, it was successfully held by the Ottomans against a strong Venetian attack. The modern town received an impetus in its trade from the establishment of railway connection with Athens. The old town, called the Castro, was surrounded by a circuit of defense walls until they were completely razed for urban development around the start of the 20th century
9. Chios – Chios is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea,7 kilometres off the Anatolian coast. The island is separated from Turkey by the Çeşme Strait, Chios is notable for its exports of mastic gum and its nickname is the Mastic Island. Tourist attractions include its medieval villages and the 11th-century monastery of Nea Moni, administratively, the island forms a separate municipality within the Chios regional unit, which is part of the North Aegean region. The principal town of the island and seat of the municipality is Chios town, locals refer to Chios town as Chora. Chios island is crescent or kidney shaped,50 kilometres long north to south,29 kilometres at its widest. The terrain is mountainous and arid, with a ridge of mountains running the length of the island, the two largest of these mountains, Pelineon and Epos, are situated in the north of the island. The center of the island is divided between east and west by a range of peaks, known as Provatas. Chios can be divided into five regions, Midway up the east coast lie the main centers, the main town of Chios. Chios Town, with a population of 32,400, is built around the main harbour. The town was damaged by an earthquake in 1881. North of Chios Town lies the suburb of Vrontados, which claims to be the birthplace of Homer. The suburb lies in the Omiroupoli municipality, and its connection to the poet is supported by a site known traditionally as Teachers Rock. The villages, built between the 14th and 16th centuries, have a carefully designed layout with fortified gates and narrow streets to protect against the frequent raids by marauding pirates. Between Chios Town and the Mastichochoria lie a number of historic villages including Armolia, Myrmighi. Along the east coast are the villages of Kataraktis and to the south Nenita. Directly in the centre of the island, between the villages of Avgonyma to the west and Karyes to the east, is the 11th century monastery of Nea Moni, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The monastery was built with funds given by the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IX, the monastery had substantial estates attached, with a thriving community until the massacre of 1822. It was further damaged during the 1881 earthquake, in 1952, due to the shortage of monks, Nea Moni was converted to a convent
10. Cyme (Aeolis) – Cyme was an Aeolian city in Aeolis close to the kingdom of Lydia. The Aeolians regarded Cyme as the largest and most important of their twelve cities, as a result of their direct access to the sea, unlike most non-landlocked settlements of the ancient world, trade is believed to have prospered. Archaeological finds such as coins give reference also to a river, little is known about the foundation of the city to supplement the traditional founding legend. The Cymeans were later ridiculed as a people who had for three hundred years lived on the coast and not once exacted harbor taxes on ships making port, hesiod’s father is said to have started his journey across the Aegean from Cyme. By the 5th century BC, Cyme was one of the 12 established Ionian colonies in Aeolis, Herodotus mentions that one of the esteemed voters deciding whether or not to support Militiades the Athenian in his plan to liberate the Ionian Coast from Persian rule in was Aristagoras of Cyme. Cyme eventually came under the control of the Persian Empire following the collapse of the Lydian Kingdom at the hands of Cyrus the Great. Herodotus is the source for this period in Greek history and has paid a great deal of attention to events taking place in Ionia. When Pactyes, the Lydian general, sought refuge in Cyme from the Persians the citizens were between a rock and a hard place, as Herodotus records, they consulted the Greek god Apollo, who said after much confusion through an oracle that he should be handed over. The messengers returned home to report, and the citizens of Cyme were prepared in consequence to give up the wanted man, after the Persian naval defeat at Salamis, Xerxes moored the surviving ships at Cyme. Before 480 BC, Cyme had been the naval base for the Royal Fleet. Later accounts of Cymes involvement in the Ionian Revolt which triggered the Persian Wars confirm their allegiance to the Ionian Greek cause. During this time, Herodotus states that due to the size of the Persian army, the third army which he sent north to take Sardis was under the command of his son-in-law Otanes who promptly captured Cyme and Clazomenae in the process. However, later reveal how Sandoces, the supposed Ionian governor of Cyme helped draft a fleet of fifteen ships for Xerxes I great expedition against mainland Greece c.480 BC. As a result, Cyme, like most Ionian cities at the time was a maritime power, once Aristagoras of Miletus roused the Ionians to rebel against Darius, Cyme joined the insurrection. However, the revolts at Cyme were quelled once the city was recovered by the Persians, Sandoces, the governor of Cyme at the time of Xerxes, commanded fifteen ships in the Persian military expedition against Greece. Herodotus believes that Sandoces may have been a Greek, after the Battle of Salamis, the remnants of Xerxess fleet wintered at Cyme. Thucydides does not provide any significant mention of place is more than mentioned in the history of Thucydides. Polybius records that Cyme obtained freedom from taxation following the defeat of Antiochus III, during the reign of Tiberius, the city suffered from a great earthquake, common in the Aegean
11. Ephesus – Ephesus was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th century BC on the site of the former Arzawan capital by Attic, during the Classical Greek era it was one of the twelve cities of the Ionian League. The city flourished after it came under the control of the Roman Republic in 129 BC, the city was famed for the nearby Temple of Artemis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Among many other buildings are the Library of Celsus. Ephesus was one of the seven churches of Asia that are cited in the Book of Revelation, the Gospel of John may have been written here. The city was the site of several 5th century Christian Councils, the city was destroyed by the Goths in 263, and although rebuilt, the citys importance as a commercial centre declined as the harbour was slowly silted up by the Küçükmenderes River. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake in 614 AD, the area surrounding Ephesus was already inhabited during the Neolithic Age, as was revealed by excavations at the nearby höyük of Arvalya and Cukurici. Excavations in recent years have unearthed settlements from the early Bronze Age at Ayasuluk Hill, according to Hittite sources, the capital of the Kingdom of Arzawa was Apasa. Some scholars suggest that this is the later Greek Ephesus, in 1954, a burial ground from the Mycenaean era with ceramic pots was discovered close to the ruins of the basilica of St. John. This was the period of the Mycenaean Expansion when the Achaioi settled in Asia Minor during the 14th and 13th centuries BC, Ephesus was founded as an Attic-Ionian colony in the 10th century BC on the Ayasuluk Hill, three kilometers from the centre of ancient Ephesus. The mythical founder of the city was a prince of Athens named Androklos, according to the legend, he founded Ephesus on the place where the oracle of Delphi became reality. Androklos drove away most of the native Carian and Lelegian inhabitants of the city and he was a successful warrior, and as a king he was able to join the twelve cities of Ionia together into the Ionian League. During his reign the city began to prosper and he died in a battle against the Carians when he came to the aid of Priene, another city of the Ionian League. Androklos and his dog are depicted on the Hadrian temple frieze, later, Greek historians such as Pausanias, Strabo and Herodotos and the poet Kallinos reassigned the citys mythological foundation to Ephos, queen of the Amazons. The Greek goddess Artemis and the great Anatolian goddess Kybele were identified together as Artemis of Ephesus, Pausanias mentions that the temple was built by Ephesus, son of the river god Caystrus, before the arrival of the Ionians. Of this structure, scarcely a trace remains, about 650 BC, Ephesus was attacked by the Cimmerians who razed the city, including the temple of Artemis. After the Cimmerians had been away, the city was ruled by a series of tyrants. Following a revolt by the people, Ephesus was ruled by a council and his signature has been found on the base of one of the columns of the temple