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Pages in category "Metaphysics literature"
The following 59 pages are in this category, out of 59 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
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The following 59 pages are in this category, out of 59 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Appearance and Reality – The main statement of Bradleys metaphysics, Appearance and Reality is considered his most important book. Appearance and Reality was an influence on Bertrand Russell, who. Bradleys works were influenced by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Appearance and Reality comprises two volumes, Appearance and Reality. Ordinary concepts provide a useful way of thinking about the world. Reality, as predicate, is a matter of degree, concepts are true or false of reality in different degrees, the concept of the Absolute is only a way of attempting to understand something that cannot be fully comprehended. Appearance and Reality is regarded as Bradleys most important book, according to Ronald W. Clark, its publication helped to wrest the philosophical initiative from the Continent. In 1894, the work was reviewed by J. M. E. McTaggart in Revue de métaphysique et de morale, Appearance and Reality was an early influence on Bertrand Russell, encouraging him to question contemporary dogmas and beliefs. Russell recalled that Appearance and Reality had an appeal not only to him but to most of his contemporaries. Stout had stated that Bradley had done as much as is possible in ontology. While Russell later rejected Bradleys views, he continued to regard Appearance, richard Wollheim comments that the second edition of Appearance and Reality contains considerable new material, and should be consulted in preference to the original edition. According to British philosopher Timothy Sprigge, some of Bradleys arguments are famous, Sprigge suggests that Bradleys absolute idealism in some respects received a better presentation in Bradleys subsequent work Essays on Truth and Reality than in Appearance and Reality. Thomas Mautner comments that Bradleys bold metaphysics is presented with pugnacious verveAppearance and Reality – Appearance and Reality
2. Being and Nothingness – Being and Nothingness, An Essay on Phenomenological Ontology, sometimes subtitled A Phenomenological Essay on Ontology, is a 1943 book by philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre. Sartres main purpose is to assert the individuals existence as prior to the individuals essence and his overriding concern in writing the book was to demonstrate that free will exists. While a prisoner of war in 1940 and 1941, Sartre read Martin Heideggers Being and Time, reading Being and Time initiated Sartres own philosophical enquiry. Born into the reality of ones body, in a material universe. Consciousness has the ability to conceptualize possibilities, and to them appear. Sartres existentialism shares its philosophical starting point with René Descartes, The first thing we can be aware of is our existence, in Nausea, the main characters feeling of dizziness towards his own existence is induced by things, not thinking. This dizziness occurs in the face of ones freedom and responsibility for giving a meaning to reality, as an important break with Descartes, Sartre rejects the primacy of knowledge, as summed up in the phrase Existence precedes essence and offers a different conception of knowledge and consciousness. Important ideas in Being and Nothingness build on Edmund Husserls phenomenology, to both philosophers, consciousness is intentional, meaning that there is only consciousness of something. For Sartre, intentionality implies that there is no form of self that is hidden inside consciousness, an ego must be a structure outside consciousness, so that there can be consciousness of the ego. Being and Nothingness is a reply to Martin Heideggers Being and Time, in which he addressed being in its own right and laid ground for Sartres thought. In the introduction, Sartre sketches his own theory of consciousness, being, based on an examination of the nature of phenomena, he describes the nature of two types of being, being-in-itself and being-for-itself. While being-in-itself is something that can only be approximated by human being, in the first chapter, Sartre develops a theory of nothingness which is central to the whole book, especially to his account for bad faith and freedom. For him, nothingness is not just a concept that sums up negative judgements such as Pierre is not here. Though it is evident that non-being always appears within the limits of a human expectation, a concrete nothingness, e. g. not being able to see, is part of a totality, the life of the blind man in this world. This totality is modified by the nothingness which is part of it, in the totality of consciousness and phenomenon, both can be considered separately, but exist only as a whole. The human attitude of inquiry, of asking questions, puts consciousness at distance from the world, every question brings up the possibility of a negative answer, of non-being, e. g. For Sartre, this is how nothingness can exist at all, non-being can neither be part of the being-in-itself nor can it be as a complement of it. Being-for-itself is the origin of negation, the relation between being-for-itself and being-in-itself is one of questioning the latterBeing and Nothingness – Cover of the first edition
3. List of English translations of De rerum natura – De rerum natura is a philosophical epic poem written by Lucretius in Latin around 55 BCE. The poem was lost during the Middle Ages, rediscovered in 1417, only a few more English translations appeared over the next two centuries, but in the 20th century translations began appearing more frequently. Notable translations of individual passages include the invocation to Venus by Edmund Spenser in The Faerie Queene IV. X. 44-47, year — The year of first publication. Translator Publication — The name of the work as published, ISBNs and links to PDFs when available, source — Some translators refer to multiple Latin editions, only the primary Latin source text is noted here. Notes — Prose or the form of verse is always listed first, so that sorting on this column groups formally similar translations, other germane information followsList of English translations of De rerum natura – Lucy Hutchinson
4. Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit – Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit is a major work of metaphysics written by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley and published by Joseph Johnson. In the first of these works, The Examination of Dr. Reids Inquiry, Dr. Beatties Essay. and Dr. Oswalds Appeal, Priestley had strongly suggested that there was no mind-body duality. Such a position shocked and angered many of his readers who believed such a duality was necessary for the soul to exist. Moreover, he contended that discussing the soul was impossible because it is made of a divine substance and he therefore denied the materialism of the soul while simultaneously claiming its existence. Gibbs, F. W. Joseph Priestley, Adventurer in Science, london, Thomas Nelson and Sons,1965. The Enlightened Joseph Priestley, A Study of His Life and Work from 1773 to 1804, University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press,2004. Dictionary of Literary Biography 252, British Philosophers 1500–1799Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit – Works
5. Elbow Room (book) – Elbow Room, The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting is a 1984 book by the American philosopher Daniel Dennett, in which Dennett discusses the philosophical issues of free will and determinism. In 1983, Dennett delivered the John Locke Lectures at Oxford on the topic of free will, in 1984, these ideas were published in the book Elbow Room, The Varieties of Free Will Worth Wanting. In this book Daniel Dennett explored what it means for people to have free will. The title, Elbow Room, is a reference to the question, are we deterministic machines with no freedom of action or do we in fact have some elbow room. A major task taken on by Dennett in Elbow Room is to describe just what people are as biological entities. In discussing what people are and why free will matters to us, Dennett describes the mechanical behavior of the digger wasp Sphex. This insect follows a series of genetically programmed steps in preparing for egg laying, if an experimenter interrupts one of these steps the wasp will repeat that step again. For an animal like a wasp, this process of repeating the same behavior can go on indefinitely and this is the type of mindless, pre-determined behavior that humans can avoid. Given the chance to repeat some futile behavior endlessly, people can notice the futility of it and we can take this as an operational definition of what people mean by free will. Dennett points out the fact that as long as people see themselves as able to avoid futility, Dennett then invites all who are satisfied with this level of analysis to get on with living while he proceeds into the deeper hair-splitting aspects of the free will issue. From a biological perspective, what is the difference between the wasp and a person, the person can, through interaction with his/her environment, construct an internal mental model of the situation and figure out a successful behavioral strategy. It is in this sense of people as animals with complex brains that can model reality, the deeper philosophical issue of free will can be framed as a paradox. On one hand, we all feel like we have free will, on the other hand, modern biology generally investigates humans as though the processes at work in them follow the same biological principles as those in wasps. How do we reconcile our feeling of free will with the idea that we might be mechanical components of a mechanical universe, when we say that a person chooses among several possible behaviors is there really a choice or does it just seem like there is a choice. Do people just simply have better behaviors than wasps, while still being totally mechanical in executing those behaviors, Dennett gives his definition of determinism on page one, All physical events are caused or determined by the sum total of all previous events. This definition dodges a question many people feel should not be dodged. Since the 1920s, physicists have been trying to convince themselves that quantum indeterminacy can in some way explain free will, Dennett suggests that this idea is silly. How, he asks, can random resolutions of quantum-level events provide people with any control over their behavior, Dennett argues that such efforts to salvage free will by finding a way out of the prison of determinism are wastedElbow Room (book) – Elbow Room
6. Introduction to Metaphysics (Heidegger) – Introduction to Metaphysics is a book by Martin Heidegger, the published version of a lecture course he gave in the summer of 1935 at the University of Freiburg. The content of these lectures was not published in Germany until 1953, Heidegger commended this book along with his work Being and Time, as summarising his views at that time on ontology. The work, in which Heidegger refers to the inner truth, introduction to Metaphysics is famous for Heideggers powerful reinterpretation of Greek thought and infamous for his acknowledgement of the Nazi Party. Julian Young writes that it is a work which even those on the whole sympathetic to Heidegger have generally taken to be indelibly fascist in character. Nevertheless, the work has also seen as being critical of Nazism for being insufficiently radical and suffering from the same spiritual impoverishment as the Soviet UnionIntroduction to Metaphysics (Heidegger) – Introduction to Metaphysics
7. Language, Truth, and Logic – Language, Truth, and Logic is a 1936 work of philosophy by Alfred Jules Ayer. It brought some of the ideas of the Vienna Circle and the logical empiricists to the attention of the English-speaking world. In the book, Ayer defines, explains, and argues for the principle of logical positivism. Ayer explains how the principle of verifiability may be applied to the problems of philosophy. E, the title of the book was taken from Friedrich Waismanns Logik, Sprache, Philosophie. According to Ayer, analytic statements are tautologies, a tautology is a statement that is necessarily true, true by definition, and true under any conditions. A tautology is a repetition of the meaning of a statement, according to Ayer, the statements of logic and mathematics are tautologies. Tautologies are true by definition, and thus their validity does not depend on empirical testing, synthetic statements, or empirical propositions, assert or deny something about the real world. The validity of synthetic statements is not established merely by the definition of the words or symbols they contain, according to Ayer, if a statement expresses an empirical proposition, then the validity of the proposition is established by its empirical verifiability. Propositions are statements that have conditions under which they can be verified, by the verification principle, meaningful statements have conditions under which their validity can be affirmed or denied. Statements that are not meaningful cannot be expressed as propositions, every verifiable proposition is meaningful, although it may be either true or false. Every proposition asserts or denies something, and thus is either true or false, Ayer distinguishes between ‘strong’ and ‘weak’ verification, noting that there is a limit to how conclusively a proposition can be verified. ‘Strong’ verification is not possible for any proposition, because the validity of any proposition always depends upon further experience. ‘Weak’ verification, on the hand, is possible for any empirical proposition. Ayer also distinguishes between practical and theoretical verifiability, propositions for which we do not have a practical means of verification may still be meaningful if we can verify them in principle. Literal meaning must also be distinguished from factual meaning, literal meaning is an attribute of statements that are either analytic or empirically verifiable. Factual meaning is an attribute of statements that are meaningful without being analytic, thus, statements that have factual meaning say something about the real world. Ayer agrees with Hume that there are two classes of propositions, those that concern relations of ideas, and those that concern matters of fact. Propositions about relations of ideas include the a priori propositions of logic, propositions about matters of fact, on the other hand, make assertions about the empirical worldLanguage, Truth, and Logic – Cover of the first edition
8. Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever – Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever is a multi-volume series of books on metaphysics by eighteenth-century British polymath Joseph Priestley. Priestley wrote a series of important metaphysics works during the years he spent serving as Lord Shelburnes assistant, in a set of five works written during this time he argued for a materialist philosophy, even though such a position entailed denial of free will and the soul. But on interrogating them on the subject, I soon found that they had no proper attention to it. Having conversed so much with unbelievers at home and abroad, I thought I should be able to combat their prejudices with some advantage, the first part of my ‘Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever’, in proof of the doctrines of a God and a providence, and. A second part, in defence of the evidences of Christianity, the text addresses those whose faith is shaped by books and fashion, Priestley draws an analogy between the skepticism of educated men and the credulity of the masses. He again argues for the existence of God using what Schofield calls the classic argument from design, leading from the necessary existence of a creator-designer to his self-comprehension, eternal existence, infinite power, omnipresence, and boundless benevolence. In the three volumes, Priestley discusses, among other works, Baron dHolbachs Systeme de la Nature. He claimed that energy of nature, though it lacked intelligence or purpose, was really a description of God. Priestley believed that David Humes style in the Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion was just as dangerous as its ideas, he feared the open-endedness of the Humean dialogue Holt, lindsay, Jack, ed. Autobiography of Joseph Priestley. Teaneck, Fairleigh Dickinson University Press,1970, the Enlightened Joseph Priestley, A Study of His Life and Work from 1773 to 1804. University Park, Pennsylvania State University Press,2004, dictionary of Literary Biography 252, British Philosophers 1500–1799Letters to a Philosophical Unbeliever – Title page from Joseph Priestley's Letters
9. Lila: An Inquiry into Morals – Lila, An Inquiry into Morals is the second philosophical novel by Robert M. Pirsig, who is best known for Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance. Lila, An Inquiry into Morals was a nominated finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1992 and this semi-autobiographical story takes place in the autumn as the author sails his boat down the Hudson River. Phaedrus, the alter ego, is jarred out of his solitary routine by an encounter with Lila. The main goal of this book is to develop a complete system based on the idea of Quality introduced in his first book. As in his previous book, the narrative is embedded between rounds of philosophical discussion, unlike his previous book, in which he creates a dichotomy between Classical and Romantic Quality, this book centers on the division of Quality into the Static and the Dynamic. According to the novel, the universe can be divided into four Static values, inorganic, biological, social. Everything in the universe can be categorized into one of these four categories. Because Dynamic Quality is indefinable, the novel discusses the interactions between the four Static values and the Static values themselves, another goal of this book is to critique the field of anthropology. Pirsig claims traditional objectivity renders the field ineffective and he then turns his concept of Quality toward an explanation of the difficulties Western society has had in understanding the values and perspectives of American Indians. One interesting conclusion is that modern American culture is the result of a melding of Native American and European values, another theme analyzed using the Metaphysics of Quality is the interaction between intellectual and social patterns. Pirsig states that until the end of the Victorian era, social patterns dominated the conduct of members of the American culture, in the aftermath of World War I, intellectual patterns and the scientific method acceded to that position, becoming responsible for directing the nations goals and actions. The later occurrences of fascism are seen as a struggle to return social patterns to the dominant position. Although Pirsig attended graduate studies of Hindu philosophy at Banaras Hindu University and also attended Ramlila celebrations in India and he said it was like lilac, and that, it was the unsubtlety of the lilac odour and the hardiness of the bush that helped suggest her name to me. In an interview, the said that he was disappointed that more seriously thinking people did not really understand his ideas entirely. Id like to give a prize to the first person who can convince me that my ideas about a metaphysics of quality are wrong, barfuss Barefoot robertpirsig. org, A website containing a number of papers concerned with the Metaphysics of Quality. Pirsig describes Lila in an interview in 2005 Critical Thinker resources on Pirsig A look at Pirsigs quality A forum about the Metaphysics of QualityLila: An Inquiry into Morals – First edition
10. The Logic of Sense – The Logic of Sense is a 1969 book by the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze. The English edition was translated by Mark Lester with Charles Stivale, donald F. Bouchard and Sherry Simon. In The Essential Works of Michel Foucault, Aesthetics, Method, philosophy through the Looking Glass, Language, Nonsense, Desire. La Salle, IL, Open Court,1985, Gilles Deleuzes Logic of Sense, A Critical Introduction and GuideThe Logic of Sense – Cover of the French edition
11. Meditations on First Philosophy – Meditations on First Philosophy is a philosophical treatise by René Descartes first published in 1641. The French translation was published in 1647 as Méditations Métaphysiques, the original Latin title is Meditationes de prima philosophia, in qua Dei existentia et animæ immortalitas demonstratur. The title may contain a misreading by the printer, mistaking animae immortalitas for animae immaterialitas, as suspected already by A. Baillet. The book is made up of six meditations, in which Descartes first discards all belief in things that are not absolutely certain, Descartes metaphysical thought is also found in the Principles of Philosophy, which the author intended to be a philosophy guidebook. He further indicates how the very Scriptures say that the mind of man is sufficient to discover God and his aim is to apply a method to demonstrate these two truths, in a so clear and evident manner that result to be evident. This method he has developed for the Sciences, Preface to the reader Descartes explains how he made a mention of the two questions, the existence of God, and the soul, in his Discourse on Method. Following this, he received objections, and two of them he considers are of importance, the first is how he concludes that the essence of the soul is a thing that thinks, excluding all other nature. To this he says that he has a clear perception that he is a thing, and has no other clear perception. The second is that from the idea I have of something that is more perfect than myself, in the treatise we will see that in fact from the idea that there is something more perfect than myself, it follows that this exists. He says that we have to consider God as incomprehensible and infinite, finally says that the treatise was submitted to some men of learning to know their difficulties and objections, and are answered at the end of it. He has resolved to sweep away all he thinks he knows and to start again from the foundations and he has seated himself alone, by the fire, free of all worries so that he can demolish his former opinions with care. The Meditator reasons that he need only find some reason to doubt his present opinions in order to him to seek sturdier foundations for knowledge. Rather than doubt every one of his opinions individually, he reasons that he might cast them all into doubt if he can doubt the foundations, everything that the Meditator has accepted as most true he has come to learn from or through his senses. He acknowledges that sometimes the senses can deceive, but only with respect to objects that are small or far away. The Meditator acknowledges that people might be more deceived, but that he is clearly not one of them. However, the Meditator realizes that he is convinced when he is dreaming that he is sensing real objects. He feels certain that he is awake and sitting by the fire, though his present sensations may be dream images, he suggests that even dream images are drawn from waking experience, much like paintings in that respect. Even when a painter creates a creature, like a mermaidMeditations on First Philosophy – The title page of the Meditations.
12. Metaphysics (Aristotle) – Metaphysics is one of the principal works of Aristotle and the first major work of the branch of philosophy with the same name. The principal subject is being qua being, or being insofar as it is being and it examines what can be asserted about anything that exists just because of its existence and not because of any special qualities it has. Also covered are different kinds of causation, form and matter, the existence of objects. The Metaphysics is considered to be one of the greatest philosophical works and its influence on the Greeks, the Muslim philosophers, the scholastic philosophers and even writers such as Dante, was immense. According to Plato, the nature of things is eternal. However, the world we observe around us is constantly and perpetually changing, Aristotle’s genius was to reconcile these two apparently contradictory views of the world. The result is a synthesis of the naturalism of empirical science, and the rationalism of Plato, at the heart of the book lie three questions. What is existence, and what sorts of things exist in the world, how can things continue to exist, and yet undergo the change we see about us in the natural world. And how can this world be understood, by the time Aristotle was writing, the tradition of Greek philosophy was only two hundred years old. It had begun with the efforts of thinkers in the Greek world to theorize about the structure that underlies the changes we observe in the natural world. Two contrasting theories, those of Heraclitus and Parmenides, were an important influence on both Plato and Aristotle, Heraclitus argued that things that appear to be permanent are in fact always gradually changing. Therefore, though we believe we are surrounded by a world of things that remain identical through time, by contrast, Parmenides argued that we can reach certain conclusions by means of reason alone, making no use of the senses. What we acquire through the process of reason is fixed, unchanging, the world is not made up of a variety of things in constant flux, but of one single Truth or reality. Plato’s theory of forms is a synthesis of two views. Given, any object that changes is in an imperfect state, then, the form of each object we see in this world is an imperfect reflection of the perfect form of the object. For example, Plato claimed a chair may take many forms, Aristotle encountered the theory of forms when he studied at the Academy, which he joined at the age of about 18 in the 360s B. C. Aristotle soon expanded on the concept of forms in his Metaphysics and he believed that in every change there is something which persists through the change, and something else which did not exist before, but comes into existence as a result of the change. To explain how Socrates comes to be born Aristotle says that it is ‘matter’ that underlies the change, the matter has the ‘form’ of Socrates imposed on it to become Socrates himselfMetaphysics (Aristotle) – Aristotelianism
13. Monadology – The Monadology is one of Gottfried Leibniz’s best known works representing his later philosophy. It is a text which sketches in some 90 paragraphs a metaphysics of simple substances. During his last stay in Vienna from 1712 to September 1714, after his death Principes de la nature et de la grâce fondé en raison, which was intended for prince Eugene of Savoy, appeared in French in the Netherlands. Christian Wolff and collaborators published translations in German and Latin of the text which came to be known as The Monadology. Without having seen the Dutch publication of the Principes they had assumed that it was the French original of the Monadology, the German translation appeared in 1720 as Lehrsätze über die Monadologie and the following year the Acta Eruditorum printed the Latin version as Principia philosophiae. Leibniz himself inserted references to the paragraphs of his Théodicée, sending the interested reader there for more details, the monad, the word and the idea, belongs to the western philosophical tradition and has been used by various authors. Leibniz, who was well read, could not have ignored this. Apparently he found with it a convenient way to expose his own philosophy as it was elaborated in this period, what he proposed can be seen as a modification of occasionalism developed by latter-day Cartesians. Leibniz surmised that there are many substances individually programmed to act in a predetermined way. This is the harmony which solved the mind body problem. As far as Leibniz allows just one type of element in the building of the universe his system is monistic, the unique element has been given the general name monad or entelechy and described as a simple substance. When Leibniz says that monads are simple, he means that which is one, has no parts and is therefore indivisible, relying on the Greek etymology of the word entelechie, Leibniz posits quantitative differences in perfection between monads which leads to a hierarchical ordering. The basic order is three-tiered, entelechies or created monads, souls or entelechies with perception and memory, whatever is said about the lower ones is valid for the higher but not vice versa. As none of them is without a body, there is a hierarchy of living beings and animals. The degree of perfection in each case corresponds to cognitive abilities, some monads have power over others because they can perceive with greater clarity, but primarily, one monad is said to dominate another if it contains the reasons for the actions of other. Leibniz believed that any body, such as the body of an animal or man, has one dominant monad which controls the others within it and this dominant monad is often referred to as the soul. God is also said to be a substance but it is the only one which is necessary. Monads perceive others “with varying degrees of clarity, except for God, God could take any and all perspectives, knowing of both potentiality and actualityMonadology – The first manuscript page of the Monadology
14. On Nature (Heraclitus) – For other philosophical literature of the same name see On Nature On Nature is a philosophical treatise written by Heraclitus. According to Diogenes, it was divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and one on theology, some parts of his work are half-finished, while other parts make a strange medley. Says Kahn, Down to the time of Plutarch and Clement, if not later, Diogenes says, the book acquired such fame that it produced partisans of his philosophy who were called Heracliteans. As with other pre-Socratics, his writings survive in fragments quoted by other authorsOn Nature (Heraclitus) – Heraclitus (figured by Michelangelo) sits apart from the other philosophers in Raphael 's School of Athens
15. Philosophical Explanations – Philosophical Explanations is a 1981 metaphysical, epistemological, and ethical treatise by philosopher Robert Nozick. The work has received praise, and the sections in which Nozick discusses knowledge, Nozick discusses problems in the philosophy of mind, ethics, epistemology, and metaphysics. The issues Nozick explores include personal identity, knowledge, free will, value, the meaning of life and he suggests instead that the Parthenon should be the model for philosophy, and advocates an explanatory model of philosophical activity rather than an argumentative or coercive one. In the Parthenon model, separate philosophical insights are placed one after another, like columns and that way, when the philosophical ground crumbles, something Nozick regards as likely, something of interest and beauty remains standing. Philosopher Bernard Williams writes that Nozick provides the most subtle and ingenious discussion of knowledge that I know. According to philosopher Jonathan Wolff, the sections of Philosophical Explanations in which Nozick discusses knowledge, michael E. Bratman describes Philosophical Explanations as a rich and wide-ranging exploration of some of the deepest issues in philosophy. He praises Nozicks discussion of free will, writing there is much about it that is, fascinating, suggestivePhilosophical Explanations – Cover of the first edition
16. Quantum Reality – Quantum Reality is a 1985 popular science book by physicist Nick Herbert, a member the Fundamental Fysiks Group which was formed to explore the philosophical implications of quantum theory. The book attempts to address the ontology of quantum objects, their attributes, Herbert discusses the most common interpretations of quantum mechanics and their consequences in turn, highlighting the conceptual advantages and drawbacks of each. In introducing quantum objects, Herbert describes how quantum properties inhere in a wave function. The bandwidth associated with any such decomposition represents the uncertainty in the quantum measurement, Herbert identifies eight interpretations of quantum mechanics, all consistent with observation and with the aforementioned mathematical formalisms. He likens these different interpretations to the story of the men and an elephant—different approaches to the same underlying reality. In this interpretation, dynamic attributes do not describe the reality of quantum objects themselves and this interpretation, associated with David Bohm and Walter Heitler, suggests that the state of the entire universe may be implicated in any quantum measurement. The paradox can be understood by considering a polarized beam as a superposition, other physicists attempted to construct object-based models which did away with this superluminal communication, but Bells theorem later proved this to be impossible. For this reason, neorealism is rejected by most of the physics establishment, the duplex world of Werner Heisenberg. Heisenberg recognized a division inherent in the Copenhagen interpretation, between the concrete actuality of observations and the range of potentiality described by the wave function. In Herberts description of Heisenbergs view, the world is a world composed of possibility. Adding a further wrinkle to the nature of reality, Herbert presents the EPR paradox. Bells theorem resolves this paradox by proving that locality is ruled out by any model of reality consistent with observation must allow for non-local interaction. However, Herbert is careful to note, Bells theorem does not entail any prediction of experimentally observable non-local phenomena, according to Herbert, Bells theorem supports the Bohmian notion of underlying reality as an undivided wholeness. In Herberts view, Bells result strikes a blow to neorealist models. In its review of Quantum Reality, The New York Times praised Herberts efforts at making the subject matter comprehensible to a lay audience, physicist Heinz Pagels called Quantum Reality a great place for the general reader to begin to learn about quantum physics. Kirkus Reviews, however, concluded that Quantum Reality, while engaging, physicist David Kaiser, who has written about the Fundamental Fysiks Group to which Herbert belonged, claims that the book is used in undergraduate physics courses. Quantum Reality has been translated into German, Japanese, and PortugueseQuantum Reality – Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics
17. The Rebel (book) – The Rebel is a 1951 book-length essay by Albert Camus, which treats both the metaphysical and the historical development of rebellion and revolution in societies, especially Western Europe. The work has received ongoing interest, influencing modern philosophers and authors such as Paul Berman, one of Camus primary arguments in The Rebel concerns the motivation for rebellion and revolution. While the two acts - which can be interpreted from Camus writing as states of being - are radically different in most respects, if human beings become disenchanted with contemporary applications of justice, Camus suggests that they rebel. This rebellion, then, is the product of a contradiction between the human minds unceasing quest for clarification and the apparently meaningless nature of the world. Described by Camus as absurd, this latter perception must be examined with what Camus terms lucidity, Camus concludes that the absurd sensibility contradicts itself because when it claims to believe in nothing, it believes in its own protest and the value of the protesters life. Therefore, this sensibility is logically a point of departure that irresistibly exceeds itself, in the inborn impulse to rebel, on the other hand, we can deduce values that enable us to determine that murder and oppression are illegitimate and conclude with hope for a new creation. Another prominent theme in The Rebel, which is tied to the notion of incipient rebellion, is the failure of attempts at human perfection. Such revolutionaries aimed to kill God, in the French Revolution, for instance, this was achieved through the execution of Louis XVI and subsequent eradication of the divine right of kings. The subsequent rise of utopian and materialist idealism sought the end of history, because this end is unattainable, according to Camus, terror ensued as the revolutionaries attempted to coerce results. This culminated in the temporary enslaving of people in the name of their future liberation, at the end of the book, Camus espouses the possible moral superiority of the ethics and political plan of syndicalism. 1951 in literature Anarchism Terror and LiberalismThe Rebel (book) – Vintage International's 1991 reissue of Anthony Bower's translation of The Rebel.
18. De rerum natura – De rerum natura is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. The poem, written in some 7,400 dactylic hexameters, is divided into six untitled books, the universe described in the poem operates according to these physical principles, guided by fortuna, chance, and not the divine intervention of the traditional Roman deities. To Epicurus, the unhappiness and degradation of humans arose largely from the dread which they entertained of the power of the deities, from terror of their wrath. This wrath was supposed to be displayed by the misfortunes inflicted in this life, to remove these fears, and thus to establish tranquility in the heart, was the purpose of his teaching. Lucretius identifies the supernatural with the notion that the deities created our world or interfere with its operations in some way. He argues against fear of such deities by demonstrating, through observations and arguments and these phenomena are the regular, but purposeless motions and interactions of tiny atoms in empty space. Meanwhile, he argues against the fear of death by stating that death is the dissipation of a beings material mind, Lucretius uses the analogy of a vessel, stating that the physical body is the vessel that holds both the mind and spirit of a human being. Neither the mind nor spirit can survive independent of the body, thus Lucretius states that once the vessel shatters its contents can no longer exist. So, as a simple ceasing-to-be, death can be neither good nor bad for this being, being completely devoid of sensation and thought, a dead person cannot miss being alive. According to Lucretius, fear of death is a projection of terrors experienced in life, Lucretius also puts forward the symmetry argument against the fear of death. The poem consists of six untitled books, in dactylic hexameter, the fourth book is devoted to the theory of the senses, sight, hearing, taste, smell, of sleep and of dreams, ending with a disquisition upon love and sex. The fifth book is described by Ramsay as the most finished and impressive, while Stahl considers that its puerile conceptions indicate that Lucretius should be judged as a poet, not as a scientist. This in its turn introduces a description of the great pestilence which devastated Athens during the Peloponnesian War. The abrupt ending suggests that Lucretius had not finished editing the poem before his death. Lucretius wrote this poem to Memmius, who may be Gaius Memmius, who in 58 BC was a praetor. There are over a dozen references to Memmius scattered throughout the poem in a variety of contexts in translation, such as Memmius mine, my Memmius. However, the purpose of the poem is subject to ongoing scholarly debate, Lucretius refers to Memmius by name four times in the first book, three times in the second, five in the fifth, and not at all in the third, fourth, or sixth books. However, Memmius name is central to several verses in the poemDe rerum natura – Opening of De rerum natura, 1483 copy by Girolamo di Matteo de Tauris for Pope Sixtus IV
19. Science of Logic – Science of Logic, first published between 1812 and 1816, is the work in which Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel outlined his vision of logic. Hegels logic is a system of dialectics, i. e. a dialectical metaphysics, It is a development of the principle that thought and being constitute a single, thus ultimately the structures of thought and being, subject and object, are identical. Thus Hegels Science of Logic includes among other things analyses of being, nothingness, becoming, existence, reality, essence, reflection, concept, as developed, it included the fullest description of his dialectic. Hegel considered it one of his works and therefore kept it up to date through revision. Hegel wrote Science of Logic after he had completed his Phenomenology of Spirit and while he was in Nuremberg working at a secondary school and it was published in two volumes. The first, ‘The Objective Logic’, has two parts and each part was published in 1812 and 1813 respectively, the second volume, ‘The Subjective Logic’ was published in 1816 the same year he became a professor of philosophy at Heidelberg. Science of Logic is too advanced for undergraduate students so Hegel wrote an Encyclopaedic version of the logic which was published in 1817, in 1826, the book went out of stock. Instead of reprinting, as requested, Hegel undertook some revisions, by 1831, Hegel completed a greatly revised and expanded version of the ‘Doctrine of Being’, but had no time to revise the rest of the book. The Preface to the edition is dated 7 November 1831. This edition appeared in 1832, and again in 1834–5 in the posthumous Works, only the second edition of Science of Logic is translated into English. According to Hegel, logic is the form taken by the science of thinking in general and he thought that, as it had hitherto been practiced, this science demanded a total and radical reformulation “from a higher standpoint. This unbridgeable gap found within the science of reason was, in his view and it is only in absolute knowing that the separation of the object from the certainty of itself is completely eliminated, truth is now equated with certainty and certainty with truth. “It can therefore be said, ” says Hegel, “that this content is the exposition of God as he is in his eternal essence before the creation of nature and a finite mind. ”The German word Hegel employed to denote this post-dualist form of consciousness was Begriff. The self-exposition of this consciousness, or Notion, follows a series of necessary. Its course is from the objective to the sides of the Notion. The objective side, its Being, is the Notion as it is in itself and this is the subject of Book One, The Doctrine of Being. The process of Being’s transition to the Notion as fully aware of itself is outlined in Book Two, The Doctrine of Essence, at the end of the book Hegel wraps all of the preceding logical development into a single Absolute Idea. Hegel then links this final absolute idea with the concept of Being which he introduced at the start of the bookScience of Logic – Title page of original 1816 publication
20. Simulacra and Simulation – Simulacra and Simulation is a 1981 philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard, in which he seeks to examine the relationships among reality, symbols, and society. Simulacra are copies that depict things that either had no original to begin with, Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system over time. The simulacrum is never that which conceals the truth—it is the truth which conceals that there is none. Simulacra and Simulation is most known for its discussion of symbols, signs, Baudrillard claims that our current society has replaced all reality and meaning with symbols and signs, and that human experience is of a simulation of reality. Baudrillard called this phenomenon the precession of simulacra, here, signs and images do not faithfully reveal reality to us, but can hint at the existence of an obscure reality which the sign itself is incapable of encapsulating. The third stage masks the absence of a reality, where the sign pretends to be a faithful copy. Signs and images claim to represent something real, but no representation is taking place, Baudrillard calls this the order of sorcery, a regime of semantic algebra where all human meaning is conjured artificially to appear as a reference to the hermetic truth. The fourth stage is pure simulacrum, in which the simulacrum has no relationship to any reality whatsoever, here, signs merely reflect other signs and any claim to reality on the part of images or signs is only of the order of other such claims. Any naïve pretension to reality as such is perceived as bereft of critical self-awareness, the uniqueness of objects and situations marks them as irreproducibly real and signification obviously gropes towards this reality. The commoditys ability to imitate reality threatens to replace the authority of the original version, third order, associated with the postmodernity of Late Capitalism, where the simulacrum precedes the original and the distinction between reality and representation vanishes. There is only the simulation, and originality becomes a totally meaningless concept, exchange value, in which the value of goods is based on money rather than usefulness, and moreover usefulness comes to be quantified and defined in monetary terms in order to assist exchange. Multinational capitalism, which produced goods from the plants, minerals and other original materials. Urbanization, which separates humans from the world, and re-centres culture around productive throughput systems so large they cause alienation. A specific analogy that Baudrillard uses is a derived from On Exactitude in Science by Jorge Luis Borges. In it, a great Empire created a map that was so detailed it was as large as the Empire itself, the actual map was expanded and destroyed as the Empire itself conquered or lost territory. When the Empire crumbled, all that was left was the map, the transition from signs which dissimulate something to signs which dissimulate that there is nothing, marks the decisive turning point. The first implies a theology of truth and secrecy. g, the first Gulf War, the image of war preceded real war. War comes not when it is made by sovereign against sovereign, rather, the Matrix Simulated reality Simulation hypothesisSimulacra and Simulation – The English translation
21. Sophist (dialogue) – The Sophist is a Platonic dialogue from the philosophers late period, most likely written in 360 BC. Its main theme is to identify what a sophist is and how a sophist differs from a philosopher, the dialogue is unusual in being one of three that do not feature Socrates, although as in its sequel, the Statesman, he is present to play a minor role. Instead, the Eleatic Stranger takes the lead in the discussion and this dialogue takes place a day after Platos Theaetetus, and aims at defining the sophist. The participants are Socrates, who plays a role, a young mathematician, Theaetetus, and a visitor from Elea. At first he starts with the use of a mundane model and this common quality is the certain expertise in one subject. Then through the method of collection of different kinds, he tries to bring them together into one kind, the same is true with the collection of learning, recognition, commerce, combat and hunting, which can be grouped into the kind of acquisitive art. By following the method, namely, diairesis through collection, he divides the acquisitive art into possession taking and exchanging goods. The sophist is a kind of merchant, after many successive collections and divisions he finally arrives at the definition of the model. Throughout this process the Eleatic Stranger classifies many kinds of activities, after the verbal explanation of the model, he tries to find out what the model and the target kind share in common and what differentiates them. Production, hunting by persuasion and money-earning,2. acquisition, soul retailing, retailing things that others make,4. Soul retailing, retailing things that he himself,5. Possession taking, competition, money-making expertise in debating, throughout the process of comparison of the distinguished kinds through his method of collection, the Eleatic Stranger discovers some attributes in relation to which the kinds can be divided. These are similar to the Categories of Aristotle, so to say, quantity, quality, relation, location, time, position, after having failed to define sophistry, the Stranger attempts a final diairesis through the collection of the five definitions of sophistry. Since these five definitions share in common one quality, which is the imitation, following the division of the imitation art in copy-making and appearance-making, he discovers that sophistry falls under the appearance-making art, namely the Sophist imitates the wise man. Otherwise, the sophist couldnt do anything with it, the Eleatic Stranger, before proceeding to the final definition of sophistry, has to make clear the concepts that he used throughout the procedure of definition. In other words, he has to clarify what is the nature of the Being, Not-Being, sameness, difference, motion, and rest, and how they are interrelated. Therefore, he examines Parmenides’ notion in comparison with Empedocles and Heraclitus’ in order to find out whether Being is identical with change or rest, the conclusion is that rest and change both are, that is, both are beings, Parmenides had said that only rest is. Furthermore, Being is a kind which all existing things share in common, sameness is a kind that all things which belong to the same kind or genus share with reference to a certain attribute, and due to which diaeresis through collection is possibleSophist (dialogue) – Plato from The School of Athens by Raphael, 1509
22. Timaeus (dialogue) – Timaeus is one of Platos dialogues, mostly in the form of a long monologue given by the title character Timaeus of Locri, written c.360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world, participants in the dialogue include Socrates, Timaeus, Hermocrates, and Critias. Some scholars believe that it is not the Critias of the Thirty Tyrants who is appearing in this dialogue, but his grandfather and it has been suggested that Timaeus influenced a book about Pythagoras, written by Philolaus. The dialogue takes place the day after Socrates described his ideal state, in Platos works such a discussion occurs in the Republic. Hermocrates wishes to oblige Socrates and mentions that Critias knows just the account to do so, Critias proceeds to tell the story of Solons journey to Egypt where he hears the story of Atlantis, and how Athens used to be an ideal state that subsequently waged war against Atlantis. Critias believes that he is getting ahead of himself, and mentions that Timaeus will tell part of the account from the origin of the universe to man, the history of Atlantis is postponed to Critias. The main content of the dialogue, the exposition by Timaeus, Timaeus begins with a distinction between the physical world, and the eternal world. The physical one is the world changes and perishes, therefore it is the object of opinion. The eternal one never changes, therefore it is apprehended by reason, the speeches about the two worlds are conditioned by the different nature of their objects. Indeed, a description of what is changeless, fixed and clearly intelligible will be changeless and fixed, while a description of changes and is likely, will also change. As being is to becoming, so is truth to belief, therefore, in a description of the physical world, one should not look for anything more than a likely story. Timaeus suggests that since nothing becomes or changes without cause, then the cause of the universe must be a demiurge or a god, and since the universe is fair, the demiurge must have looked to the eternal model to make it, and not to the perishable one. Hence, using the eternal and perfect world of forms or ideals as a template, he set about creating our world, Timaeus continues with an explanation of the creation of the universe, which he ascribes to the handiwork of a divine craftsman. The demiurge, being good, wanted there to be as good as was the world. The demiurge is said to bring out of substance by imitating an unchanging. The ananke, often translated as necessity, was the only other co-existent element or presence in Platos cosmogony, later Platonists clarified that the eternal model existed in the mind of the Demiurge. Timaeus describes the substance as a lack of homogeneity or balance, in which the four elements were shapeless, mixed, considering that order is favourable over disorder, the essential act of the creator was to bring order and clarity to this substance. Therefore, all the properties of the world are to be explained by the choice of what is fair and good, orTimaeus (dialogue) – Plato from The School of Athens by Raphael, 1509
23. Tripura Rahasya – The Tripura Rahasya meaning The Mystery beyond the Trinity, is an ancient literary work in Sanskrit believed to have been narrated by Dattatreya to Parashurama. It is an ancient prime text is one of the treatise on Advaita school of classical Indian Metaphysics, Tripura means three cities or the trinity. In a sense there is no secret to be revealed and it is only due to our lack of wisdom that we do not experience our true nature. Therefore mystery would be an appropriate translation. Thus Tripura Rahasya means the Mystery beyond the Trinity. The three cities or states of consciousness are waking, dreaming and Shushupti, the underlying consciousness in them all is called Sri Tripura, the Mother Goddess. The Tripura Rahasya expounds the teachings of the spiritual truth. The highest truth was first taught by Lord Shiva to Lord Vishnu, Lord Vishnu incarnated on earth as Sri Dattatreya, Lord of the Avadhutas, who taught this to Parasurama, who later taught it to Haritayana. The Tripura Rahasya is a dialogue between Lord Dattatreya and Parasurama. It is also called the Haritayana Samhita after its author Haritayana and it is said to consist of 12,000 slokas in three sections - The Mahatmya Khanda, Jnana Khanda, and Charya Khanda. Of these the first consists of 6,687 slokas, the second of 2,163 slokas, jamadagni was a Brahmin saint who lived in the forest with his wife Renuka and his sons, of whom Parasurama was the youngest, the most renowned and valiant. The country was ruled by Haihayas, a certain clan of Kshatriyas. Some of them came into a clash with Parasurama, but fared the worse and they dared not challenge him afterwards. Their rancour, however, remained, and they could not resist their longing for revenge and they seized their opportunity when Parasurama was far away from the hermitage and attacked and killed his saintly father. Parasurama vowed that he would clear the earth of the Kshattriya vermin and he placed his father’s corpse on one shoulder and took his living mother on the other and set out for to the Ganges. While passing through a forest an Avadhuta, by name Dattatreya, saw Renuka, the Avadhutha addressed Renuka as Shakti incarnate, of unparalleled might and worshipped her. She blessed him and told him of her life on earth and she also advised her son to look to Dattatreya for help when needed. Parasurama went on his way and fulfilled his mother’s desire and he then challenged every Kshattriya in the land and killed them all. Their blood was collected in a pool in Kurukshetra, and Parasurama offered oblations to his forefathers with it and his dead ancestors appeared and told him to desist from his bloody revenge. Accordingly, he retired into a mountain fastness and lived as a hermit, hearing on one occasion of the prowess of Rama, his wrath rekindled and he came back to challenge himTripura Rahasya – Dattatreya
24. The World as Will and Representation – The World as Will and Representation is the central work of the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer. The first edition was published in 1818/19, the expanded edition in 1844. In 1948, a version was edited by Thomas Mann. In the English language, this work is known under three different titles, although English publications about Schopenhauer played a role in the recognition of his fame as a philosopher in later life and a three volume translation by R. B. Haldane and J. F. J. Payne as late as in 1958, a later English translation by Richard E. Aquila in collaboration with David Carus is titled The World as Will and Presentation. Present day translator Richard Aquila argues that the reader will not grasp the details of the philosophy of Schopenhauer properly without this new title, The World as Will and Presentation. The other aspect of the world, the Will, or thing in itself, which is not perceivable as a presentation, exists outside time, space, Aquila claims to make these distinctions as linguistically precise as possible. However, the contains a appendix entitled critique of the Kantian philosophy, in which Schopenhauer rejects most of Kants ethics and significant parts of his epistemology. He also states in his introduction that the reader will be at his best prepared to understand his theories if he has lingered in the school of Plato or he is familiar with Indian philosophy. Schopenhauer believed that Kant had ignored inner experience, as intuited through the will, Schopenhauer saw the human will as our one window to the world behind the representation, the Kantian thing-in-itself. According to Schopenhauer, the world is the representation of a single Will. In this way, Schopenhauers metaphysics go beyond the limits that Kant had set, other important differences are Schopenhauers rejection of eleven of Kants twelve categories, arguing that only causality was important. Matter and causality were both seen as a union of time and space and thus being equal to each other, the development of Schopenhauers ideas took place very early in his career and culminated in the publication of the first volume of Will and Representation in 1819. This first volume consisted of four books – covering his epistemology, ontology, aesthetics and ethics and his views had not changed substantially. His belated fame after 1851 stimulated renewed interest in his seminal work, Schopenhauer used the word will as a humans most familiar designation for the concept that can also be signified by other words such as desire, striving, wanting, effort, and urging. Schopenhauers philosophy holds that all nature, including man, is the expression of an insatiable will to life and it is through the will that mankind finds all their suffering. Desire for more is what causes this suffering and he argues that only aesthetic pleasure creates momentary escape from the Will. Our inner-experience must be a manifestation of the realm and the will is the inner kernel of every beingThe World as Will and Representation – The title page of the expanded 1844 publication