Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Gentofte Kommune is a municipality in the Capital Region of Denmark on the east coast of the island of Zealand in eastern Denmark. It covers an area of 25.54 km2, and has a population of 74,548. Since 1993, its mayor has been Hans Toft, a member of the Conservative Peoples Party, the municipality is an amalgamation of three formerly independent towns, and several other local settlements, all close to one another. The site of its council is in Charlottenlund. The three original towns were Gentofte and Ordrup and it included Tuborg, Dyssegård, Hellerup, Jægersborg, and Klampenborg. Neighboring municipalities are Lyngby-Taarbæk to the north, Gladsaxe to the west, the Øresund, the strait that separates Zealand from Sweden, is to the east. Gentofte municipality was not merged with other municipalities in the 1 January 2007 nationwide Kommunalreformen, Øregård Museum Gentofte Municipality is home to four public upper secondary schools, Øregård and Gammel Hellerup in Hellerup, Aurehøj in Gentofte and Ordrup Gymnasium in Ordrup.
Gentofte Studenterkursus offers a 2-year programme, the most important parks are Charlottenlund Beach Park, Hellerup Beach Park, Bernstorff Park. Natural habitats are found at Gentofte Sø, a lake with lots of birds on it, Ermelunden in Jægersborg and Gammelmose in Vangede, Øregård Park with a beautiful lake, benches. A small section of Jægersborg Dyrehave extends into the municipality, while the rest, arne Jacobsen and furniture designer, who built extensively in Gentofte and lived on Strandvejen. Shipping tycoon Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller had his residence in the municipality, composer Per Nørgård was born in Gentofte. Writer Dan Turèll lived in the Vangede part of Gentofte from 1955–1964 and he documented these years in his 1975 book Vangede billeder. He moved to Los Angeles in 1980, singer an songwriter Agnes Obel was born in Gentofte. She moved to Berlin in 2005, musician Alex Vargas was born in Gentofte. He moved to London at 17
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Copenhagen metropolitan area
The Copenhagen metropolitan area is a large commuter belt surrounding Copenhagen, the capital of Denmark. It is known to include Copenhagen Municipality and surrounding municipalities stretching westward across Zealand and it has densely-populated core surrounded by suburban settlements. The metropolitan area several current definitions and historical, now defunct. The most widely accepted is the area which is managed by the Finger Plan. The modern post 2007 version includes the four provinces Københavns by, Københavns omegn, Nordsjælland and Østsjælland, with a land area of 2.778 km². It should not be confused with the Øresund Region, the area has been planned according to the Finger Plan, which has given it six fingers of S-trains and a western connection S-line. Urbanization stretching out from central Copenhagen, one railroad and two metro lines over Amager been formed. The Amager railroad continues to Sweden by bridge, Copenhagen metropolitan area is the largest of the commonly used definitions for the Copenhagen area.
Until 2007 the area consisted of Copenhagen and Frederiksberg Municipalities, Copenhagen County, Frederiksborg County, by this definition, the metropolitan area has a population of 2,016,285 covering an area of 3,030 square kilometres over 34 municipalities with a density of 665/km². The administrative entity responsible for the Capital Region of Denmark defines their administrative area as the area of Copenhagen. As such the population is 1,713,624 on an area of 2,561 km² with a density of 669. 1/km². It should however be noted that the Capital Region does not contain all of the Roskilde, furthermore, it does contain the remote island of Bornholm. While actually a transnational region of co-operation, rather than a metropolitan area and this goes back to the Initiativgruppen, who was tasked with creating the metropole of the north. As of 1 October 2011 the Øresund Region is populated by 3,783,158 inhabitants with a density of 181. 3/km², according to OECD, this region includes vast areas which are not recognized as part of the functional metropolitan area.
Copenhagen is by far the largest city, and the core of the region. However the Øresund Region covers large areas that are located remotely from both Copenhagen and the Øresund sea and this is an illustration of the population and population density around the Øresund sea rather than a formal area. But as such the population around Øresund constitutes by far the largest population centre of Scandinavia, Copenhagen metropolitan area is most commonly recognized, and before 2007 official, equal to the Danish part of this core. The four mentioned Danish provinces, with two million inhabitants at an area of 2.768,6 km2 and a population density of 722 people per square kilometre
Hellerup is a district of Gentofte Municipality in the suburbs of Copenhagen, Denmark. The most urban part of the district is centred on Strandvejen and is bordered by Østerbro to the south and it comprises Tuborg Havn, the redeveloped brewery site of Tuborg Breweries, with the Waterfront Shopping Center, a marina and the headquarters of several large companies. Other parts of the consists of single family detached homes. Local landmarks include the science centre Experimentarium and the art Øregaard Museum, with an area of approximately 515 hectares, Hellerup covers 20% of the municipality. As of a January 2012, Hellerup had a population of 18,781, the Hellerup postal district includes a somewhast larger area since part of Østerbro has the postal code 2900 Hellerup. In spite of its name, with the suffix -rup, Hellerup does not originate in an old village, in the 18th century the area was still open countryside with scattered country houses. One of them, was renamed Hellerupgård when it was acquired by Johan David Heller in 1748 and it would lend its name to the modern district of Hellerup.
Hellerupgård was purchased by the merchant and shipowner Erich Erichsen and he commissioned the French architect Joseph-Jacques Ramée to built a new house in 1802. Other country houses included Øregård, Blidah and Taffelbay, one of the oldest properties in the area was Vartov, a former watermill which had been acquired by Frederick II in 1566 and used as a hunting lodge. It was converted into a hospital for the poor in 1607, the navel officer Charles Frédéric le Sage de Fontenay acquired it in the 18th century and converted it into a country house. A harbor was built on the coast between 1869 and 1873, the new Tuborg Brewery was inaugurated that same year. In 1887, Carl Ludvig Ibsen began to land in the area with the intension to sell it off in lots to developers. He purchased Hellerupgård, Lille Mariendal and Slukefter in Hellerup as well as Smakkegård, Rygård, Lundegård and Stengård in Gentofte, the land in Hellerup alone added up to 37 hectares. He reclaimed an area along the coast just north of Tuborg Breweries and he did not build on the land himself but prepared it with sewers and roads and sold it off in lots to developers and private citizens.
In the mid-1890s, redevelopment of the areas on the west side of Strandvejen began, resulting in such as Ryvangs Allé. A new gasworks, Strandvejsgasværket, opened adjacent to Tuborg Breweries in 1893. Many of the new homes had WCs, in 1916, Ibsen placed his remaining land in a company, A/S De Ibsenske Grunde i Gjentofte Sogn, which existed until 1945. As of 1996, it has been an area with numerous apartments overlooking the harbour. The site is home to the headquarters of several Danish and international companies