Category:Modernist architecture in New York City
Pages in category "Modernist architecture in New York City"
The following 45 pages are in this category, out of 45 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 45 pages are in this category, out of 45 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. 550 Madison Avenue – 550 Madison Avenue, is an iconic postmodern 647-foot-tall, 37-story highrise skyscraper located at 550 Madison Avenue in Manhattan. Designed by Philip Johnson, it was formerly the headquarters of Sony Corporation of America, the tower was purchased by the Olayan and Chelsfield for $1.4 billion in 2016. The building was designed by architect Philip Johnson and partner John Burgee and was completed in 1984 and it is close - in concept - to the 1982 Humana Building by Michael Graves. It became immediately controversial for its top, but enjoyed for its spectacular arched entrance way. With these ornamental additions, the building challenged architectural modernisms demand for stark functionalism, the effect the building had on the public at large has been described as legitimizing the postmodern architecture movement on the world stage. The firm was granted an additional 43,000 sq ft, about two floors worth, as a bonus for creating a 14,000 sq ft covered arcade along Madison Avenue that would include seating and retail kiosks. After AT&T moved out of the building, the statue was relocated to a spot outside of its Basking Ridge operational headquarters in 1992, in 1984, the company indicated that it would not build the museum that it had originally committed to build in exchange for bonus zoning. The change of heart came as part of following the court-ordered divestiture of the Regional Bell Operating Companies. In the face of opposition from the city, AT&T acquiesced to construction of a three-story exhibition space in an annex located adjoining the pedestrian walkway behind the building. AT&T had been granted a tax break of $42 million, under the condition that the company would keep its headquarters at 550 Madison Avenue and not rent out the space to other tenants. Having decreased in size substantially, AT&T signed a 20-year lease agreement on 550 Madison with Sony and relocated its headquarters to 32 Sixth Avenue, Sony was granted an option to purchase the building. AT&T returned $14.5 million to New York City to compensate it for tax abatements made as part of a 1987 renegotiation, in exchange, the company would expand the glass-enclosed pedestrian walkway with the addition of planters and public seating. Rents on the floors had averaged about $34 per square foot at the time, Sony connected the two buildings using fiber optic cables that were run under Madison Avenue and installed microwave communications equipment on the top of the 555 building. A cash-strapped AT&T sold the building to Sony in 2002 for $236 million and it used to be open on Tuesdays through Saturdays. Sony used to describe the free exhibits as a technology and entertainment museum for all ages, during 2008, the museums third and fourth floors underwent renovations that were completed in fall 2008. Sony Wonder replaced Infoquest Center, a permanent telecommunications exhibition that had built by AT&T. Sony permanently closed the lab on January 29,2016, in December 2012, bidding started on the building and in January 2013 Sony announced plans to sell the building to the Chetrit Group for $1.1 billion -- $685 million more than it had paid for it. Sony leased back its offices there through 2016, when it moved its headquarters south to 11 Madison Avenue, the Chetrit Group planned to redevelop the building as a combination of condominiums and a hotel
2. Chrysler Building – At 1,046 feet, the structure was the worlds tallest building for 11 months before it was surpassed by the Empire State Building in 1931. It is the tallest brick building in the world, with a steel structure, in addition, The New York Times Building, which opened in 2007, is exactly level with the Chrysler Building in height. The Chrysler Building is an example of Art Deco architecture. In 2007, it was ranked ninth on the List of Americas Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects and it was the headquarters of the Chrysler Corporation from 1930 until the mid-1950s. Although the building was built and designed specifically for the car manufacturer, Chrysler decided to pay for it himself, so that his children could inherit it. The Chrysler Building was designed by architect William Van Alen for a project of Walter P. Chrysler, when the ground breaking occurred on September 19,1928, there was an intense competition in New York City to build the worlds tallest skyscraper. Despite a frantic pace, no workers died during the construction of this skyscraper, Van Alens original design for the skyscraper called for a decorative jewel-like glass crown. It also featured a base in which the windows were tripled in height and topped by 12 stories with glass-wrapped corners. The height of the skyscraper was originally designed to be 246 meters. However, the proved to be too advanced and costly for building contractor William H. Reynolds. The design and lease were then sold to Walter P. Chrysler, construction commenced on September 19,1928. In total,391,881 rivets were used and approximately 3,826,000 bricks were manually laid, contractors, builders and engineers were joined by other building-services experts to coordinate construction. Prior to its completion, the building stood about even with a project at 40 Wall Street. Severance increased the height of his project and then claimed the title of the worlds tallest building. In response, Van Alen obtained permission for a 38-meter long spire and had it secretly constructed inside the frame of the building, the spire was delivered to the site in four different sections. On October 23,1929, the section of the spire was hoisted to the top of the buildings dome. The other remaining sections of the spire were hoisted and riveted to the first one in order in just 90 minutes. It was the first man-made structure to stand taller than 1,000 feet, Van Alens satisfaction in these accomplishments was likely muted by Walter Chryslers later refusal to pay the balance of his architectural fee
3. David H. Koch Theater – The theater occupies the south side of the main plaza of Lincoln Center, opposite David Geffen Hall. The New York State Theater was built with funds from the State of New York as part of New York States cultural participation in the 1964–1965 Worlds Fair, the theater was designed by architects Philip Johnson and John Burgee, opened on April 23,1964. After the Fair, the State transferred ownership of the theater to the City of New York, the City leases the theater to Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts, Inc. which subleases it to City Center of Music and Drama, Inc. The present corporation of CCMD continues to manage the theater today, along with the opera and ballet companies, another early tenant of the theater was the now defunct Music Theater of Lincoln Center whose president was composer Richard Rodgers. In the mid 1960s, the company produced fully staged revivals of classic Broadway musicals and these included The King and I, Carousel, Annie Get Your Gun, Show Boat, and South Pacific. In July 2008, oil-and-gas billionaire David H. Koch pledged to provide $100 million over the ten years to renovate the theater and provide an operating. The facility became the David H. Koch Theater at the New York City Ballet Winter gala, the theater is to bear his name for at least fifty years, after which it may be renamed, the Koch family retains the right of first refusal for any renaming. Some people continue to refer to the theater by its original name, JCJ Architecture of New York City designed renovations with Schuler Shook as theater consultants. In patron areas, the plan replaced and reconfigured all seats, the reconfiguration created two aisles in the orchestra level, which previously featured continental-style seating, with no center aisles. It also upgraded restrooms to make them ADA compliant, work backstage included a new stage lighting system, expansion of the orchestra pit, and a mechanical lift in the pit floor allowing it to be raised to stage level when needed. The lobby areas of the theater feature many works of art, including pieces by Jasper Johns, Lee Bontecou. Lincoln Center press release, July 9,2008 David H. Koch Theater website New York City Ballet website JCJ Architecture, New York City Opera press release, undated New York Times article by Robin Pogrebin, July 10,2008
4. Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum – It is the permanent home of a continuously expanding collection of Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, early Modern and contemporary art and also features special exhibitions throughout the year. The museum was established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1939 as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, under the guidance of its first director and it adopted its current name after the death of its founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim, in 1952. In 1959, the museum moved from rented space to its current building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top than the bottom, was conceived as a temple of the spirit. Its unique ramp gallery extends up from ground level in a long, the building underwent extensive expansion and renovations in 1992 and from 2005 to 2008. The museums collection has grown organically, over eight decades, and is founded several important private collections. The collection is shared with the museums sister museums in Bilbao, Spain, in 2013, nearly 1.2 million people visited the museum, and it hosted the most popular exhibition in New York City. Solomon R. Guggenheim, a member of a mining family, had been collecting works of the old masters since the 1890s. In 1926, he met artist Hilla von Rebay, who introduced him to European avant-garde art, in abstract art that she felt had a spiritual. Guggenheim completely changed his strategy, turning to the work of Wassily Kandinsky. He began to display his collection to the public at his apartment in the Plaza Hotel in New York City, as the collection grew, he established the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, in 1937, to foster the appreciation of modern art. The foundations first venue for the display of art, the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, opened in 1939 under the direction of Rebay, in midtown Manhattan. By the early 1940s, the foundation had accumulated such a collection of avant-garde paintings that the need for a permanent museum building had become apparent. In 1943, Rebay and Guggenheim wrote a letter to Frank Lloyd Wright asking him to design a structure to house, Wright accepted the opportunity to experiment with his organic style in an urban setting. It took him 15 years,700 sketches, and six sets of working drawings to create the museum, in 1948, the collection was greatly expanded through the purchase of art dealer Karl Nierendorfs estate of some 730 objects, notably German expressionist paintings. By that time, the collection included a broad spectrum of expressionist and surrealist works, including paintings by Paul Klee, Oskar Kokoschka. Nevertheless, she left a portion of her collection to the foundation in her will, including works by Kandinsky, Klee, Alexander Calder, Albert Gleizes, Mondrian. The museum was renamed the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952, Rebay conceived of the space as a temple of the spirit that would facilitate a new way of looking at the modern pieces in the collection. She wrote to Wright that each of these great masterpieces should be organized into space, would test the possibilities to do so
5. Headquarters of the United Nations – The headquarters of the United Nations is a complex in New York City designed by Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer. The complex has served as the headquarters of the United Nations since its completion in 1952. It is located in the Turtle Bay neighborhood of Manhattan, on spacious grounds overlooking the East River and its borders are First Avenue on the west, East 42nd Street to the south, East 48th Street on the north and the East River to the east. The term Turtle Bay is occasionally used as a metonym for the UN headquarters or for the United Nations as a whole, the United Nations has three additional, subsidiary, regional headquarters, or headquarters districts. These were opened in Geneva in 1946, Vienna in 1980 and they are technically extraterritorial through a treaty agreement with the U. S. government. However, in exchange for police, fire protection and other services, the United Nations agrees to acknowledge most local, state. The United Nations Headquarters complex was constructed in stages with the complex completed between 1948 and 1952. The US$8.5 million purchase was funded by his father, John D. Rockefeller. The Rockefeller family owned the Tudor City Apartments across First Avenue from the site, Wallace Harrison, the personal architectural adviser for the Rockefeller family and brother-in-law to a Rockefeller daughter, served as the Director of Planning for the United Nations Headquarters. His firm, Harrison and Abramovitz, oversaw the execution of the design, the property was originally a slaughterhouse before the donation took place, bordered on one side by the Rockefeller owned Tudor City Apartments. While the United Nations had dreamed of constructing an independent city for its new world capital, the diminutive site on the East River necessitated a Rockefeller Center-type vertical complex, thus, it was a given that the Secretariat would be housed in a tall office tower. During daily meetings from February to June 1947, the team produced at least 45 designs and variations. Rather than hold a competition for the design of the facilities for the headquarters, the American architect Wallace K. Harrison was named as Director of Planning, and a Board of Design Consultants was composed of architects, planners and engineers nominated by member governments. Niemeyer met with Corbusier at the latters request shortly after the arrived in New York City. Corbusier had already been lobbying hard to promote his own scheme 23, instead, he asked the younger architect to assist him with his project. Niemeyer began to absent himself from the meetings, only after Wallace Harrison and Max Abramovitz repeatedly pressed him to participate did Niemeyer agree to submit his own project. This would not split the site, but on the contrary, after much discussion, Harrison, who coordinated the meetings, determined that a design based on Niemeyers project 32 and Le Corbusiers project 23 would be developed for the final project. The complex as built, however, repositioned Niemeyers General Assembly building to the north of this tripartite composition and this plan included a public plaza as well
6. Hearst Tower (Manhattan) – The Hearst Tower is a building with the addresses of 300 West 57th Street and 959 Eighth Avenue, near Columbus Circle, in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. The six-story base of the building was commissioned by the founder, William Randolph Hearst. The building was completed in 1928 at a cost of $2 million, the original cast stone facade has been preserved in the new design as a designated Landmark site. Originally built as the base for a skyscraper, the construction of the tower was postponed due to the Great Depression. The new tower addition was completed nearly eighty years later, and 2,000 Hearst employees moved in on June 26,2006, the uncommon triangular framing pattern required 9,500 metric tons of structural steel—reportedly about 20% less than a conventional steel frame. Hearst Tower was the first skyscraper to break ground in New York City after September 11,2001, the building received the 2006 Emporis Skyscraper Award, citing it as the best skyscraper in the world completed that year. Hearst Tower is the first green high-rise office building completed in New York City, the floor of the atrium is paved with heat conductive limestone. Polyethylene tubing is embedded under the floor and filled with circulating water for cooling in the summer, rain collected on the roof is stored in a tank in the basement for use in the cooling system, to irrigate plants and for the water sculpture in the main lobby. 85% of the structural steel contains recycled material. The atrium features escalators which run through a 3-story water sculpture titled Icefall, a wide waterfall built with thousands of glass panels, the water element is complemented by a 70-foot-tall fresco painting titled Riverlines by artist Richard Long. The layout of the Hearst Tower is such that the facade is very jagged, plans for a rig, designed by Tractel-Swingstage, to hold window cleaners, took 3 years and 3 million dollars because of the buildings concave windows, referred to as birds mouths. The device was installed in April 2005 on 420 feet of elevated steel track looping the roof of the tower, on June 12,2013, two window cleaners were trapped on the window cleaning crane partway down from the top of the tower. The unique zigzag grid on the exterior and birds mouth divots on its corners necessitated development of a special scaffold for window washers. Tokyo Ginko Kyokai Building Diagrid Notes Sources Up to the Sky, Hearst Tower, Documentary by Sabine Pollmeier and Joachim Haupt. Hearst Tower Documentary produced by Treasures of New York Stichweh, Dirk, prestel Publishing, Munich 2009, ISBN 3-7913-4054-9. Luxis, Hearst Tower New York, NY Hearst Magazine Tower at Structurae in-Arch. net, The Hearst Magazine Building background New York Architect Images
7. Lever House – Completed in 1952, it was the second curtain wall skyscraper in New York City after the United Nations Secretariat Building. The 307-foot-tall building features a courtyard and public space. In 1959, the design was copied as the Emek Business Center in Ankara, in 1961 as the Terminal Sud of Paris-Orly. The building was designated a New York City landmark in 1982 and was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1983, the Lever House was built in 1950–1952 to be the American headquarters of the British soap company Lever Brothers. It was the pet project of Lever Brothers president Charles Luckman, in 1916, New York City had passed zoning laws designed to prevent new skyscrapers from overwhelming the streets with their sheer bulk. It required buildings to have setbacks as they rose, creating a sense of space, the building featured a glimmering 24-story blue-green heat-resistant glass and stainless steel curtain-wall. The curtain-wall was designed to reduce the cost of operating and maintaining the property and its curtain-wall is completely sealed with no operating windows. This meant that much less dirt from the city would get into the building, the heat resistant nature of the glass also helped to keep air conditioning costs down. Additionally, the property featured a roof-top window-washing gondola that moved about the wall on tracks. The curtain wall was fabricated and installed by General Bronze Corp, the ground floor contained no tenants. Instead, it featured an open plaza with garden and pedestrian walkways, only a small portion of the ground floor was enclosed in glass and marble. The ground floor featured space for displays and waiting visitors, a demonstration kitchen, the second and largest floor contained the employees lounge, medical suite, and general office facilities. On the third floor was the cafeteria and terrace. The offices of Lever Brothers and its subsidiaries occupied the remaining floors with the penthouse on the 21st floor. The top three stories contained most of the mechanical space. In 1982, the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission designated Lever House as an official landmark, by that time, however, much of Lever Houses original brilliance had been dimmed by time. The buildings blue-green glass facade deteriorated due to weather conditions. Water seeped behind the stainless steel mullions causing the steel within the glazing pockets to rust
8. MetLife Building – The MetLife Building is a 59-story skyscraper at 200 Park Avenue at East 45th Street above Grand Central Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Built in 1960–63 as the Pan Am Building, the then-headquarters of Pan American World Airways, it was designed by Emery Roth & Sons, Pietro Belluschi and Walter Gropius in the International style. The worlds largest commercial space by square footage at its opening. When it opened on March 7,1963, the Pan Am Building was the largest commercial space in the world by square footage. It was initially an unpopular sight due to its lack of proportion and huge scale—it dwarfed the New York Central Building to the north, the building was surpassed in size by the World Trade Center in 1970–71 as well as 55 Water Street in 1972. Pan Am originally occupied 15 floors of the building and it remained Pan Ams headquarters even after Metropolitan Life Insurance Company bought the building in 1981. By 1991, Pan Ams presence had dwindled to four floors, shortly afterwards, the airline ceased operations. On Thursday September 3,1992, MetLife announced that it would remove Pan Am signage from the building. Robert G. Schwartz, the chairman, chief executive, and president of MetLife, at the time MetLife was headquartered in the Metropolitan Life Insurance Company Tower. In 2005, MetLife sold the building for $1.72 billion, the buyer was a joint venture of Tishman Speyer Properties, the New York City Employees Retirement System, and the New York City Teachers Retirement System. In 2015, it was revealed that billionaire Donald Bren, the owner of the Newport Beach, California-based Irvine Company, while Tishman Speyer remains the managing partner of the property, the companys stake in the MetLife Building has been reduced to less than 3 percent. For a short part of time, they also offered service to Teterboro Airport. Service to JFK resumed in early 1977 using Sikorsky S-61s, one of the five 20-foot blades broke off and flew into a crowd of passengers waiting to board. Three men were killed instantly and another died later in a hospital, the blade sailed over the side of the building and killed a female pedestrian on the corner of Madison Avenue and 43rd Street. Two other people were seriously injured, helicopter service was quickly suspended, and has never resumed. The building was the site of the suicide of Eli M. Black on February 3,1975, the CEO of United Brands Company used his briefcase to shatter an external window and then jumped out of the 44th-story window to his death on Park Avenue. The building remains one of the citys most recognizable skyscrapers and it has been popular with tenants, not least because of its location next to Grand Central Terminal. In 1987, a poll conducted by the lifestyle periodical New York indicated that the tower was the building that New Yorkers would most like to see demolished, perhaps contributing to the hatred of the building is the fact that it is so visible
9. Museum of Modern Art – The Museum of Modern Art is an art museum located in Midtown Manhattan in New York City, on 53rd Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues. MoMA has been important in developing and collecting modernist art, and is identified as one of the largest and most influential museums of modern art in the world. The MoMA Library includes approximately 300,000 books and exhibition catalogs, over 1,000 periodical titles, the archives holds primary source material related to the history of modern and contemporary art. The idea for The Museum of Modern Art was developed in 1929 primarily by Abby Aldrich Rockefeller and they became known variously as the Ladies, the daring ladies and the adamantine ladies. They rented modest quarters for the new museum in the Heckscher Building at 730 Fifth Avenue in Manhattan, and it opened to the public on November 7,1929, nine days after the Wall Street Crash. Abby had invited A. Conger Goodyear, the president of the board of trustees of the Albright Art Gallery in Buffalo, New York. At the time, it was Americas premier museum devoted exclusively to art. One of Abbys early recruits for the staff was the noted Japanese-American photographer Soichi Sunami. Goodyear enlisted Paul J. Sachs and Frank Crowninshield to join him as founding trustees, Sachs, the associate director and curator of prints and drawings at the Fogg Museum at Harvard University, was referred to in those days as a collector of curators. Goodyear asked him to recommend a director and Sachs suggested Alfred H. Barr, under Barrs guidance, the museums holdings quickly expanded from an initial gift of eight prints and one drawing. Its first successful exhibition was in November 1929, displaying paintings by Van Gogh, Gauguin, Cézanne. Abbys husband was opposed to the museum and refused to release funds for the venture. Nevertheless, he donated the land for the current site of the museum, plus other gifts over time. During that time it initiated many more exhibitions of noted artists, the museum also gained international prominence with the hugely successful and now famous Picasso retrospective of 1939–40, held in conjunction with the Art Institute of Chicago. In its range of presented works, it represented a significant reinterpretation of Picasso for future art scholars, Boy Leading a Horse was briefly contested over ownership with the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum. In 1941, MoMA hosted the exhibition, Indian Art of the United States. His brother, David Rockefeller, also joined the board of trustees in 1948. David subsequently employed the noted architect Philip Johnson to redesign the garden and name it in honor of his mother
10. The New York Times Building – The New York Times Building is a skyscraper on the west side of Midtown Manhattan, New York City that was completed in 2007. Its chief tenant is The New York Times Company, publisher of The New York Times as well as the International New York Times, construction was by a joint venture of The New York Times Company, Forest City Ratner, and ING Real Estate. The original newspaper headquarters in 1851 were at 113 Nassau Street, in a building that stood until fairly recently. The slender tower was so constricted in space that the paper outgrew it within a decade and, in 1913, moved into the Times Annex,229 West 43rd Street, where it remained for almost a century. The project was announced on December 13,2001, a 52-story tower on the east side of Eighth Avenue between 40th and 41st Street across from the Port Authority of New York & New Jersey Bus Terminal. In addition, the new building—called by many New Yorkers The New Times Tower—keeps the paper in the Times Square area, the site for the building was obtained by the Empire State Development Corporation through eminent domain. With a mandate to acquire and redevelop blighted properties in Times Square, ten buildings were condemned by the ESDC, some owners sued, asserting that the area was no longer blighted, but lost in court. Once the 80, 000-square-foot site was assembled, it was leased to The New York Times Company, additionally, The New York Times Company received $26.1 million in tax breaks. The Times itself occupies 628,000 square feet on the 2nd to 21st floors, on December 16,2016, the New York Times announced that it was vacating at least 8 of the floors in order to generate rental income. The tower was designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop and FXFOWLE Architects, the lighting design for the buildings nighttime identity was designed by the Office for Visual Interaction Inc. The tower rises 748 feet from the street to its roof, with the curtain wall extending 92 feet higher to 840 feet. As of 2010, the building was tied with the Chrysler Building as the fourth-tallest building in New York City, the tower is also the tenth-tallest building in the United States. The steel-framed building, cruciform in plan, has a screen of 1 5⁄8 ceramic rods mounted on the exterior of the curtain wall on the east, west. The rod spacing increases from the base to the top, adding transparency as the building rises, the steel framing and bracing is exposed at the four corner notches of the building. The new building is promoted as a green structure, the design incorporates numerous environmentally sustainable features for increased energy efficiency. The double skin curtain wall, automated louver shading system, dimmable lighting system, underfloor air distribution system, the use of floor-to-ceiling glass maximizes light and views for people inside and outside the building. The horizontal white ceramic rods on the facade, which are spaced to allow occupants to have unobstructed views while both seated and standing, act as an aesthetic veil and a sun shade. They are made of silicate, an extremely dense and high-quality ceramic chosen for its durability
11. Trylon and Perisphere – The Perisphere was a tremendous sphere,180 feet in diameter, connected to the 610-foot spire-shaped Trylon by what was at the time the worlds longest escalator. The Perisphere housed a diorama by Henry Dreyfuss called Democracity which, in keeping with the fairs theme The World of Tomorrow, the interior display was viewed from above on a moving sidewalk, while a multi-image slide presentation was projected on the dome of the sphere. After exiting the Perisphere, visitors descended to ground level on the element of the Theme Center, the Helicline. The name Perisphere was coined using the Greek prefix peri-, meaning all around, about, the name Trylon was coined from the phrase triangular pylon. The Theme Center was designed by architects Wallace Harrison and J. Andre Fouilhoux, the structures were built in Flushing Meadows Park in Queens, New York and were intended as temporary with steel framing and plaster board facades. Both buildings were razed and scrapped after the closing of the fair, their materials to be used in World War II armaments. The Trylon and Perisphere became the symbol of the 1939 Worlds Fair, its image reproduced by the millions on a wide range of promotional materials. The United States issued a stamp in 1939 depicting the Trylon. Neither structure survives, however, the Unisphere, the symbol of the 1964-65 New York Worlds Fair, is now located where the Perisphere once stood, composer Ferde Grofé was commissioned by the Worlds Fair to compose a piece of symphonic music dedicated to the sculptured edifices. The Trylon is mentioned in the 1939 Yip Harburg song Lydia the Tattooed Lady, the Trylon Theatre, located on Queens Boulevard in Forest Hills, Queens, New York, operated from December 1939 through December 1999. The theatres decor included several references to the 1939–40 Worlds Fair, the episode The Odyssey of Flight 33 of The Twilight Zone featured a view of these structures from the air to indicate that a Boeing 707 had time traveled and had arrived in the year 1939 or 1940. In the DC Comics comic book series All-Star Squadron, the Squadron used the Perisphere as their headquarters, howard Waldrops 1985 short story Heirs of the Perisphere describes the excavation of the time capsule which was buried at the 1939 Worlds Fair. Singer/songwriter Aimee Mann created a song called Fifty Years After the Fair for her 1993 album Whatever, the song references the Trylon and Perisphere while suggesting how little of the Fairs bright vision of the future had actually been realized in the decades ahead now passed. In the 1995 episode Aubrey of the TV series The X-Files, the second episode of the fourth season of the Showtime series Homeland is titled Trylon and Perisphere. The 2000 self-titled album Deltron 3030 featured an image of the Perisphere on its cover, a chapter in Michael Chabons 2000 novel The Amazing Adventures of Kavalier & Clay, set in 1942, takes place inside the recently abandoned Perisphere. In Rex Stouts 1940 Nero Wolfe novel Where Theres a Will, the 2015 utopian/dystopian film Tomorrowland contain futuristic versions of the Trylon, Perisphere, and Helicline. The Perisphere, in contrast to the 1939 World of Tomorrow exhibit, contains a device that can see into the past, also, unlike the 1939 Perisphere, the future Perisphere, not ironically, floats in mid-air. In the opening of the film, the Disneyland image is altered to include the trio and they also appear in the closing animation
12. TWA Flight Center – The TWA Flight Center or Trans World Flight Center, opened in 1962 as the original terminal designed by Eero Saarinen for Trans World Airlines at New York Citys John F. Kennedy International Airport. Together, the old and new buildings make up JetBlue Airways JFK operations and have been known collectively since 2008 as Terminal 5 or simply T5, the construction on the new hotel began in August,2016. Both the interior and the exterior were declared a New York City Landmark in 1994, in 2005, the terminal was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Noted architect Robert A. M. Stern called the TWA Flight Center the Grand Central of the jet age, the pragmatic new encircling terminal has been called hyper-efficient and a monument to human throughput. The concrete shell, which inspired Saarinen to develop curved-edge ceramic tiles conforming to the curvilinear shapes, the design straddles Futurism, Googie and Fantastic architecture. Food and beverage services included the Constellation Club, Lisbon Lounge, JFK was unusual in having company-owned and designed terminals. The original terminal opened in 1962 as the terminal designed by Eero Saarinen for Trans World Airlines at Idlewild Airport. Saarinen and his Detroit-based firm were commissioned in 1955 to design the TWA Flight Center, Saarinen, who projected a high patronage for the terminal, conceived the terminal to speed up processes. At the same time, the bird-shaped, emblematic construction featured a harmoniously coordinated interior and references to TWA’s corporate identity, Saarinen planned the appearance of the building from a purely formal perspective mainly to exploit market opportunities. Thus, the TWA Terminal represents a different approach than the thin concrete shells constructed at the same time. The terminal was built to span a space with a minimum of material, Saarinen, who was known as an indefatigable architect, indicated to his client that he needed more time, then took another year to resolve the design. The completed terminal was dedicated May 28,1962, the year that Saarinen won the AIA Gold Medal posthumously. In 1969, the received a new departure-arrival concourse and lounge. Known as Flight Wing Two, the expansion was designed by Roche-Dinkeloo to accommodate then-new wide-body aircraft, the City of New York designated both the interiors and the exteriors of the Eero Saarinen-designed terminal a historic landmark in 1994. Following TWAs continued financial deterioration during the 1990s and the sale of its assets to American Airlines. The concept received opposition from the Municipal Art Society of New York, as well the architects Philip Johnson and Robert A. M. That same year, the Municipal Art Society of New York succeeded in nominating the facility to the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s list of the 11 Most Endangered Places in America. In 2005, the National Park Service listed the TWA Flight Center on the National Register of Historic Places