Pages in category "Mongol states"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. List of Mongol states – This is a list of Mongol states. The Mongols founded many states such as the vast Mongol Empire, the list of states is chronological but follows the development of different dynasties. History of Mongolia Timeline of Mongolian history List of Mongol rulers List of heads of state of Mongolia Andrews, felt tents and pavilions, the nomadic tradition and its interaction with princely tentage, Volume 1. A. Boyle -The Cambridge history of Iran,5 Konstantin Nikolaevich Maksimov – Kalmykia in Russias past and present national policies and administrative system
2. Chagatai Khanate – The Chagatai Khanate was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304. At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China. The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, the eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timurs successors, the Timurid dynasty. Genghis Khans empire was inherited by his son, Ögedei Khan. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland, Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China, the transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde. The Ögedite ulus was dismembered, only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs, Chagatai died in 1242, shortly after his brother Ögedei. For nearly twenty years after this the Chagatai Khanate was little more than a dependency of the Mongol central government, the cities of Transoxiana, while located within the boundaries of the khanate, were administrated by officials who answered directly to the Great Khan. Most of the Chagatayids first supported Kublai but in 1269 they joined forces with the House of Ögedei, baraq was soon confined to Transoxiana and forced to become a vassal of Kaidu. At the same time, he was at odds with Abaqa Khan, the Ilkhan, baraq attacked first, but was defeated by the Ilkhanate army and forced to return to Transoxiana, where he died not long after. The next several Chagatayid khans were appointed by Kaidu, who maintained a hold upon the khanate until his death and he finally found a suitable khan in Baraqs son Duwa, who participated in Kaidus wars with Kublai khan and his successors of the Yuan dynasty. The two rulers also were active against the Ilkhanate, after Kaidus death in 1301, Duwa threw off his allegiance to his successor. He also made peace with the Yuan dynasty and paid tributes to the Yuan court, Duwa left behind numerous sons, many of whom became khans themselves. Included among these are Kebek, who instituted a standardization of the coinage and selected a sedentary capital, and Tarmashirin, Tarmashirin, however, was brought down by a rebellion of the tribes in the eastern provinces, and the khanate became increasingly unstable in the following years. In 1346 a tribal chief, Amir Qazaghan, killed the Chagatai khan Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur during a revolt, the Chagatai Khanate split into two parts in the 1340s. In Transoxiana in the west, the mostly Muslim tribes, led by the Qaraunas amirs, seized control
3. Dzungar Khanate – The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe. It covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day Kazakhstan, most of this area today is part of the Xinjiang autonomous region in China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The Dzungar Khanate was the last major nomadic empire left from the Mongol Empire, in 1678, Galdan received from the Dalai Lama the title of Boshogtu Khan, thus confirming the Dzungars as the leading tribe within the Oirats. However, the Dzungar rulers bore the title of Khong Tayiji, Dzungar is a compound of the Mongolian word jegün, meaning left or east and γar meaning hand or wing. The region of Dzungaria derives its name from this confederation, although the Dzungars were located west of the Eastern Mongols, the derivation of their name has been attributed to the fact that they represented the left wing of the Oirats. In the early 17th century, the head of the Oirat confederation was the leader of the Khoshut, Gushi Khan. When Gushi Khan decided to invade Tibet to replace the local Tsangpa Khan in favor of the Tibetan Geluk Sect, the Dzungar Khanate is memorable because it was the last of the steppe nomadic empires and because of its influence on the westward expansion of the Chinese state. About 1620 the Oirats or western Mongols became united in Dzungaria, by about 1680 they had conquered the Tarim Basin to the south. In 1688 Galdan defeated the Khalkhas or eastern Mongols, many of whom fled southeast to Inner Mongolia where they became, in 1696, the Manchu defeated Galdan near Ulan Bator, chased him westward and gained control over Outer Mongolia. In 1717 Tsewang Rabtan sent an army to Tibet, the Manchu drove the Dzungars out and established a protectorate over Tibet. In 1750-57, the Manchu took advantage of a Dzungar civil war to conquer Dzungaria, the Manchu turned south and annexed the Tarim Basin by 1759, thus completing the current western border of China. The chiefs of the Dzungars were of the Choros lineage and reckoned their descent from the Oirat taishis Toghoon, Early in his reign, Khara Kula united the Choros, Dorbod and Khoid tribes, thus forming the Dzungar nation. In the 1620s wars against the Khalkha, he could gain decisive victory over the Eastern Mongols, the Oirats homeland was under the dominion of Jasaghtu Khan of the Khalkha. In 1623 the Oirat confederation killed Ubashi Khong Tayiji, and secured their independence, at the time, only Torobaikhu, a leader of the Khoshud tribe could claim the title of Khan while Baatur Dalai Taishi of the Dorbods was considered the most powerful Oirat chief. Even so, Khara Khulas son Baatur Khung Taiji joined the 1636-42 expedition to Tibet led by Güshi Khan Torobaikhu, after Baatur returned to Dzungaria with the title Erdeni and much booty, he made three expeditions against the Kazakhs. With the migrations of the Torghuds, the Khoshuds and the Dorbods from 1630 to 1677, the conflicts by the Dzungars are remembered in a Kazakh ballad Elim-ai. The Dzungars went to war against the Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, in 1653 Sengge succeeded his father Baatur Khung Taiji as Dzungarian chief, but an internal strife with his half brother Chechen Tayiji involved the Khoshuud. From 1657 on, Amin-Daras sons Sengge and Galdan faced disafection from their half-brothers, with the support of Ochirtu Khan of the Khoshuud, this strife ended with Sengges victory in 1661
4. Golden Horde – The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate and it is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi. After the death of Batu Khan in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a century, until 1359. The Hordes military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg, who adopted Islam, the territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Hordes lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, the khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, at the start of the 15th century the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466 it was being referred to simply as the Great Horde, within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern state of Muscovy to rid itself of the Tatar Yoke at the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, in any event, it was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term Golden Horde to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu and its left wing was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources. Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde, the khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batus home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period. At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol Empire amongst his four sons as appanages, Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis. In 1235, Batu with the great general Subedei began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs, from there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward. The military campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had started under Jochi, by 1239 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimea peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire. The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus and for three years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus, whilst his cousins Möngke, Kadan, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania. Using the migration of the Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the battles of Legnica, in 1241, however, Ögedei Khan died in the Mongolia homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna to take part in disputing the succession, the Mongol armies would never again travel so far west
5. Ilkhanate – The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam, according to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term il-Khan means subordinate khan and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan, the title Ilkhan, borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khans Borjigin family, thus, the families of the latters four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khans governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region. Muhammads son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c.1224 after his exile in India, the rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his fathers empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia, however, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqans army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols, to the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238 and they began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat, the Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul, Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Armenia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir. After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols
6. Injuids – The House of Inju was a Shia dynasty of Mongol origin that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357, the Injuids gained control of parts of Persia, mostly Fars, in 1304 at the beginning of the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü. The Ilkhan had given Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah control of the injü, Sharaf al-Din was reportedly descended from Abd-Allah Ansari, an 11th-century mystic of Herat. His son, Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau, assisted another family, by 1325 Sharaf al-Din had gained nearly an absolute grip on the region. His power displeased Öljeitüs successor Abu Said, who ordered Sharaf al-Din removed, Kai-Khusrau, who ruled Shiraz for his father, resisted, and Sheikh Hussein was forced to return with an Ilkhan army. Also during Abu Saids lifetime, Sharaf al-Din was imprisoned in Tabriz for an attempt to murder his successor. With the death of Abu Said in 1335, Arpa Keun took the throne and he had Sharaf al-Din executed, two of Sharafs sons in the royal encampment withdrew from the scene. Meanwhile, Kai-Khusrau was asserting his authority in Shiraz, when Arpa Keun was captured by rebels, he was sent to Masud Shah, who killed him. Masud Shah then served as vizier under the Jalayirid puppet Ilkhan Muhammed Khan, the two brothers came into conflict, which was only settled when Kai-Khusraus died. Masud Shah was quickly faced with challenges to his reign. A year after Kai Khusraus death, a son of Sharaf al-Din named Shams al-Din Muhammad escaped from his brothers prison of Qala-yi Safid. Shams al-Din, together with the Chobanid Pir Hosayn, marched to Shiraz, Pir Hosayn, however, murdered Shams al-Din, this act lost him support in the city, and he had to withdraw. Pir Hosayn reconquered the city in the year, however. Masud Shah attempted to take advantage of Chobanid infighting, and allied with Yagi Basti to take the city and he had been given Isfahan by Pir Hosayn, and he now took Shiraz as well. When Yagi Basti murdered Masud Shah that same year, Abu Ishaq became the surviving son of Sharaf al-Din. He took Shiraz from Yagi Basti in March 1343, jamal al-Din Abu Ishaqs goal was to conquer Kerman, he therefore undertook expeditions against the Muzaffarids, who were led by Mubariz al-Din Muhammad. The rivalry between the two heated up during a campaign against the Muzaffarid city of Yazd during 1350 and 1351, in retaliation, Mubariz al-Din invaded Fars in 1352. After defeating the Injuids in battle, he laid siege to Shiraz in 1353, Abu Ishaq, who grew increasingly paranoid, ordered the extermination of two quarters of the city in order to root out traitors
7. Jalairid Sultanate – The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s. The Jalairid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Timurs conquests, after Timurs death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalairids were finally eliminated by the Kara Koyunlu in 1432, the Jalairid administration and chancellery was modeled after Ilkhanate protocols, with documents in Persian and Mongolian. Their diplomatic correspondence also copied the Ilkhanates, using a red ink square seal with Islamic phrases in Arabic
8. Kalmyk Khanate – The Kalmyk Khanate was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian steppe. It covered the area called Kalmykia and the areas stretching from Stavropol to Astrakhan. The Khanate was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1771, upon arrival to the lower Volga region in 1630, the Oirats encamped on land that was once part of the Astrakhan Khanate, but was now claimed by the Tsarist government. The region was populated, from south of Saratov to the Russian garrison at Astrakhan. The Tsarist government was not ready to colonize the area and was in no position to prevent the Oirats from encamping in the region, but it had a direct political interest in insuring that the Oirats would not become allied with its Turkic-speaking neighbors. The Oirats quickly consolidated their position by expelling the majority of the native inhabitants, large groups of Nogais fled southeast to the northern Caucasian plain and west to the Black Sea steppe, lands claimed by the Crimean Khanate, itself a vassal or ally of Ottoman Turks. Smaller groups of Nogais sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan, the remaining nomadic tribes became vassals of the Oirats. At first, a relationship existed between the Russians and the Oirats. Mutual raiding by the Oirats of Russian settlements and by the Cossacks, numerous oaths and treaties were signed to ensure Oirat loyalty and military assistance. Although the Oirats became subjects of the Tsar, such allegiance by the Oirats was deemed to be nominal, in reality, the Oirats governed themselves pursuant to a document known as the Great Code of the Nomads. Although the goal of unification was not met, the leaders did ratify the Code. In securing their position, the Oirats became a borderland power, Ayuka Khan also waged wars against the Kazakhs, subjugated the Mangyshlak Turkmens, and made multiple expeditions against the highlanders of the North Caucasus. In that respect, the Tsarist government treated the Oirats as it did the Cossacks, the provision of monetary payments and dry goods, however, did not stop the mutual raiding, and, in some instances, both sides failed to fulfill its promises. Trade also occurred with neighboring Turkic tribes under Russian control, such as the Tatars, intermarriage became common with such tribes. This trading arrangement provided substantial benefits, monetary and otherwise, to the Oirat tayishis, noyons and this was the kind of exchange relationship between nomads and urban craftsmen and traders in which the Kalmyks traditionally engaged. A few Kalmyk nobles became russified and nominally Christian who went to Moscow in hope of securing Russian help for their ambitions on the Kalmyk steppe. Russian subsidies to Kalmyk nobles, however, became a means of political control only later. Yet gradually the Kalmyk princes came to require Russian support and to abide in Russian policy, during the era of Ayuka Khan, the Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power
9. Kara Del – Kara Del or Qara Del was a Mongol kingdom that existed in Hami in present-day Xinjiang. It was founded by the Yuan prince Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, in the late 14th century and it was destroyed as a result of the wars between Ming China and Oirat Mongols and dynastic succession struggles in 1513. Kara Del means Black chest in the Mongolian language, after the demise of the Northern Yuan emperor Tögüs Temür, Kublai Khans descendant, the throne of Mongolia passed into the hands of Jorightu Khan Yesüder, an Arib-Bokid prince, in 1388. With the anarchy after the Mongol Emperors death, Chagatai Khans descendant, Gunashiri, by 1390, Gunashiri, himself Buddhist, successfully established himself in Hami where the Uighurs lived. The Kara Del accepted the Ming supremacy to save its existence in 1404, the Kara Del ruler Enke-temur was granted the title Zhongshunwang by the Ming court. However, they were threatened by Mongolian Emperors, particularly during the reign of Yesüder, the Oirats from Western Mongolia pressured into the kingdom from 15th century on. Their leader and Yuan taishi, Esen, forced the Kara Del khan to submit in 1430s, the kingdom was one of two Chagatyid realms conquered by Esen, other one being Moghulistan. He extensively supported the rivalry between successor of Gunashiri and intervened in their dynastic struggles, the Ming Dynasty was trying to place their puppet on the throne to secure their claim at the time. In 1463 the khan was overthrown by a faction and a serious succession crisis started. From 1467 Ming Emperors reinstalled members of Gunashiris house but the failure was evident, Hami was conquered by Mansur, the khan from another branch of the Chagatayids in Central Asia, putting an end to the dynasty in 1513. Mansur forcefully converted all people living in Kara Del to Islam and it was reported that between Khitay and Khotan the Sarigh Uyghur tribes who were impious resided, and they were targeted for ghazat by Mansur Khan following 1516. Kara Del is a nation in Europa Universalis IV. According to Chinese Wikipedia, Gunashiri Enke Timur Tuō Tuō (脫脫 Tù Lì Tiē Mù Er Bo Dá Shī Lǐ and he was rivalled firstly Tuō Huān Tiē Mù Er and Tuō Tuō Tǎ Mù Er, the son of rival
10. Khoshut Khanate – The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau in the 17th and the 18th centuries. It was established in 1642 by Güshi Khan, a Khoshut prince and he was enthroned by the Dalai Lama as Khan and protector-ruler of Tibet. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and this Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang. The Dzungars were in turn expelled by the forces of the Qing dynasty from Tibet in 1720
11. Moghulistan – That area today includes parts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and northwest China. Beginning in the century a new khanate, in the form of a nomadic tribal confederacy headed by a member of the family of Chagatai. In actuality, local control rested with local Mongol Dughlats or Sufi Naqshbandi in their respective oases, independence-minded khans created their own domains in cities like Kashgar and Turfan. Eventually it was overcome by the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Oirats, Moghulistan simply means Land of the Moghuls or Mongols in reference to the eastern branch of the Mongolian Chagatai Khans who ruled it. The term Moghulistan occurs mostly in Soviet historiography, while Chinese historiography mostly uses the term East Chagatai Khanate, the Moghul Khans considered themselves heir to Mongol traditions and called themselves Mongghul Uls, from which the Persian term Moghulistan comes. Ming Dynasty Mandarins called the Moghuls the Mongol tribes in Beshbalik, the Timurid exonym for Moghulistan was Ulus-i Jatah. When the Mongols conquered most of Asia and Russia in the 13th century and constructed the Mongol Empire, they lived as minorities in many of the regions they had subdued, such as Iran, as a result, the Mongols in these regions quickly adopted the local culture. For example, in the Persian Ilkhanate the Mongol khans adopted Islam after less than half a century, in contrast, the Mongols and their subordinates who settled in what came to be known as Moghulistan were in origin steppe nomads from Mongolia. During the 14th century the inhabitants of Moghulistan were known as Jats and this term is also used by numerous people in South Asia - in Pakistan and in parts of western India. It is claimed that parts of the population still spoke Mongolian until the late 16th century, since the Moghuls were nomads of the steppe, the boundaries of their territories seldom stayed the same for long. Still, Moghulistan in the strictest sense was centered in the Ili region and it was bounded on the west by the province of Shash and the Karatau Mountains, while the southern area of Lake Balkhash marked the northern limit of Moghul influence. From there the border gradually sloped in a direction until it reached the eastern portion of the Tian Shan Mountains. The Tian Shan then served as the border of Moghulistan. Besides Moghulistan proper, the Moghuls also nominally controlled modern-day Beijiang and Nanjiang, besides Moghulistan, Nanjiang, and Beijiang, several other regions were also temporarily subjected to Moghul rule at one time or another, such as Tashkent, Ferghana and parts of Badakhshan. Moghulistan proper was primarily country and was where the Moghuls usually resided. Because of the Moghuls nomadic nature, the towns of Moghulistan fell into decline during their rule, aside from the towns, which were at the foot of the mountains, nearly all of Nanjiang was desert. As a result, the Moghuls generally stayed out of the region, the Dughlat amirs or leaders from the Naqshbandi Islamic order administered these towns in the name of the Moghul khans until 1514. The Moghuls more directly governed Nanjiang after they lost Moghulistan itself, the capital city of Nanjiang was usually Yarkand or Kashgar
12. Mongol Empire – The Mongol Empire existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history. The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of tribes in the Mongol homeland under the leadership of Genghis Khan. The empire grew rapidly under the rule of him and his descendants, the Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued as Kublai sought unsuccessfully to control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families. The Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 marked the point of the Mongol conquests and was the first time a Mongol advance had ever been beaten back in direct combat on the battlefield. In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the suzerainty of the Yuan dynasty, but it was later taken by the Han Chinese Ming dynasty in 1368. What is referred to in English as the Mongol Empire was called the Ikh Mongol Uls, in the 1240s, one of Genghiss descendants, Güyük Khan, wrote a letter to Pope Innocent IV which used the preamble Dalai Khagan of the great Mongolian state. After the succession war between Kublai Khan and his brother Ariq Böke, Ariq limited Kublais power to the part of the empire. Kublai officially issued an edict on December 18,1271 to name the country Great Yuan to establish the Yuan dynasty. Some sources state that the full Mongolian name was Dai Ön Yehe Monggul Ulus, the area around Mongolia, Manchuria, and parts of North China had been controlled by the Liao dynasty since the 10th century. In 1125, the Jin dynasty founded by the Jurchens overthrew the Liao dynasty, in the 1130s the Jin dynasty rulers, known as the Golden Kings, successfully resisted the Khamag Mongol confederation, ruled at the time by Khabul Khan, great-grandfather of Temujin. The Mongolian plateau was occupied mainly by five powerful tribal confederations, Keraites, Khamag Mongol, Naiman, Mergid, khabuls successor was Ambaghai Khan, who was betrayed by the Tatars, handed over to the Jurchen, and executed. The Mongols retaliated by raiding the frontier, resulting in a failed Jurchen counter-attack in 1143, in 1147, the Jin somewhat changed their policy, signing a peace treaty with the Mongols and withdrawing from a score of forts. The Mongols then resumed attacks on the Tatars to avenge the death of their late khan, the Jin and Tatar armies defeated the Mongols in 1161. During the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century and it is thought that as a result, a rapid increase in the number of war horses and other livestock significantly enhanced Mongol military strength. Known during his childhood as Temujin, Genghis Khan was the son of a Mongol chieftain, when he was young he was from one of Yesugis orphaned and deserted families, he rose very rapidly by working with Toghrul Khan of the Kerait. Kurtait was the most powerful Mongol leader during this time and was given the Chinese title Wang which means Prince, Temujin went to war with Wang Khan. After Temujin defeated Wang Khan he gave himself the name Genghis Khan and he then enlarged his Mongol state under himself and his kin
13. Mongolia – Mongolia /mɒŋˈɡoʊliə/ is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia. It is sandwiched between China to the south and Russia to the north, while it does not share a border with Kazakhstan, Mongolia is separated from it by only 36.76 kilometers. At 1,564,116 square kilometers, Mongolia is the 18th largest and it is also the worlds second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains very little land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the countrys population, approximately 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic, horse culture is still integral. The majority of its population are Buddhists, the non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs, the majority of the states citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities also live in the country, especially in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic, the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history. His grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty, after the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty. By the early 1900s, almost one-third of the male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing dynasty, shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian Peoples Republic was declared as a Soviet satellite state, after the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990. This led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia approximately 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic, the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink, brown, and red ochre paintings of mammoths, lynx, bactrian camels, and ostriches, earning it the nickname the Lascaux of Mongolia. The venus figurines of Malta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia, the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC
14. Mongolian People's Republic – Mongolia, officially the Mongolian Peoples Republic is the period of Mongolian history which existed between 1924 and 1992 as a landlocked unitary sovereign socialist state in East Asia. It was ruled by the Mongolian Peoples Revolutionary Party and maintained links with the Soviet Union throughout its history. Geographically, it was bordered by China to its south, the Soviet Union to its north, from 1691 to 1911, Outer Mongolia was ruled by the Manchu Qing dynasty. In the first decade of the 20th century, the Qing government began implementing the so-called New Policies, upset by the prospect of the colonization akin to the developments in Inner Mongolia during the 19th century, the Mongolian aristocracy turned to the Russian Empire for support. In August 1911, a Mongol delegation went to Saint Petersburg, when they returned, the Xinhai Revolution that eventually led to the collapse of the Qing dynasty had begun. In the Khiagt agreement of 1915, China, Russia and Mongolia agreed on Mongolias status as autonomy under Chinese suzerainty, according to an Associated Press dispatch, some Mongol chieftains signed a petition asking China to retake administration of Mongolia and end Outer Mongolias autonomy. The Tusiyetu Khan Aimaks Prince Darchin Chin Wang was a supporter of Chinese rule while his younger brother Tsewang was a supporter of Ungern-Sternberg. It was under Chinese occupation that the Mongolian Peoples Party was founded and once again looked to the north, this time to Soviet Russia, for help. In the meantime, White Russian troops led by Roman Ungern von Sternberg had occupied Khuree in early March 1921, the Peoples Party founded a new government, but kept the Bogd Khaan as nominal head of state. In the following years through some violent power struggles, Soviet influence got ever stronger, and after the Bogd Khaans death, the government took control of the Bogda Khans seal after his death according to the 26 November 1924 Constitution of the Mongolian Peoples Republic. It was proposed that Zhang Zuolins domain take Outer Mongolia under its administration by the Bogda Khan, between 1925 and 1928, the new regime became established. At the time, Mongolia was severely underdeveloped, industry was nonexistent and all wealth was controlled by the nobility and religious establishments. The population numbered less than a people and was shrinking due to nearly half of all Mongolian males living in monasteries. In 1928, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin and comintern ordered the building of socialism, in 1934, Peljidiin Genden visited Moscow and angrily accused Stalin of Red imperialism. He subsequently died in the Great Purge after being tricked into taking a holiday on the Black Sea, after 1932, the implementation of a command economy was scaled back. In 1936, Stalin then ordered the liquidation of the countrys Buddhist institutions, meanwhile, Japanese incursions in Manchuria were a casus belli for Moscow to station troops in Mongolia. At the same time, the Great Purge spilled into Mongolia, among those killed included Genden, Anandyn Amar, Demid, and Losol. After the removal of Genden from power, Marshal Khorloogiin Choibalsan, the purges led to the almost complete eradication of Tibetan Buddhism in the country, and cost an estimated 30, 000–35,000 lives, equivalent to about five percent of Mongolias population
15. Mughal Empire – The dynasty, though ethnically Turco-Mongol, was Persianate in terms of culture. The Mughal empire extended over parts of the Indian subcontinent. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the Mughal emperors were Central Asian Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire, the classic period of the Mughal Empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as harmony. Akbar was a warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, the reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between 1628 and 1658 was the golden age of Mughal architecture. He erected several monuments, the best known of which is the Taj Mahal at Agra, as well as the Moti Masjid, Agra, the Red Fort, the Jama Masjid, Delhi. By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, during the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857 and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled to Rangoon. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, another name was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term Mughal was used for the emperor, and by extension, the use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty. The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists, similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including Mogul and Moghul. Nevertheless, Baburs ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture, ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions. He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, Baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in 1526. The preoccupation with wars and military campaigns, however, did not allow the new emperor to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels. Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayuns triumphant return from Persia in 1555, but he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards. Humayuns son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River
16. Northern Yuan dynasty – Dayan Khan and Mandukhai Khatun reunited the entire Mongol nation in the 15th century. However, the distribution of his empire among his sons. The last sixty years of this period are marked by intensive penetration of Tibetan Buddhism into Mongolian society, the term Northern Yuan is derived from the corresponding term in the Chinese language. However, in the English language the term Northern Yuan is still used to cover the period for historiography reasons. Apart from the name Great Yuan in the period, the Mongols called their nation Ikh Mongol Uls. In Mongolian chronicles this period is known as The Forty. Furthermore, Mongolian historiography also use the term Period of political disunion, the Mongol Yuan dynasty ruled all of China for about a century. However, the Mongols dominated North China for more than 140 years, in 1351, the Red Turban Rebellion started and grew into a nationwide turmoil. Eventually, Zhu Yuanzhang, a Chinese peasant established the Ming dynasty in South China, toghon Temür, the last ruler of the Yuan, fled north to Shangdu from Dadu in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the Míng dynasty. He had tried to regain Dadu, but eventually failed, he died in Yingchang two years later, Yingchang was seized by the Ming shortly after his death. The Ming army pursued the Mongol forces of the Northern Yuan into Mongolia in 1372, in 1375, Naghachu, a Mongol official of Biligtu Khan in Liaoyang province invaded Liaodong with aims of restoring the Mongols to power. Although he continued to hold southern Manchuria, Naghachu finally surrendered to the Ming dynasty in 1387–88 after a successful diplomacy of the latter, the Yuan loyalists under Kublaid prince Basalawarmi in Yunnan and Guizhou were also destroyed by the Ming in 1381-82. The Ming tried again towards the Northern Yuan in 1380, ultimately winning a victory over Mongol forces around the Buir Lake region in 1388. About 70,000 Mongols were taken prisoner and the Mongol capital Karakorum was sacked and destroyed and it effectively destroyed the power of the Khaans Mongols for a long time, and allowed the Western Mongols to become supreme. Field guns and hand cannons were used by the Northern Yuan army, in 1388, the Northern Yuan throne was taken over by Yesüder, a descendant of Arik Böke, instead of the descendants of Kublai Khan. After the death of his master Togus Temur, Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, the following century saw a succession of Chinggisid rulers, many of whom were mere figureheads put on the throne by those warlords who happened to be the most powerful. From the end of the 14th century there appear designations such as period of kings for this period in modern historiography. On one side stood the Oirats in the west against the Eastern Mongols, while the Oirats drew their side to the descendants of Arik Boke and other princes, Arugtai of the Asud supported the old Yuan khans
17. Tartary – The vast region incorporated much of the Pontic-Caspian steppe, Volga-Urals, Caucasus, Siberia, Turkestan, Mongolia, and Manchuria. Tartary was often divided into sections with prefixes denoting the name of the power or the geographical location. Thus, western Siberia was Muscovite or Russian Tartary, Xinjiang and Mongolia were Chinese or Cathay Tartary, western Turkestan was known as Independent Tartary, as the Russian Empire expanded eastward and more of Tartary became known to Europeans, the term fell into disuse. European areas north of the Black Sea inhabited by Turkic peoples were known as Little Tartary, the Komul Desert of the Tartary was mentioned by Immanuel Kant in his Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime, as a great far-reaching solitude. East Tartary and Maritime Tartary are old names for the Manchu-inhabited territory extending from the confluence of the River Amur with the River Ussuri to Sakhalin Island and this area is now the Primorsky Krai with Vladivostok as regional administrative center. These lands were occupied by the Mohe tribes and Jurchen nation, and also by various old kingdoms including Goryeo, Balhae, Liao. According to Sheng-Wu-Chis Ming dynasty chronicle, in this land the Tungus Weji, later these were unified in Manchu Qing Empire with Nurhaci as their leader and founder. These lands were lost to Russia under the Treaty of Peking, nearest this land lies the Ku-Ye-Dao or Fu-Sang island, better known as Karafuto or Sakhalin, in recent times Russian archaeologists have found here remains of ancient cities with walls and castles. These may correspond with the ancient Manchu nation, or possibly during Mongol or Tungus times and these lands were visited by Japanese explorers, Mamiya Rinzo and others, who reported on the various important cities and ports, such as Haishenwei. From these lands and nearby Hulun, the Japanese have claimed North Asian ancestors, other ancient cities in the region are, Tetyukhe and probably Deleng, an important commercial imperial post according to some records. In the novel Ada by Vladimir Nabokov, Tartary is the name of a country on the fictional planet of Antiterra. Russia is Tartarys approximate geographic counterpart on Terra, Antiterras twin world apparently identical to our Earth, in Puccinis last opera, Turandot, Calafs father Timur is the deposed King of the Tartars. In Philip Pullmans His Dark Materials novels, the European main characters often express fear of tartars, in Macbeth, by William Shakespeare, the witches include Tartars lips in their potion. In Mary Shelleys Frankenstein, Dr. Frankenstein pursues the monster amidst the wilds of Tartary and Russia, although he still evaded me, in David Copperfield by Charles Dickens, the ruthless boarding school headmaster, Mr. Creakle, describes himself as a Tartar. In The Pied Piper of Hamelin by Robert Browning, the Pied Piper mentions Tartary as one of his credentials in pest removal to the Mayor of Hamelin. In Tartary I freed the Cham, last June, from his huge swarms of gnats, In his short work with E. Hoffmann Price, Through the Gates of the Silver Key, the Squires Tale from Geoffrey Chaucers Canterbury Tales is set in the royal court of Tartary. L. Frank Baums origin story of Santa Claus, The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus and they are described as the Three-Eyed Giants of Tartary. In Matthew Arnolds poem Sohrab and Rustum, the poem begins with And the first grey of morning filld the east, but all the Tartar camp along the stream Was hushd, and still the men were plunged in sleep
18. Timurid Empire – The empire was founded by Timur, a warlord of Turco-Mongol lineage who established the empire between 1370 and his death in 1405. He envisioned himself as the restorer of the Mongol Empire of Genghis Khan. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid prince from Ferghana, invaded Kabulistan and established a kingdom there. Timur conquered large parts of Central Asia, primarily Transoxiana and Khorasan, from 1363 onwards with various alliances, acting officially in the name of Suurgatmish, the Chagatai khan, he subjugated Transoxania and Khwarazm in the years that followed. The western Chagatai khans were continually dominated by Timurid princes in the 15th and 16th centuries, Timur began a campaign westwards in 1380, invading the various successor states of the Ilkhanate. By 1389, he had removed the Kartids from Herat and advanced into mainland Persia where he enjoyed many successes and this included the capture of Isfahan in 1387, the removal of the Muzaffarids from Shiraz in 1393, and the expulsion of the Jalayirids from Baghdad. In 1394–95, he triumphed over the Golden Horde, following his campaign in Georgia. Tokhtamysh, the khan of the Golden Horde, was a rival to Timur in the region. He also subjugated Multan and Dipalpur in modern-day Pakistan in 1398, Timur gave the north Indian territories to a non-family member, Khizr Khan, whose Sayyid dynasty replaced the defeated Tughlaq dynasty of the Sultanate of Delhi. Delhi became a vassal of the Timurids but obtained independence in the following the death of Timur. In 1400–1401 he conquered Aleppo, Damascus and eastern Anatolia, in 1401 he destroyed Baghdad and this made Timur the most preeminent Muslim ruler of the time, as the Ottoman Empire plunged into civil war. Meanwhile, he transformed Samarkand into a capital and seat of his realm. Timur appointed his sons and grandsons to the governorships of the different parts of his empire. After his death in 1405, the family fell into disputes and civil wars. Due to the fact that the Persian cities were desolated by wars, the cost of Timurs conquests amount to the deaths of possibly 17 million people. Shahrukh Mirza, fourth ruler of the Timurids, dealt with Kara Koyunlu, but, Jahan Shah drove the Timurids to eastern Iran after 1447 and also briefly occupied Herat in 1458. After the death of Jahan Shah, Uzun Hasan, bey of the Ak Koyunlu, by 1500, the divided and wartorn Timurid Empire had lost control of most of its territory, and in the following years was effectively pushed back on all fronts. Persia, the Caucasus, Mesopotamia, and Eastern Anatolia fell quickly to the Shiite Safavid dynasty, secured by Shah Ismail I in the following decade
19. Yuan dynasty – The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. His realm was, by point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of present-day China and its surrounding areas. Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others used their native language. The Yuan dynasty is considered both a successor to the Mongol Empire and an imperial Chinese dynasty and it was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven, following the Song dynasty, the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other khanates, the Chagatai, the Golden Horde. As such, the Yuan was also referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the khans, their subservience was nominal. In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan, establishing the Yuan dynasty, dà Yuán is from the clause 大哉乾元 in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section regarding Qián. The counterpart in Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus, also rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus, in Mongolian, Dai Ön is often used in conjunction with the Yeke Mongghul Ulus, resulting in Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus, meaning Great Mongol State. Nevertheless, both terms can refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271. Genghis Khan united the Mongol and Turkic tribes of the steppes and he and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234, Ögedei offered his nephew Kublai a position in Xingzhou, Hebei. Kublai was unable to read Chinese but had several Han Chinese teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani and he sought the counsel of Chinese Buddhist and Confucian advisers. Möngke Khan succeeded Ögedeis son, Güyük, as Great Khan in 1251 and he granted his brother Kublai control over Mongol held territories in China. Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars, issued paper money, revived Chinese rituals and he adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu. Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin, two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima, and the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan, Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the Mongols