Pages in category "Mongol states"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Chagatai Khanate – The Chagatai Khanate was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that comprised the lands ruled by Chagatai Khan, second son of Genghis Khan, and his descendants and successors. Initially it was a part of the Mongol Empire, but it became a functionally separate khanate with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259. The Chagatai Khanate recognized the supremacy of the Yuan dynasty in 1304. At its height in the late 13th century, the Khanate extended from the Amu Darya south of the Aral Sea to the Altai Mountains in the border of modern-day Mongolia and China. The khanate lasted in one form or another from 1220s until the late 17th century, the eastern half remained under Chagatai khans, who were, at times, allied or at war with Timurs successors, the Timurid dynasty. Genghis Khans empire was inherited by his son, Ögedei Khan. Tolui, the youngest, the keeper of the hearth, was accorded the northern Mongolian homeland, Chagatai Khan, the second son, received Transoxiana, between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers and the area around Kashgar. He made his capital at Almaliq near what is now Yining City in northwestern China, the transition had to be ratified in a kurultai, which was duly celebrated, but without the presence of Batu Khan, the independent-minded khan of the Golden Horde. The Ögedite ulus was dismembered, only the Ögedites who did not immediately go into opposition were given minor fiefs, Chagatai died in 1242, shortly after his brother Ögedei. For nearly twenty years after this the Chagatai Khanate was little more than a dependency of the Mongol central government, the cities of Transoxiana, while located within the boundaries of the khanate, were administrated by officials who answered directly to the Great Khan. Most of the Chagatayids first supported Kublai but in 1269 they joined forces with the House of Ögedei, baraq was soon confined to Transoxiana and forced to become a vassal of Kaidu. At the same time, he was at odds with Abaqa Khan, the Ilkhan, baraq attacked first, but was defeated by the Ilkhanate army and forced to return to Transoxiana, where he died not long after. The next several Chagatayid khans were appointed by Kaidu, who maintained a hold upon the khanate until his death and he finally found a suitable khan in Baraqs son Duwa, who participated in Kaidus wars with Kublai khan and his successors of the Yuan dynasty. The two rulers also were active against the Ilkhanate, after Kaidus death in 1301, Duwa threw off his allegiance to his successor. He also made peace with the Yuan dynasty and paid tributes to the Yuan court, Duwa left behind numerous sons, many of whom became khans themselves. Included among these are Kebek, who instituted a standardization of the coinage and selected a sedentary capital, and Tarmashirin, Tarmashirin, however, was brought down by a rebellion of the tribes in the eastern provinces, and the khanate became increasingly unstable in the following years. In 1346 a tribal chief, Amir Qazaghan, killed the Chagatai khan Qazan Khan ibn Yasaur during a revolt, the Chagatai Khanate split into two parts in the 1340s. In Transoxiana in the west, the mostly Muslim tribes, led by the Qaraunas amirs, seized control
2. Dzungar Khanate – The Dzungar Khanate, also written as the Zunghar Khanate, was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian Steppe. It covered the area called Dzungaria and stretched from the west end of the Great Wall of China to present-day Kazakhstan, most of this area today is part of the Xinjiang autonomous region in China, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. The Dzungar Khanate was the last major nomadic empire left from the Mongol Empire, in 1678, Galdan received from the Dalai Lama the title of Boshogtu Khan, thus confirming the Dzungars as the leading tribe within the Oirats. However, the Dzungar rulers bore the title of Khong Tayiji, Dzungar is a compound of the Mongolian word jegün, meaning left or east and γar meaning hand or wing. The region of Dzungaria derives its name from this confederation, although the Dzungars were located west of the Eastern Mongols, the derivation of their name has been attributed to the fact that they represented the left wing of the Oirats. In the early 17th century, the head of the Oirat confederation was the leader of the Khoshut, Gushi Khan. When Gushi Khan decided to invade Tibet to replace the local Tsangpa Khan in favor of the Tibetan Geluk Sect, the Dzungar Khanate is memorable because it was the last of the steppe nomadic empires and because of its influence on the westward expansion of the Chinese state. About 1620 the Oirats or western Mongols became united in Dzungaria, by about 1680 they had conquered the Tarim Basin to the south. In 1688 Galdan defeated the Khalkhas or eastern Mongols, many of whom fled southeast to Inner Mongolia where they became, in 1696, the Manchu defeated Galdan near Ulan Bator, chased him westward and gained control over Outer Mongolia. In 1717 Tsewang Rabtan sent an army to Tibet, the Manchu drove the Dzungars out and established a protectorate over Tibet. In 1750-57, the Manchu took advantage of a Dzungar civil war to conquer Dzungaria, the Manchu turned south and annexed the Tarim Basin by 1759, thus completing the current western border of China. The chiefs of the Dzungars were of the Choros lineage and reckoned their descent from the Oirat taishis Toghoon, Early in his reign, Khara Kula united the Choros, Dorbod and Khoid tribes, thus forming the Dzungar nation. In the 1620s wars against the Khalkha, he could gain decisive victory over the Eastern Mongols, the Oirats homeland was under the dominion of Jasaghtu Khan of the Khalkha. In 1623 the Oirat confederation killed Ubashi Khong Tayiji, and secured their independence, at the time, only Torobaikhu, a leader of the Khoshud tribe could claim the title of Khan while Baatur Dalai Taishi of the Dorbods was considered the most powerful Oirat chief. Even so, Khara Khulas son Baatur Khung Taiji joined the 1636-42 expedition to Tibet led by Güshi Khan Torobaikhu, after Baatur returned to Dzungaria with the title Erdeni and much booty, he made three expeditions against the Kazakhs. With the migrations of the Torghuds, the Khoshuds and the Dorbods from 1630 to 1677, the conflicts by the Dzungars are remembered in a Kazakh ballad Elim-ai. The Dzungars went to war against the Kyrgyz, Tajiks, Uzbeks, in 1653 Sengge succeeded his father Baatur Khung Taiji as Dzungarian chief, but an internal strife with his half brother Chechen Tayiji involved the Khoshuud. From 1657 on, Amin-Daras sons Sengge and Galdan faced disafection from their half-brothers, with the support of Ochirtu Khan of the Khoshuud, this strife ended with Sengges victory in 1661
3. Golden Horde – The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate established in the 13th century and originating as the northwestern sector of the Mongol Empire. With the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate and it is also known as the Kipchak Khanate or as the Ulus of Jochi. After the death of Batu Khan in 1255, his dynasty flourished for a century, until 1359. The Hordes military power peaked during the reign of Uzbeg, who adopted Islam, the territory of the Golden Horde at its peak included most of Eastern Europe from the Urals to the Danube River, and extended east deep into Siberia. In the south, the Golden Hordes lands bordered on the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, the khanate experienced violent internal political disorder beginning in 1359, before it briefly reunited under Tokhtamysh. However, soon after the 1396 invasion of Timur, the founder of the Timurid Empire, at the start of the 15th century the Horde began to fall apart. By 1466 it was being referred to simply as the Great Horde, within its territories there emerged numerous predominantly Turkic-speaking khanates. These internal struggles allowed the northern state of Muscovy to rid itself of the Tatar Yoke at the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. The Crimean Khanate and the Kazakh Khanate, the last remnants of the Golden Horde, in any event, it was not until the 16th century that Russian chroniclers begin explicitly using the term Golden Horde to refer to this particular successor khanate of the Mongol Empire. The first known use of the term, in 1565, in the Russian chronicle History of Kazan, applied it to the Ulus of Batu and its left wing was referred to as the Blue Horde in Russian chronicles and as the White Horde in Timurid sources. Western scholars have tended to follow the Timurid sources nomenclature and call the left wing the White Horde, the khanate apparently used the term White Horde to refer to its right wing, which was situated in Batus home base in Sarai and controlled the ulus. However, the designations Golden Horde, Blue Horde, and White Horde have not been encountered in the sources of the Mongol period. At his death in 1227, Genghis Khan divided the Mongol Empire amongst his four sons as appanages, Jochi was the eldest, but he died six months before Genghis. In 1235, Batu with the great general Subedei began an invasion westwards, first conquering the Bashkirs, from there he conquered some of the southern steppes of present-day Ukraine in 1237, forcing many of the local Cumans to retreat westward. The military campaign against the Kypchaks and Cumans had started under Jochi, by 1239 a large portion of Cumans were driven out of the Crimea peninsula, and it became one of the appanages of the Mongol Empire. The remnants of the Crimean Cumans survived in the Crimean mountains, moving north, Batu began the Mongol invasion of Rus and for three years subjugated the principalities of former Kievan Rus, whilst his cousins Möngke, Kadan, and Güyük moved southwards into Alania. Using the migration of the Cumans as their casus belli, the Mongols continued west, raiding Poland and Hungary and culminating in the battles of Legnica, in 1241, however, Ögedei Khan died in the Mongolia homeland. Batu turned back from his siege of Vienna to take part in disputing the succession, the Mongol armies would never again travel so far west
4. Ilkhanate – The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam, according to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term il-Khan means subordinate khan and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan, the title Ilkhan, borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khans Borjigin family, thus, the families of the latters four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khans governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region. Muhammads son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c.1224 after his exile in India, the rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his fathers empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia, however, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqans army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols, to the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238 and they began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat, the Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul, Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Armenia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir. After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the Mongols
5. Injuids – The House of Inju was a Shia dynasty of Mongol origin that came to rule over the Persian cities of Shiraz and Isfahan during the 14th century AD. Its members became de facto independent rulers following the breakup of the Ilkhanate until their defeat in 1357, the Injuids gained control of parts of Persia, mostly Fars, in 1304 at the beginning of the reign of the Ilkhan Öljeitü. The Ilkhan had given Sharaf al-Din Mahmud Shah control of the injü, Sharaf al-Din was reportedly descended from Abd-Allah Ansari, an 11th-century mystic of Herat. His son, Amir Ghiyas al-Din Kai-Khusrau, assisted another family, by 1325 Sharaf al-Din had gained nearly an absolute grip on the region. His power displeased Öljeitüs successor Abu Said, who ordered Sharaf al-Din removed, Kai-Khusrau, who ruled Shiraz for his father, resisted, and Sheikh Hussein was forced to return with an Ilkhan army. Also during Abu Saids lifetime, Sharaf al-Din was imprisoned in Tabriz for an attempt to murder his successor. With the death of Abu Said in 1335, Arpa Keun took the throne and he had Sharaf al-Din executed, two of Sharafs sons in the royal encampment withdrew from the scene. Meanwhile, Kai-Khusrau was asserting his authority in Shiraz, when Arpa Keun was captured by rebels, he was sent to Masud Shah, who killed him. Masud Shah then served as vizier under the Jalayirid puppet Ilkhan Muhammed Khan, the two brothers came into conflict, which was only settled when Kai-Khusraus died. Masud Shah was quickly faced with challenges to his reign. A year after Kai Khusraus death, a son of Sharaf al-Din named Shams al-Din Muhammad escaped from his brothers prison of Qala-yi Safid. Shams al-Din, together with the Chobanid Pir Hosayn, marched to Shiraz, Pir Hosayn, however, murdered Shams al-Din, this act lost him support in the city, and he had to withdraw. Pir Hosayn reconquered the city in the year, however. Masud Shah attempted to take advantage of Chobanid infighting, and allied with Yagi Basti to take the city and he had been given Isfahan by Pir Hosayn, and he now took Shiraz as well. When Yagi Basti murdered Masud Shah that same year, Abu Ishaq became the surviving son of Sharaf al-Din. He took Shiraz from Yagi Basti in March 1343, jamal al-Din Abu Ishaqs goal was to conquer Kerman, he therefore undertook expeditions against the Muzaffarids, who were led by Mubariz al-Din Muhammad. The rivalry between the two heated up during a campaign against the Muzaffarid city of Yazd during 1350 and 1351, in retaliation, Mubariz al-Din invaded Fars in 1352. After defeating the Injuids in battle, he laid siege to Shiraz in 1353, Abu Ishaq, who grew increasingly paranoid, ordered the extermination of two quarters of the city in order to root out traitors
6. Jalairid Sultanate – The Jalairids were a Mongol Jalayir dynasty which ruled over Iraq and western Persia after the breakup of the Mongol khanate of Persia in the 1330s. The Jalairid sultanate lasted about fifty years, until disrupted by Timurs conquests, after Timurs death in 1405, there was a brief attempt to re-establish the sultanate in southern Iraq and Khuzistan. The Jalairids were finally eliminated by the Kara Koyunlu in 1432, the Jalairid administration and chancellery was modeled after Ilkhanate protocols, with documents in Persian and Mongolian. Their diplomatic correspondence also copied the Ilkhanates, using a red ink square seal with Islamic phrases in Arabic
7. Kalmyk Khanate – The Kalmyk Khanate was an Oirat khanate on the Eurasian steppe. It covered the area called Kalmykia and the areas stretching from Stavropol to Astrakhan. The Khanate was annexed by the Russian Empire in 1771, upon arrival to the lower Volga region in 1630, the Oirats encamped on land that was once part of the Astrakhan Khanate, but was now claimed by the Tsarist government. The region was populated, from south of Saratov to the Russian garrison at Astrakhan. The Tsarist government was not ready to colonize the area and was in no position to prevent the Oirats from encamping in the region, but it had a direct political interest in insuring that the Oirats would not become allied with its Turkic-speaking neighbors. The Oirats quickly consolidated their position by expelling the majority of the native inhabitants, large groups of Nogais fled southeast to the northern Caucasian plain and west to the Black Sea steppe, lands claimed by the Crimean Khanate, itself a vassal or ally of Ottoman Turks. Smaller groups of Nogais sought the protection of the Russian garrison at Astrakhan, the remaining nomadic tribes became vassals of the Oirats. At first, a relationship existed between the Russians and the Oirats. Mutual raiding by the Oirats of Russian settlements and by the Cossacks, numerous oaths and treaties were signed to ensure Oirat loyalty and military assistance. Although the Oirats became subjects of the Tsar, such allegiance by the Oirats was deemed to be nominal, in reality, the Oirats governed themselves pursuant to a document known as the Great Code of the Nomads. Although the goal of unification was not met, the leaders did ratify the Code. In securing their position, the Oirats became a borderland power, Ayuka Khan also waged wars against the Kazakhs, subjugated the Mangyshlak Turkmens, and made multiple expeditions against the highlanders of the North Caucasus. In that respect, the Tsarist government treated the Oirats as it did the Cossacks, the provision of monetary payments and dry goods, however, did not stop the mutual raiding, and, in some instances, both sides failed to fulfill its promises. Trade also occurred with neighboring Turkic tribes under Russian control, such as the Tatars, intermarriage became common with such tribes. This trading arrangement provided substantial benefits, monetary and otherwise, to the Oirat tayishis, noyons and this was the kind of exchange relationship between nomads and urban craftsmen and traders in which the Kalmyks traditionally engaged. A few Kalmyk nobles became russified and nominally Christian who went to Moscow in hope of securing Russian help for their ambitions on the Kalmyk steppe. Russian subsidies to Kalmyk nobles, however, became a means of political control only later. Yet gradually the Kalmyk princes came to require Russian support and to abide in Russian policy, during the era of Ayuka Khan, the Kalmyk Khanate reached its peak of military and political power
8. Kara Del – Kara Del or Qara Del was a Mongol kingdom that existed in Hami in present-day Xinjiang. It was founded by the Yuan prince Gunashiri, a descendant of Chagatai Khan, in the late 14th century and it was destroyed as a result of the wars between Ming China and Oirat Mongols and dynastic succession struggles in 1513. Kara Del means Black chest in the Mongolian language, after the demise of the Northern Yuan emperor Tögüs Temür, Kublai Khans descendant, the throne of Mongolia passed into the hands of Jorightu Khan Yesüder, an Arib-Bokid prince, in 1388. With the anarchy after the Mongol Emperors death, Chagatai Khans descendant, Gunashiri, by 1390, Gunashiri, himself Buddhist, successfully established himself in Hami where the Uighurs lived. The Kara Del accepted the Ming supremacy to save its existence in 1404, the Kara Del ruler Enke-temur was granted the title Zhongshunwang by the Ming court. However, they were threatened by Mongolian Emperors, particularly during the reign of Yesüder, the Oirats from Western Mongolia pressured into the kingdom from 15th century on. Their leader and Yuan taishi, Esen, forced the Kara Del khan to submit in 1430s, the kingdom was one of two Chagatyid realms conquered by Esen, other one being Moghulistan. He extensively supported the rivalry between successor of Gunashiri and intervened in their dynastic struggles, the Ming Dynasty was trying to place their puppet on the throne to secure their claim at the time. In 1463 the khan was overthrown by a faction and a serious succession crisis started. From 1467 Ming Emperors reinstalled members of Gunashiris house but the failure was evident, Hami was conquered by Mansur, the khan from another branch of the Chagatayids in Central Asia, putting an end to the dynasty in 1513. Mansur forcefully converted all people living in Kara Del to Islam and it was reported that between Khitay and Khotan the Sarigh Uyghur tribes who were impious resided, and they were targeted for ghazat by Mansur Khan following 1516. Kara Del is a nation in Europa Universalis IV. According to Chinese Wikipedia, Gunashiri Enke Timur Tuō Tuō (脫脫 Tù Lì Tiē Mù Er Bo Dá Shī Lǐ and he was rivalled firstly Tuō Huān Tiē Mù Er and Tuō Tuō Tǎ Mù Er, the son of rival
9. Khoshut Khanate – The Khoshut Khanate was an Oirat khanate based in the Tibetan Plateau in the 17th and the 18th centuries. It was established in 1642 by Güshi Khan, a Khoshut prince and he was enthroned by the Dalai Lama as Khan and protector-ruler of Tibet. With Güshi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and this Tibetan regime or government is also referred to as the Ganden Phodrang. The Dzungars were in turn expelled by the forces of the Qing dynasty from Tibet in 1720
10. Moghulistan – That area today includes parts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and northwest China. Beginning in the century a new khanate, in the form of a nomadic tribal confederacy headed by a member of the family of Chagatai. In actuality, local control rested with local Mongol Dughlats or Sufi Naqshbandi in their respective oases, independence-minded khans created their own domains in cities like Kashgar and Turfan. Eventually it was overcome by the Kyrgyz, Kazakhs, and Oirats, Moghulistan simply means Land of the Moghuls or Mongols in reference to the eastern branch of the Mongolian Chagatai Khans who ruled it. The term Moghulistan occurs mostly in Soviet historiography, while Chinese historiography mostly uses the term East Chagatai Khanate, the Moghul Khans considered themselves heir to Mongol traditions and called themselves Mongghul Uls, from which the Persian term Moghulistan comes. Ming Dynasty Mandarins called the Moghuls the Mongol tribes in Beshbalik, the Timurid exonym for Moghulistan was Ulus-i Jatah. When the Mongols conquered most of Asia and Russia in the 13th century and constructed the Mongol Empire, they lived as minorities in many of the regions they had subdued, such as Iran, as a result, the Mongols in these regions quickly adopted the local culture. For example, in the Persian Ilkhanate the Mongol khans adopted Islam after less than half a century, in contrast, the Mongols and their subordinates who settled in what came to be known as Moghulistan were in origin steppe nomads from Mongolia. During the 14th century the inhabitants of Moghulistan were known as Jats and this term is also used by numerous people in South Asia - in Pakistan and in parts of western India. It is claimed that parts of the population still spoke Mongolian until the late 16th century, since the Moghuls were nomads of the steppe, the boundaries of their territories seldom stayed the same for long. Still, Moghulistan in the strictest sense was centered in the Ili region and it was bounded on the west by the province of Shash and the Karatau Mountains, while the southern area of Lake Balkhash marked the northern limit of Moghul influence. From there the border gradually sloped in a direction until it reached the eastern portion of the Tian Shan Mountains. The Tian Shan then served as the border of Moghulistan. Besides Moghulistan proper, the Moghuls also nominally controlled modern-day Beijiang and Nanjiang, besides Moghulistan, Nanjiang, and Beijiang, several other regions were also temporarily subjected to Moghul rule at one time or another, such as Tashkent, Ferghana and parts of Badakhshan. Moghulistan proper was primarily country and was where the Moghuls usually resided. Because of the Moghuls nomadic nature, the towns of Moghulistan fell into decline during their rule, aside from the towns, which were at the foot of the mountains, nearly all of Nanjiang was desert. As a result, the Moghuls generally stayed out of the region, the Dughlat amirs or leaders from the Naqshbandi Islamic order administered these towns in the name of the Moghul khans until 1514. The Moghuls more directly governed Nanjiang after they lost Moghulistan itself, the capital city of Nanjiang was usually Yarkand or Kashgar