Pages in category "Monuments men"
The following 47 pages are in this category, out of 47 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 47 pages are in this category, out of 47 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program – Many of the men and women of the MFAA, also known as Monuments Men, went on to have prolific careers. The groups sought a national organization affiliated with the military which would have the same goal, francis Henry Taylor, director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, took their concerns to Washington, D. C. What began as a brain trust of the art world’s finest during the war became a group of 345 men and women from 13 countries that comprised the Monuments, Fine Arts and Archives Section unit. They spent 1945 seeking out more than 1,000 troves containing an estimated 5 million pieces of artwork and cultural items stolen from wealthy Jews, museums, universities, and religious institutions. And for six years after the surrender, a group of about 60 Monuments Men continued scouring Europe as art detectives. The Commission helped establish the MFAA branch within the Civil Affairs and Military Government Sections of the Allied armies, after the war, the Roberts Commission helped the MFAA and Allied Forces return Nazi-confiscated artworks to rightful owners. It also promoted awareness of looted cultural works. The group was dissolved in June 1946, when the State Department took over its duties, General Dwight D. Eisenhower facilitated the work of the MFAA by forbidding looting, destruction, and billeting in structures of cultural significance. He also repeatedly ordered his forces to assist the MFAA as much as possible and this was the first time in history an army attempted to fight a war and at the same time reduce damage to cultural monuments and property. Prior to this war, no army had thought of protecting the monuments of the country in which and with which it was at war, lacking handbooks, resources, or supervision, this initial handful of officers relied on their museum training and overall resourcefulness to perform their tasks. There was no established precedent for what they confronted and they worked in the field under the Operations Branch of SHAEF, and were actively involved in battle preparations. When damage to monuments did occur, MFAA personnel worked to assess damage, keller led a team of Italian and American troops and restorers in recovering the remaining fragments of the frescoes and in building a temporary roof to protect the structure from further damage. Restoration of the frescoes continues even today, countless other monuments, churches, and works of art were saved or protected by the dedicated personnel of the MFAA section. American and allied forces in Europe discovered hidden caches of priceless treasures, many were the product of looting by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis. Others had been evacuated from museums for safekeeping. Monuments Men oversaw the safeguarding, cataloguing, removal and packing of all works from all these repositories, in Italy, museum officials had sent their holdings to various countryside locations such as the Tuscan villa of Montegufoni, which housed some of the Florentine collections. As Allied forces advanced through Italy, the German army retreated north, stealing paintings and sculptures from these repositories as they fled. As German forces neared the Austrian border, they were forced to store most of their loot in various hiding places, such as a castle at Sand in Taufers and a jail cell in San Leonardo
2. Douglas Cooper (art historian) – Douglas Cooper, who also published as Douglas Lord was a British art historian, art critic and art collector. Early in the 19th century, Coopers forebears had emigrated to Australia and acquired great wealth and his great-grandfather Daniel Cooper became a member of the New South Wales legislature and was the first Speaker of the new Legislative Assembly in 1856. He was made a baronet in 1863 and spent his time both in Australia and England, eventually settling permanently in England, and dying in London and his son and grandson also lived there and sold their Australian property in the 1920s, very much to Douglass annoyance. Douglass mother came from old-established English aristocracy, Cooper never visited Australia and proposed that he might have been conceived there during the honeymoon of his parents. He went to Repton School and Trinity College, Cambridge graduating in 1930 with a third in the French section and a second in the French section of the Medieval and Modern Languages Tripos. When he was 21, he inherited £100,000, enabling him to art history at the Sorbonne, in Paris and at the University of Freiburg in Germany. Cooper was paid out in works of art and his account of the transfer of wounded soldiers to Bordeaux to be shipped to Plymouth achieved some fame when published in 1941 by him and his co-driver C. For this action, he received a French Médaille militaire, back in Liverpool Cooper was arrested as a spy because of his French uniform, missing papers and improper behaviour, a treatment for which he never forgave his fellow countrymen. ”. He enjoyed the life there greatly. After a short interlude in Malta, he was assigned to a unit trying to investigate into Nazi looted art, Royal Air Force Intelligence, British Element, Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives. During the following years, art historians, collectors, dealers and artists flocked to his home which had something like an epicenter of Cubism. Léger and Picasso were regular guests, the latter became a substantial part of its life. He regarded Picasso as the genius of the 20th century. Picasso tried several times to induce Cooper to sell his castle to him, however, he would not agree, in 1950, he became acquainted with art historian John Richardson, sharing his life with him for the next 10 years. Richardson moved to Provence in southern France in 1952, as Cooper acquired Château de Castille in the vicinity of Avignon, Richardson and Cooper became close friends of Picasso, Fernand Léger and Nicolas de Staël as well. In 1960, Richardson left Cooper and moved to New York City. He was among the first art critics to write about art with the same erudition common for artists of the past, in the years before the Second World War. He was Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford from 1957 to 1958 and guest professor at Bryn Mawr and Courtauld Institute in 1961
3. S. Lane Faison – Samson Lane Faison, Jr. was an American art historian, professor, and director of the Williams College Museum of Art. Faison was born in Washington D. C. to Eleanor Sowers and his father was a West Point graduate and a general in World War I. Lane had one sibling, a younger sister named Eleanor. A boyhood trip to France that included a visit to Chartres Cathedral awakened a passion for art. Faison later headed the Williams College art history department from 1940 to 1969 and he was himself trained at Williams by Karl E. Weston, who inspired an earlier generation of art scholars in the 1920s. During the 1930s, after receiving an M. A. from Harvard and he translated into English the major work of Focillon, La vie des formes. In 1935 he married Virginia Weed, a native of Savannah and they had four sons, Gordon Lane, George Weston, Christopher Maury, and Samson Lane III. Mr. Faison was a Navy Reservist during World War II, in 1945 he was posted to the Office of Strategic Services Art Looting Investigation Unit. He wrote the official report on Adolf Hitlers collection of stolen art. Five years later, he supervised the return of art under the direction of the Department of State to major European cities such as Vienna. In 1952, he was awarded a Chevalier of French Legion of Honour for his service, while directing the Williams College Museum of Art and art history department, Faison made it his mission to inspire interest in art history among students at Williams College. In 2004, he told the New York Times, I always stressed two things, one has to do with the connection of art to history, with the fact that every work of art was done somewhere and some when, and that this is very important to understand. The other side has to do with the medium of art, what were talking about is color and shape. They have easily mastered the medium of language, but many of them very little about the medium of art. S. Lane Faison, Jr. died on November 11,2006 in Williamstown, Faison, S. L. & United States. U. S. Army, Office of Strategic Services, Art Looting Investigation Unit, Faison, S. L. & United States. U. S. Army, Office of Strategic Services, Art Looting Investigation Unit, michael J. Lewis, “An Art Teacher’s Art Teacher, ” Commentary 123, no
4. William Gear – William Gear RA RBSA was a Scottish painter, most notable for his abstract compositions. Gear was born in Methil in the south-east of Fife, Scotland, the son of Janet Gear and Porteous Gear, a coal miner. At Buckhaven High School he won the Dux Arts Medal, and studied at Edinburgh College of Art from 1932 to 1936, awarded a travelling scholarship, Gear visited France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Albania, Greece and Turkey. This trip included a stay in Paris studying with Fernand Léger, at summer school in Arbroath he met Robert Colquhoun and Robert MacBryde. A brief interest in Surrealism led him to exhibit with the New Era Group in Edinburgh in 1939, called up for military service in 1940, and commissioned 2nd Lieutenant in 1941, during the Second World War Gear served with the Royal Corps of Signals. He met Merlyn Evans in Durban, en route to his first posting in the Middle East. Gear subsequently served in Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Cyprus, before participating in the Allied invasion of Italy, during his travels through Europe he also worked to promote local artists suffering from wartime deprivations, including Karl Otto Götz. In 1948 he held his first Paris and London solo exhibitions, after meeting Appel, Constant, Corneille, and Jorn, he joined and exhibited with the North European avant-garde CoBrA art group. That year he also co-exhibited with Jackson Pollock in New York, married an American citizen, Charlotte Chertok, whilst holidaying in Brittany in 1950, he was visited by William Scott. When the work was awarded a Festival of Britain purchase prize in 1951, following a further move to the nearby Speen Farm, his son Robert was born the same year. The following year he was amongst the pioneers in Britain to produce prints using the silk screen technique. He moved to Littlebourne in Kent, was elected a member of the London Group, and began receiving commissions for fabric and wallpaper designs, producing about 100 over the following nine years. He was curator of the Towner Gallery in Eastbourne from 1958 to 1964, and then head of the Faculty of Fine Art at Birmingham College of Art, a post from which he retired in 1975. He became a member of the Royal Birmingham society of artists in 1966, and was Guest Lecturer at the National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, and that year he also retired from his Fine Art post, which by then was encompassed within Birmingham Polytechnic. A touring exhibition of CoBrA artists’ work during 1982/83 heralded a revival of interest in the movement, over the next decade he participated in group CoBrA exhibitions in several countries, and also held solo shows of his CoBrA period works in London and Paris. In 1994 he was awarded the Royal Academy’s Sir Howard Barker Scholarship, the following year he attended the opening of the new CoBrA Museum in Amstelveen, Holland, and was elected a RA. In 2015 to celebrate his centenary Towner Gallery Eastbourne held a retrospective of his works - William Gear 1915 -1997
5. Walker Hancock – Walker Kirtland Hancock was an American sculptor and teacher. He created notable monumental sculptures, including the Pennsylvania Railroad World War II Memorial at 30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and he made major additions to the National Cathedral in Washington, D. C. including Christ in Majesty, the bas relief over the High Altar. Works by him are at the United States Military Academy, the Library of Congress, the United States Supreme Court Building, during World War II, he was one of the Monuments Men, who recovered art treasures looted by the Nazis. Hancock was awarded the National Medal of Arts in 1989, the son of Walter Scott Hancock, a lawyer, and wife Anna Spencer, he was born in St. Louis, Missouri. He graduated from Central VPA High School in 1917, and studied for a year at the School of Fine Arts at Washington University under Victor Holm and he then transferred to the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to study under Charles Grafly. As a student at PAFA, he won the 1921 Edmund Stewardson Prize, and his Bust of Toivo won PAFAs 1925 George D. Widener Memorial Gold Medal. He won the 1925 Rome Prize, which enabled him to study for 3 years at the American Academy in Rome, following Graflys death in an auto accident, Hancock became PAFAs Instructor of Sculpture in 1929. He held that position until 1967, with interruptions for his war service and he served in the U. S. Army during World War II, and became one of the Monuments Men, recovering art looted by the Nazis. Hancock, because he spoke fluent Italian, was recruited into Army intelligence where he wrote a handbook for soldiers serving in Italy, after Washington D. C. he was posted in London where he researched and wrote on monuments and art works in occupied France. He won the competition to design the Air Medal, established by President Franklin D. On December 4,1943, three weeks before being shipped overseas, he married Saima Natti in a chapel at the National Cathedral in Washington, perhaps his most famous work is the Pennsylvania Railroad World War II Memorial at 30th Street Station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The 39-foot monument is dedicated to the 1,307 PRR employees who died in the war, Hancocks heroic bronze, entitled Angel of the Resurrection, depicts Michael the Archangel raising up a fallen soldier from the Flames of War. In 1964, he took over supervision of the Confederate Memorial at Stone Mountain and this had been begun in 1917 by Gutzon Borglum, who abandoned the project in 1925. No work had been done since 1928, Hancocks chief carver, Roy Faulkner, completed the project in 1972. At Trinity Episcopal Church, Topsfield, Massachusetts, he created a sculpture group. On one side of a forest glade, a figure of Christ, seen from behind, agonizes about offering himself up for sacrifice, while on the other side his disciples, Peter, James, John. The sculpture group was commissioned as a memorial to Jonathan Daniels, a duplicate of the 2-part work is at a Trappist monastery in Kentucky. A duplicate of Christ Praying is at the Episcopal Divinity School in Cambridge, for his military service, Hancock was awarded the American Service Medal, the World War II Victory Medal, and the European, African, Middle Eastern Service Medal
6. Walter Horn – Walter W. Horn was a medievalist scholar noted for his work on the timber vernacular architecture of the Middle Ages. A naturalized citizen of the United States, Horn served in the U. S. Army during World War II and his most celebrated exploit was the recovery of the crown jewels of the Holy Roman Empire, also known as Charlemagnes Imperial Regalia. As a scholar, Horn is most noted for his work on the architectural drawing known as the Plan of Saint Gall. Horn was born in the town of Waldangelloch in rural Baden and his mother was Matilde Peters, she married Karl Horn, a Lutheran minister. Walter attended a Gymnasium in nearby Heidelberg and went on to art history at the University of Heidelberg. He earned his doctorate in 1934 at the University of Hamburg and his dissertation, Die Fassade von Saint-Gilles, on the façade of Saint-Gilles, Gard, was published in 1937. Horn fled Germany in opposition to the Nazi regime and he continued his studies from 1934 to 1937 as a research associate at the German Institute for the History of Art in Florence, Italy. In 1938, Horn moved to the United States and began his association with the University of California, Berkeley. A year later, he was given a permanent position as the first art historian in the University of California system, during this time, he married Ann Binkley Rand. Horn became a citizen in 1943. That same year, he volunteered for duty in the U. S. Army. By 1945, he was a lieutenant in the Third Army under General George S. Patton, Horns skills as a native speaker of German were put to use in interrogating prisoners of war. Horn served until 1946, attaining the rank of captain, in 1946, Horn succeeded in recovering the Imperial Regalia of Charlemagne, the crown, sceptre, and jewels of the Holy Roman Empire. These had been hidden by Germans who hoped to return to power even after their defeat by the Allies. The incident has been elaborated, sometimes with inaccuracies, by writers who take particular interest in the Holy Lance and this artifact is sometimes called the Spear of Destiny and identified with the Vienna Lance, one of the components of the regalia. In speculative works of non-fiction that endow the lance with occult powers or mystical significance in Nazism, Horn appears in narratives about its retrieval from the possession of Adolf Hitler. Usually identified as Lt. Walter William Horn, he is said to have retrieved the lance at the behest of Patton on the day of Hitlers death. Newspaper and academic sources, which any specific mention of the lance
7. Deane Keller – Deane Keller was an American artist, academic, soldier, art restorer and preservationist. He taught for forty years at Yale Universitys School of Fine Arts and during World War II was an officer with the Monuments, Fine Arts, Keller was born in New Haven, Connecticut in 1901. Keller attended the Taft School in Watertown, Connecticut, graduating in 1919, as a student at Yale, he earned degrees in history and science in 1923. Further studies led to a B. F. A. from the Yale School of Fine Arts in 1926, Keller was awarded the Gran Prix de Rome in 1926. He was a Fellow of the American Academy in Rome for three years, after returning from Rome in 1929, Keller began his career as a member of the Yale faculty. At wars end, he returned to teach at Yales School of Fine Arts, in total, Keller taught at Yale for forty years, retiring in 1979, and was also professor emeritus of painting at the Paier College of Art. Keller married Katherine Parkhurst Hall in 1938 and he had two sons, Deane G. Keller,1940 –2005, and William Keller, born in 1950. From 1943 to 1946, Keller served as an officer of the U. S. 5th Army in the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program. Captain Keller was primarily responsible for the identification and transportation of artworks in Tuscany, Italy, the center of the Italian Renaissance and a major site of Nazi looting. He worked in Pisa and Florence, where Nazi troops had bombed churches, destroyed or dislocated public art, as they were discovered during the invasion of Italy, Keller repatriated lost works, including Giambolognas statue of Cosimo I de Medici, a fixture of Florences Piazza della Signoria. He also documented damage to buildings and murals across Tuscany, taking thousands of photographs with Charles Bernholz, one of Kellers most significant wartime undertakings was his attempt to preserve the murals of the Camposanto, a medieval cemetery in Pisa. In July 1944, an American shelling started a fire caused the frescoes to fracture. Keller organized art experts and enlisted men to protect the mural pieces, restoration of the frescoes has continued for seventy years. In recognition of his efforts, an urn containing Kellers ashes was interred in the Camposanto in 2000. Crown of Italy Partisan Medal,1946, Medal of the Opera, Commune of Pisa Order of St John Lateran,1946. Keller was posthumously recognized for his wartime activities and his remains were apportioned and interred in New Britain, Connecticut and the Camposanto Monumentale in Pisa, that site is identified with an engraved marble slab. In addition to his career, Keller was a prolific portrait painter. He was known as the unofficial portraitist of the Yale faculty, completing over 160 portrait commissions for the university, including faculty, corporation board members, with one of his portrait subjects, Thomas G. Bergin, Keller worked in collaboration by illustrating the book, On Sepulchers
8. Lincoln Kirstein – Lincoln Edward Kirstein was an American writer, impresario, art connoisseur, philanthropist, and cultural figure in New York City, noted especially as co-founder of the New York City Ballet. He developed and sustained the company with his ability and fundraising for more than four decades. According to the New York Times, he was an expert in fields, organizing art exhibits. Kirstein was born in Rochester, New York to Jewish parents and his sister was Mina Kirstein and his paternal grandparents were Jeanette and Edward Kirstein, a successful Rochester clothing manufacturer who ran E. Kirstein and Sons, Company. He grew up in a wealthy Jewish Bostonian family and attended the private Berkshire School, along with George Platt Lynes and he then attended Harvard, where his father, the vice-president of Filenes Department Store, had also attended, graduating in 1930. His maternal grandfather was Nathan Stein, an executive at the Stein-Bloch & Co. in Rochester. In 1927, while still an undergraduate at Harvard, Kirstein was annoyed that the literary magazine The Harvard Advocate would not accept his work. With a friend Varian Fry, who met his wife Eileen through Lincolns sister Mina, he convinced his father to finance their own literary quarterly, after graduation, he moved to New York in 1930, taking the quarterly with him. His interest in ballet and Balanchine started when he saw Balanchines Apollo performed by the Ballets Russes, Kirstein became determined to bring Balanchine to America. In October 1933, together with Edward Warburg, a classmate from Harvard, in 1934, the studio moved to the fourth floor of a building at Madison Avenue and 59th Street in New York City. Warburgs father, Felix M. Warburg, invited the group of students from the class to perform at a private party. The ballet they performed was Serenade, the first major ballet choreographed by Balanchine in the United States, just months later Kirstein and Warburg founded, together with Balanchine and Dimitriew, the American Ballet which became the resident company of the Metropolitan Opera. That arrangement was unsatisfactory because the Opera would not allow Balanchine, Kirsteins theatrical career was interrupted by the United States entry into World War II. After enlisting in 1943, before going overseas he started working on a gathering and documenting soldier art. He eventually developed this as the exhibit and book Artists Under Fire, the section was devoted to rescuing and preserving European art. Soon after in January 1945, Kirstein was promoted to Private First Class in Pattons Third Army, Kirstein was personally involved with retrieving artworks around Munich and from the salt mines at Altaussee. His article The Quest for the Golden Lamb about the quest was published in Town & Country in September 1945, in 1946, Balanchine and Kirstein founded the Ballet Society, which was renamed the New York City Ballet in 1948. In a letter that year, Kirstein stated, The only justification I have is to enable Balanchine to do exactly what he wants to do in the way he wants to do it, Kirstein went on to serve as the companys General Director from 1946 until 1989
9. L. Bancel LaFarge – L. Bancel LaFarge was an American architect. He was a member of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Louis Bancel LaFarge was born into a prominent American family and his grandfather, John LaFarge, was a noted American artist. His grandmother was a granddaughter of Commodore Oliver Hazard Perry and a descendant of Benjamin Franklin. His father, Bancel LaFarge, was an artist who continued his fathers work in glass, LaFarge was a graduate of Harvard College and the Yale School of Architecture. He married Margaret Hockaday, with whom he had three children, Timothy, Benjamin, and Celestine, LaFarge established himself as an architect in New York specializing in domestic architecture. His practice was interrupted by service in the Second World War. At wars end, he returned to his work as an architect, at one time he served as president of the New York chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and he was a founding member of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. Major LaFarge was assigned to the 7th Army in Europe during the Second World War and he was the Chief of the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section. LaFarge was the first MFAA officer to arrive in France after D-Day in 1944, the Rape of Europa, The Fate of Europe’s Teasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War. ISBN 978-0-679-75686-6, OCLC32531154 Charles Maurice Fleischner papers, Yale University Library, Manuscripts and Archives LaFarge Family Papers, Yale University Library PBS, The Rape of Europa. 2006 film, aired November 24,2008 Monuments Men Foundation, Monuments Men> LaFarge, Maj. L. Bancel Obituary, Flint, la Farge,89, an Architect, New York Times
10. Sherman Lee – Sherman Emory Lee was an American academic, writer, art historian and expert on Asian art. He was Director of the Cleveland Museum of Art from 1958 to 1983, Lee earned his B. A. and M. A. at American University in Washington, D. C. He was awarded his PhD at Western Reserve University in 1941, Lee was a renowned expert on Asian art. According to Philippe de Montebello, Lee will be remembered for sensational acquisitions that transformed the Cleveland Museum of Art in all fields, in 1941, Lee was named Curator of Far Eastern Art at the Detroit Institute of Arts. His museum career was interrupted by service in World War II. He returned to the United States in 1948 and he was the Associate Director of the Seattle Art Museum and he taught at the University of Washington. In 1952, Lee began work at the Cleveland Museum of Art as Chief Curator of Oriental Art and he was named Director in 1958, and served in this capacity until 1983. He advised Mr. and Mrs. John D. Rockefeller on building their collection of Asian art, after retiring from the Cleveland Museum of Art in 1983, Lee became an adjunct professor of art history at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Lieutenant Sherman Lee was activated from the United States Naval Reserve during World War II and his naval career took a turn when he was transferred in 1946 to Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives in Japan. When he was discharged from the military, he continued working as a civilian in Tokyo, from 1946 to 1948, he was a civilian adviser to the staff of Gen. Douglas MacArthur on the cataloging, preserving and protection of Japanese artworks. Among those serving with Lee at SCAP headquarters in Tokyo were Patrick Lennox Tierney, speaking of his service with the Monuments Men, Lee said, We were responsible for protection of registered cultural property. We were responsible for national parks and we were responsible for the encouragement of the living artists and. The democratization of Japanese museums to see there was evenhanded fair play. According to Philippe de Montebello, director of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York and he bought in all fields, his own particularly brilliantly, but in many different fields. He really transformed the Cleveland museum from a museum to a major global museum. Order of the Sacred Treasure, Japan, in a statistical overview derived from writings by and about Sherman Lee, OCLC/WorldCat encompasses roughly 100+ works in 300+ publications in 8 languages and 14, 000+ library holdings. My Work in Japan, Arts and Monuments 1946–48, in The Confusion Era, Art and Culture of Japan during the Allied Occupation 1945–52, the Rape of Europa, The Fate of Europe’s Teasures in the Third Reich and the Second World War. ISBN 978-0-679-75686-6, OCLC32531154 U. S. Department of State, foreign Relations of the United States __________________
11. Paul Ayshford Methuen, 4th Baron Methuen – Paul Ayshford Methuen, 4th Baron Methuen RA was a painter, zoologist and landowner. He was the eldest child of the 3rd Baron Methuen and his second wife, Paul Ayshford Methuen was born at Corsham, Wiltshire, on 29 September 1886. He was the first of the five children of Field Marshal Paul Sanford Methuen, 3rd Baron Methuen of Corsham and he was educated at Eton and New College, Oxford, where he studied zoology and engineering. He later refused a chair in zoology at a South African university because of his commitment to his ancestral home, in the First World War he served with the Royal Wiltshire Yeomanry and then with his fathers regiment, the Scots Guards. Afterwards he worked at Ministry of Agriculture where his experience in slaughterhouses made him a lifelong vegetarian and he married Eleanor Hennessy, daughter of the landscape painter William James Hennessy, in 1915. Methuen had studied drawing at Eton, at the Ruskin in Oxford, in 1927 he attended art classes given by Walter Sickert, which had a permanent effect on his painting style. He established a reputation as a serious artist and his preferred subjects were urban views and outdoor scenes with buildings, animals, and plants, such as the magnolias and orchids he grew at Corsham Court. In 1939 he rejoined his regiment and served as a captain until 1944 when he was moved to the Procurement and he later recounted his experiences in his book Normandy Diary. During the War, Methuen also received a number of commissions from the War Artists Advisory Committee, where possible, he bought back pictures that had been sold by his father. He published a history of the collection in 1958, and a catalogue of the miniatures in 1970 and it remained there until 1972, Corsham Court is now used by Bath Spa University. From 1939 to 1971, Methuen was president of the Royal West of England Academy in Bristol and he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in 1951, and became a Royal Academician in 1959. He was also elected an Honorary Associate of the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1947 and he was a trustee of both the National Gallery, from 1938 to 1945, and of the Tate Gallery, from 1940 to 1945. Paul Ayshford Methuen died on 7 January 1974 in Bath and his only son having died at birth, the title passed to his younger brother Anthony. A species of South African lizard, Lygodactylus methueni, is named in honor of Paul Ayshford Methuen, a contribution to our knowledge of the anatomy of Chamaeleons. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Africa 4, 89–104, on a collection of reptiles from Madagascar made during the year 1911. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 3, 183–193 + plates V–XI, on a collection of Batrachia from Madagascar made during the year 1911. Annals of the Transvaal Museum 4, 49–64 + plates IX, X. Methuen, the Percy Sladen Memorial Expedition to Great Namaqualand, 1912–1913. Records and descriptions of the reptiles and batrachians of the collection, annals of the Transvaal Museum 4, 118–145 + plate XIV
12. The Monuments Men – The Monuments Men is a 2014 American-German war film directed by George Clooney, and written and produced by Clooney and Grant Heslov. The film stars an ensemble cast including Clooney, Matt Damon, Bill Murray, John Goodman, Jean Dujardin, Bob Balaban, Hugh Bonneville, and Cate Blanchett. It is loosely based on the non-fiction book The Monuments Men, Allied Heroes, Nazi Thieves, the Monuments Men was co-produced by Columbia Pictures and Babelsberg Studio, and released on February 7,2014. It received mixed reviews and grossed $155 million worldwide against a $70 million budget. In 1943, during World War II, the Allies are making good progress driving back the Axis powers in Italy, Frank Stokes persuades the American President that victory will have little meaning if the artistic treasures of Western civilization are lost in the fighting. Simone runs to the railyard to confront Stahl, but can only watch as Stahl departs aboard the train carrying the precious cargo, standing defiantly as he futilely fires his pistol at her. Stokes unit finds its work frustrated by its own officers in the field. James Granger finds that Simone will not cooperate with those whom she suspects want to confiscate the art for their own country. The unit splits up to cover ground, with varying degrees of success. Donald Jeffries, of the British Army, sneaks into Bruges and he is killed attempting to stop Colonel Wegner from taking it away. Eventually, purely by chance, they find and arrest Viktor Stahl, hiding as a farmer, walter Garfield and Jean Claude Clermont get lost in the countryside and blunder into a firefight. Clermont is mortally wounded and dies when Garfield is unable to find medical help and she provides a comprehensive ledger she has compiled that provides valuable information on the stolen art and the rightful owners. Even as the team learns that the artwork is being stored in various mines and castles, it learns that it must now compete against the Soviet Union. Meanwhile, Colonel Wegner is systematically destroying whole art caches, in addition, the team captures the entire gold reserves of the Nazi German national treasury. Finally, the finds a mine in Austria that appears to have been demolished. However, the team discovers that the entrances were blocked by the locals in order to prevent the Nazis from destroying the contents, Stokes reports back to President Truman that the team has recovered vast quantities of artwork and various other culturally significant items. As he requests to stay in Europe to oversee further searching and restoration, Truman then asks if,30 years from then, anyone will remember that these men died for a piece of art. In 1977, the elderly Stokes, replies Yeah, while he takes his grandson to see Michelangelos Madonna sculpture
13. Norman Newton – Norman Thomas Newton was an American landscape architect and winner of the Prix de Rome. Born in 1898 in Corry, Pennsylvania, Newton graduated from Cornell University in 1919, returning to New York he worked for Ferruccio Vitale before establishing his own office in 1932. He sought to become involved with public-works projects under the auspices of the Civilian Conservation Corps and he was appointed resident landscape architect for the northeastern region of the National Park Service and redesigned the setting for the Statue of Liberty. His master plan for what was then called Bedloes Island called for removing Army barracks and adding lawns and his other public-works projects included master plans for the Custom House at Derby Wharf in Salem, Mass. and for Saratoga Battlefield National History Park. Netwon had served as a cadet in the U. S. Marine Corps Reserve in 1918. He returned to Italy in World War II as senior officer, first with the 330th Air Service Group. He surveyed damaged architectural monuments and advised Allied officers and troops on the value of buildings. He instructed Italian officials as to which buildings needed immediate repairs, norman joined the faculty of the Graduate School of Design at Harvard University in 1939 and, except for the war years, remained until his retirement in 1967. He was a fellow of the American Society of Landscape Architects and was its president from 1957 to 1961, Newton held the rank of lieutenant colonel in the U. S. Army Air Force, as a Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives Officer. The Italian Government gave him the title of Commander of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, Grand Officer Crown of Italy, newton’s work earned him the Bradford Williams Medal, the ASLA Medal and the title of Charles Eliot Professor of Landscape Architecture. War Damage to Monuments and Fine Arts of Italy Design on the Land, The Development of Landscape Architecture Approach to Design
14. Charles Percy Parkhurst – Charles Percy Parkhurst was an American museum curator best known for his work on the Roberts Commission, tracking down art looted during World War II. Charles Parkhurst was born in 1913 in Columbus, Ohio and he entered Oberlin College as a music major than later physics student, but after the science department prohibited him for conducting a personal research project, he transferred to Williams College. Deeply entranced by the art history courses of Karl Weston, Parkhurst pursued a degree in science. Following his graduation in 1935, he spent the two years building bridges and roads in Alaska before he returned to Oberlin for his masters degree. Parkhurst went on to obtain his master’s in fine art at Princeton University in 1941 with his mentor, at Princeton, Parkhurst heard lectures by scholars such as Erwin Panofsky, Charles Rufus Marey, George Rawley, and Albert M. Friend. He had a fellowship with Paul J, for most of World War II, Parkhurst served in the Navy as a gunnery officer in the Mediterranean. In 1943, Franklin Roosevelt established an art recovery division entitled the Roberts Commission after Justice Owen Roberts to repatriate art stolen by the Nazis, Parkhurst was part of the art recovery group and became deputy chief of Monuments, Fines Arts, and Archives in Germany. Immediately after the War, he was promoted to lieutenant where he served with around thirty others at the national headquarters of the Nazi party in Munich. The group recovered more five million dollars worth of artifacts and artworks, though Parkhurst was made a Chevalier de la Légion dhonneur by the French Government in 1948, he had been discharged from the Navy for signing the “Wiesbaden Manifesto. In 1949, he returned to Oberlin as the chair of the Fine Arts Department. At Oberlin, Parkhurst founded the Intermuseum Conservation Laboratory in 1952 and this institution was the nation’s first regional, non-profit art conservation center. Parkhurst was appointed the director of the Baltimore Museum of Art in 1962, succeeding long-time director Adelyn Dohme Breeskin, Parkhurst acknowledged, So I succeeded Adelyn, didn’t replace her. She’s irreplaceable, she’s the queen of museum directors. ”Nevertheless, he managed to build up the American decorative arts, painting, Parkhurst also assisted in establishing the Maryland State Arts Council and the Maryland Revolutionary War Bicentennial Commission. Parkhurst once commented that the “Baltimore Museum was one of the great unknown museums at the time. ”During that same period, he was elected president of the American Association of Museums in 1966. In 1970, Parkhurst assumed the role as assistant director and chief curator of the National Gallery of Art and he proved to be very instrumental in the construction phase of the Gallery’s East Building. He retired from this post in 1983 to teach and curate in the museums at Williams College, with his second marriage also ending in divorce, he married Carol Clark in 1986. Charles Parkhurst died in his home in Massachusetts at the age of ninety-five, American Association of Museums National Gallery of Art Williams College Williams College Museum of Art Charles Parkhurst interview. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, W. Barksdale Maynard, When Art Historians Went to War Princeton Alumni Weekly 2 June 2010
15. Seymour Pomrenze – Seymour Pomrenze was a Jewish-American archivist and records manager. He was the first director of the Offenbach Archival Depot, the primary Allied collection point for books, sholom Jacob Pomrenze was born in Brusilov, Ukraine. In 1922, his family immigrated to Chicago, Pomrenze grew up in a heavily Jewish area, attended a Hasidic synagogue, and went to both secular and Hebrew schools. In 1939, while in college, he took job at the National Archives, Pomrenze joined the United States Army in April 1942, and was commissioned a second lieutenant in April 1943. Pomrenze attended and held degrees from the Illinois Institute of Technology, the University of Chicago, in December 1945, Koppel Pinson, the Joint Distribution Committees representative in Germany, recommended that Pomrenze be the first head of the Offenbach Archival Depot. The OAD, part of the US Armys Monuments, Fine Arts, poste of the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives program also recommended Pomeranze for the job, as did Judge Simon H. Rifkind, advisor on Jewish Affairs to General Dwight Eisenhower. From February to May 1946, Pomrenze organized the depots procedures and began working on returning books, among the items handled by the OAD were the Library Rosenthaliana, the YIVO collection, and the Strashun Library of Vilna, Lithuania. The latter was the premier Jewish library in Europe before World War II, captain Isaac Bencowitz became the director of the Offenbach Archival Depot after Pomrenze left for home. After his discharge from the Army, Pomrenze returned to Washington and he worked for NARA and as a civilian for the Army. Among his duties in the Adjutant Generals office of the U. S. Army was the administration of, in 1968, Pomrenze assembled a collection of information about these records, based on his work in the 1950s. Late in his career, Pomrenze returned to active duty to perform records training in Vietnam in 1970-1971. Upon his retirement, he was a colonel and Archivist of the Army, Pomrenze was also a records management consultant, primarily to Jewish organizations. He worked with dozens of organizations, such as the Hebrew Immigrant Aid Society, the National Jewish Welfare Board, and he also taught records management at American University, and published articles about records and archives management. The records of the Offenbach Collecting Point for books and library collections are in the Ardelia Hall Collection, Boxes 250-262, OMGUS, Record Group 260, National Archives at College Park, MD. “Seymour J. Pomrenze, Offenbach Reminicences and the Restitution to the Netherlands. ”In, The Return of Looted Collections. “Returning Jewish Cultural Property, The Handling of Books Looted by the Nazis in the American Zone of Occupation,1945 to 1952. ”Libraries & Culture - Volume 37, Number 3, Summer 2002, pp. 213–228. Professor Zvi Gitelman, Ms. Laura Meislin, Colonel Seymour Pomrenze, toward An Inventory of Jewish Cultural Assets in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, Key Contacts. Submitted to, The Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, the Safekeepers, A Memoir of Arts at the End of World War II
16. Paul J. Sachs – Paul Joseph Sachs was an American businessman and museum director. Sachs served as director of the Fogg Art Museum and as a partner in the financial firm Goldman Sachs. He is recognized for having developed of one of the earliest museum studies courses in the United States and he attended the Dwight School, which was founded by his uncle Julius Sachs. He then continued his education at Harvard University, where he graduated in 1900, as an undergraduate, Sachs collected prints and drawings with classmate Edward Waldo Forbes, who would eventually become director of Harvard Universitys Fogg Museum of Art in 1909. After graduating, Sachs went to work in the family business, Sachs had been making donations to the Fogg since 1911, then only a small art collection consisting mostly of out-of-fashion American paintings and primitive Italian works. In 1912, Sachs was appointed to the museums Visiting Committee, two years later, Forbes persuaded Sachs to leave his family business to become an assistant curator, despite Sachs having no curatorial background. Sachs spent that summer in Italy seeing as much art as possible before his arrival at Harvard in the autumn of 1915, Sachs began lecturing in art history from 1916-17 at Wellesley College where he had been appointed Lecturer in Art. He was made an assistant professor in the Fine Arts department at Harvard in 1917, in 1922, he began his innovative course on museum curatorship titled Fine Arts 15a, Museum Work and Museum Problems. Dealing with both curatorial and financial aspects of running a museum and he was appointed full professor in 1927. Sachs set about developing a program of education, developing students as what he termed the connoisseur-scholar. One course was called the Print Course, which featured a seminar-style analysis of prints. From 1935 onward, he served regularly as chair of the Fine Arts department, in 1929, Sachs became one of seven founding members of the Museum of Modern Art and gave it its first drawing, a George Grosz portrait of the artists mother. During World War II, Sachs, along with disciple George L, in 1945, Sachs retired together from Fogg, while he remained on the teaching faculty of Harvard until 1948 when he was named a professor emeritus. His wife, Meta, died on December 25,1960, many of Sachs students would go on to become leading figures in the fields of museum and art including Chick Austin, Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Frederick B. Deknatel, Sydney Joseph Freedberg, George M. A. Hanfmann, Julien Levy, Henry Plumer McIlhenny, Agnes Mongan, Walter Pach, Joseph Pulitzer, Jr. Perry T. Rathbone, honorary Doctorate from Harvard University,1942 Goldman–Sachs family Frick profile
17. Frederick Charles Shrady – Frederick Charles Shrady was an American painter and sculptor, best known for his religious sculptures. He moved to Paris, France, in 1931, studied under Yasushi Tanaka and he was awarded a medal at the 1937 Paris Exposition. He married in Europe, and returned to the United States in 1940, with his wife and young son and he joined the U. S. Army during World War II, and served as one of the Monuments Men, helping to retrieve looted art. In Bavaria, he met Maria Louise Likar-Waltersdorff, an Austrian translator with the U. S. Army Fine Arts and Monuments Department and he converted from Episcopalianism to Roman Catholicism in 1948, and turned to painting religious subjects. In 1950, he completed his first sculpture, Clare Boothe Luces 19-year-old daughter, Ann Clare Brokaw, a student at Stanford University, was killed in a 1944 automobile accident. In her memory, Luce built Saint Anns Chapel near the campus in Palo Alto, California, shradys colossal bronze sculpture on the buildings facade, Saint Ann and the Virgin Mary, portrays the mother teaching her young daughter how to read. He was commissioned by the Dominican Order in the Holy Land to model twelve bas-relief panels depicting The Life of Mary for the doors of the Basilica of the Annunciation in Nazareth, Israel. In 1982, Pope John Paul II commissioned him to create a statue of Our Lady of Fatima for the Vatican Gardens and he was the first American artist to receive such a papal commission. He was awarded the Legion of Honor by the French government, Maria Shrady wrote a number of religious books, including a childrens book about Mother Teresa with illustrations by her husband. Shradys papers are at Georgetown University, descent from the Cross, St. Stephens Cathedral, Vienna, Austria. Twelve Stations of the Cross, Dahlgren Chapel, Georgetown University, Washington, bust of the Very Reverend Martin C. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, Saint Ann and the Virgin Mary, Saint Ann Chapel, Stanford University, Palo Alto, California. Father Godfrey Schilling, Mount St. Sepulchre Franciscan Monastery, Washington and our Lady of Wisdom, St. Bonaventure University, Allegany, New York. Crucifix, over main entrance to All Saints Catholic School, Norwalk, joan of Arc, Cathedral of Saint Paul, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Crucifix, The Virgin Mary, Saint Joseph, OByrne Chapel, Manhattanville College, Purchase, John the Baptist, Church of the Holy Family, New York City. A replica was owned by Pope Paul VI, peter, Fisher of Men, Saint Peters Garden, Fordham University - Lincoln Center, New York City. Triad — The Holy Family, General Electric Headquarters, Fairfield, bust of Adlai Stevenson II, Steele Hall, Choate School, Wallingford, Connecticut. The Life of Mary,12 bas-relief panels for the doors of the Basilica of the Annunciation, Nazareth
18. George L. Stout – During World War II, he was a member of the U. S. Army unit devoted to recovering art, the Monuments, Fine Arts, and Archives section, a. k. a. Stout was born on October 5,1897, in Winterset and he studied at Grinnell College for two years and then served in a U. S. military hospital unit during World War I. After the war, he completed his degree at the University of Iowa, taught painting in the art department for a couple years. In 1924, he married Margaret Hayes, with whom he had two sons, Robert and Thomas, in 1926, Stout began work on his masters degree at Harvard University. In 1929, he graduated and started his career in the art conservation department of Harvards Fogg Art Museum. Along with Harvard chemist Rutherford John Gettens, Stout pioneered three major areas of art conservation, rudiments, degradation, and reparations and this helped bring art conservation work into the world of modern science. He became head of the Foggs conservation department in 1933, a position he held until 1947, a Navy reservist for some time, Stout was placed on active duty in 1943, and soon after joined the Twelfth Army Group. Because of his art conservation background, he was one of the first recruited to the Monuments, Fine Arts, after Japans official surrender on September 2,1945, Stout and fellow Monuments Man Laurence Sickman recommended creating a MFAA division in Tokyo. Consequently, the Arts and Monuments Division of the Civil Information and Education Section, GHQ, Stout was the Chief of the Division from approximately August 1945 until the middle of 1946. After the war, Stout subsequently directed the Worcester Art Museum in Worcester, Massachusetts, from 1947-1954, Stout was also instrumental in the founding of the International Institute for Conservation and was its first president, from 1950–53 and served on its Council until 1963. Stout was made an Honorary Fellow of IIC in 1966, in 1975, he was inducted as an honorary member of the American Institute for Conservation of Historic and Artistic Works for his accomplishments. Stout died on July 1,1978, in Santa Clara, I have to admit that man’s growth toward civilization looks slow and unsteady. At moments, whole nations seem to back, their people fret for deliverance from selfish fears. They pay homage to persons who have snatched power for themselves, all manner of tyrants and these are not strange or distant to men. Actor George Clooney played a character loosely based on Stout in the 2014 film The Monuments Men. International Congress of the History of Art, Stout, G. L. & Fogg Art Museum, technical research at the Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. Bruxelles, Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts de Belgique, Gettens, R. J. & Stout, G. L. New York, D. Van Nostrand Co, Stout, G. L. & Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum
19. Rose Valland – Rose Antonia Maria Valland was a French art historian, member of the French Resistance, captain in the French military, and one of the most decorated women in French history. She secretly recorded details of the Nazi plundering of National French and private Jewish-owned art from France, Valland was born in Saint-Étienne-de-Saint-Geoirs, Isère, the daughter of a blacksmith. Like many gifted pupils from backgrounds, she received a scholarship in an école normale. She graduated in 1918, with the plan of becoming an art teacher and she studied art at the École nationale des beaux-arts de Lyon, graduating in 1922. Valland then topped the exam for art teacher training and underwent two years of training in the École nationale supérieure des beaux-arts in Paris, graduating 1925. Valland then became a teacher in high schools, but began to study art history in the école du Louvre. She graduated in 1931 with a diploma from the école du Louvre. In 1932, Valland became volunteer assistant curator at the Jeu de Paume Museum, in 1941, during World War II, Valland was put in paid service and became the overseer of the Jeu de Paume Museum at the time of the German occupation of France. They used the Jeu de Paume Museum as their storage and sorting depot pending distribution to various persons. While the Nazi plundering was being carried out, Rose Valland began secretly recording as much as possible of the more than 20,000 pieces of art brought to the Jeu de Paume Museum, Valland kept secret from the Germans the fact that she understood German. In fact, she never formally studied this language, but some trips in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s had helped her to get a grasp of a then widely used scholarly language. Valland regularly informed Jacques Jaujard, the Director of the Musėes Nationaux and she notified her contacts in the Resistance, who prevented the train from leaving Paris. The train was liberated by the French Army. Following the liberation of Paris by the Allied Forces, Rose Valland worked as a member of the Commission for the Recovery of Works of Art. Valland was appointed a conservator of the French Musées Nationaux and in 1954 was named Chair of the Commission for the Protection of Works of Art, in 1961, she wrote about her wartime experiences in a book published under the title, Le front de lart. Rose Valland retired in 1968, but continued to work on matters for the French archives. Her valor and dedication resulted in numerous awards from her own, from the French government she received the Légion dhonneur, was made a Commandeur of the Order of Arts and Letters and awarded the Médaille de la Résistance. Following its creation in 1951, she would receive the Officers Cross of the Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany, the United States awarded Valland the Medal of Freedom in 1948