Affair of the Dancing Lamas
The Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government protested strongly about the film and the performances required of the monks and they went on to ban future expeditions. The true cause of the fuss was kept secret and Hazard remained the scapegoat for over fifty years. Historically, Tibet had not been willing to allow foreign explorers into the country, monastic opposition to the arms and the expeditions increased until by 1925 the country was close to revolution. The Tibetan army chief was closely associated with the British and the debacle was probably responsible for his fall from grace in 1925. The subsequent decline of influence within the Tibetan government may have made the country more vulnerable to the Chinese takeover in 1950. Fearing Russian military intervention into Tibet, in 1904 the British Raj made an incursion into Tibet led by Francis Younghusband. Sometimes known as the Mission to Lhasa, this was instigated by Lord Curzon. The ensuing 1904 treaty and 1906 convention formalised Chinese suzerainty over Tibet while declaring that it would permit no foreign interventions, in 1910 China invaded Tibet and to escape the savagery the Dalai Lama fled to Sikkim, where he was sheltered by the British.
Sikkim, sandwiched between India and Tibet, was under firm British protection and was nominally an independent state. Following the Xinhai Revolution, which established the Republic of China in 1912, the Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa and Britain briefly supplied armaments to what it now regarded as an independent country but the First World War in Europe led to Britain losing interest. By 1919 a renewed fear of Russia and China felt by both Britain and Tibet led to a desire for closer diplomatic relations. Charles Bell, Britains political representative in Sikkim, was sent to Lhasa at the end of 1920 to negotiate and he was the first European to be invited to Lhasa and he stayed for almost a whole year. Bell and Thubten Gyatso, the Dalai Lama, developed a personal friendship. In 1921, Britain again started supplying Tibet with arms, military support, on his 1904 military mission, Younghusband had seen Mount Everest, the highest mountain in the world. And had enthused Curzon with the idea of a grand British imperial expedition to make the first ascent of the mountain, eventually this led to Britains magisterial Alpine Club adopting the idea in celebration of its 1907 golden jubilee.
Mount Everest lies on the border between Nepal and Tibet but neither country would allow entry to foreign expeditions, the Secretary of State for India refused to request permission from Tibet and the 1914–18 War intervened. In 1913 John Noel had entered Tibet clandestinely and had reached to within forty miles of Mount Everest, after the war, in an attempt to inject new impetus, Noel was invited to address a joint meeting of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club. Noels 1919 talk was inspirational and the two societies again started lobbying, Younghusband wrote to the Secretary of State for India to see if Tibet could be asked for permission
1953 British Mount Everest expedition
Led by Colonel John Hunt, it was organized and financed by the Joint Himalayan Committee. News of the success reached London in time to be released on the morning of Queen Elizabeth IIs coronation,2 June. However, the Committee had decided that Hunts experience of leadership, together with his credentials as a climber. This statement, according to George Band, sealed his own fate, several members of the British expedition had a strong loyalty to Shipton and were unhappy that he had been replaced. Charles Evans, for instance, stated, It was said that Shipton lacked the killer instinct – not a bad thing to lack in my view. Edmund Hillary was among those most opposed to the change, but he was won over by Hunts personality, George Band recalls Committee member Larry Kirwan, the Director/Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society, saying that they had made the right decision but in the worst possible way. Evans and Alfred Gregory had flown on ahead to Kathmandu on 20 February and Lowe approached Nepal from New Zealand, Lowe by sea and Hillary by air, as his bees were in a busy state at that time of year.
In early March twenty Sherpas, who had chosen by the Himalayan Club, arrived in Kathmandu to help carry loads to the Western Cwm. They were led by their Sirdar, Tenzing Norgay, who was attempting Everest for the time and was, according to Band, the best-known Sherpa climber. The first party, together with 150 porters, left Kathmandu for Mount Everest on 10 March and they reached Thyangboche on 26 and 27 March respectively, and between 26 March and 17 April engaged in altitude acclimatization. The Icefall party reached Base Camp at 17,900 feet on 12 April 1953. A few days were taken up, as planned, in establishing a route through the Khumbu Icefall. A series of advanced camps were created, slowly reaching higher up the mountain. Camp II at 19,400 feet was established by Hillary and Lowe on 15 April, Camp III at the head of the Icefall at 20,200 feet on 22 April, and Camp IV by Hunt and Evans on 1 May. These three made a reconnaissance of the Lhotse Face on 2 May, and Camp V at 22,000 feet was established on 3 May.
By 21 May and the Sherpa Annullu had reached the South Col and they were forced to turn back after becoming exhausted, defeated by oxygen equipment problems and lack of time. On 27 May, the expedition made its second and final assault on the summit with the second climbing pair, Norgay had previously ascended to a record high point on Everest as a member of the Swiss expedition of 1952. They reached the summit at 11,30 am on 29 May 1953, before descending, they stopped at the summit long enough to take photographs and to bury some sweets and a small cross in the snow
Mallory and Irvine Research Expedition
The expedition was organized by regular Everest expedition leader Eric Simonson and advised by researcher Jochen Hemmleb, with a team of climbers from the U. S. the United Kingdom, and Germany. The team hoped in particular to find a camera on Irvines body which, had the pair been successful, should have contained a picture of the summit. Within hours of commencing the search on 1 May 1999, Conrad Anker found a body on the North Face, at 8,155 m, but to their surprise it was that of Mallory, not Irvine. Mallory lay face-down, arms outstretched as if to break a fall, with one broken leg and a serious wound to the skull. It seemed probable that he had been a victim of a fall while roped to Irvine, the body was only an hour or two from the safety of their camp. Many artefacts were found on the body, including a knife and snow-goggles. Three discoveries in particular fuel continuing speculation, First, a pair of goggles were in Mallorys pocket, the expedition interred Mallory where he lay. During a second expedition in 2001, the team abandoned their search for Irvine to rescue several other climbing parties stranded on the mountain and in deep distress, the victims included two Chinese glaciologists, three Russian climbers, an American guide, and his Guatemalan client.
This condition has led to deaths and injuries in mountaineering. While the team was able to scour the Yellow Band, the combination of a small team, during that same season, search parties were on the mountain from the website EverestNews as well as Graham Hoyland who was a member of Russell Brices expedition that year. In 2007, the Altitude Everest Expedition led by Conrad Anker, who had found Mallorys body, tried to retrace Mallorys last steps
1924 British Mount Everest expedition
The 1924 British Mount Everest expedition was—after the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition—the second expedition with the goal of achieving the first ascent of Mount Everest. After two summit attempts in which Edward Norton set an altitude record, the mountaineers George Mallory. Their disappearance has given rise to the unanswered question of whether or not the pair successfully climbed to the summit. Mallorys body was found in 1999, but the resulting clues did not provide evidence as to whether the summit was reached. At the beginning of the 20th century, the British participated in contests to be the first to reach the North and South Poles, without success. A desire to restore national prestige led to scrutiny and discussion of the possibility of conquering the third pole – making the first ascent of the highest mountain on Earth. The southern side of the mountain, which is accessible from Nepal, going to the north side was politically complex, it required the persistent intervention of the British-Indian government with the Dalai Lama regime in Tibet to allow British expedition activities.
A major handicap of all expeditions to the side of Mount Everest is the tight time window between the end of winter and the start of the monsoon rains. To travel from Darjeeling in northern India over Sikkim to Tibet, it was necessary to climb high, after this first step, a long journey followed through the valley of the Arun River to the Rongbuk valley near the north face of Mt. Everest. Horses, donkeys and dozens of local porters provided transport, two expeditions preceded the 1924 effort. The first in 1921 was an expedition led by Harold Raeburn which described a potential route along the whole northeast ridge. Later George Mallory proposed a longer modified climb to the col, along the north ridge to reach the northeast ridge. This approach seemed to be the “easiest” terrain to reach the top, after they had discovered access to the base of the north col via the East Rongbuk Glacier, the complete route was explored and appeared to be the superior option. Several attempts on Mallorys proposed route occurred during the 1922 expedition, after this expedition, insufficient time for preparation and a lack of financial means prevented an expedition in 1923.
The Common Everest Committee had lost some 700 pounds in the bankruptcy of the Alliance Bank of Simla, so the third expedition was postponed until 1924. The Mount Everest Committee which they formed used military strategies with some military personnel, one important change was the role of the porters. The 1922 expedition recognized several of them were capable of gaining great heights, the changed climbing strategy which increased their involvement culminated in an equal partnership of Tenzing Norgay for the first known ascent in 1953 together with Edmund Hillary. Like the 1922 expedition, the 1924 expedition brought bottled oxygen to the mountain, the oxygen equipment had been improved during the two intervening years, but was still not very reliable
2006 Philippine Mount Everest expedition
The 2006 Philippine Mount Everest expedition was the quest for the first Filipino to climb the highest mountain in the world, Mount Everest and to put the Philippine flag on top of the mountain. Despite having rival sponsors, both maintained that it was not a race to the top of Mount Everest. They made their ascent via the South Col route, a third Filipino, Dale Abenojar, climbed independently, using the North Col route. On May 13,2006, Oración left Base Camp, and he reached the summit of Everest on May 17 at 3,30 pm NPT. Upon reaching the top, Oración radioed, The Philippine Eagle has landed and his statement is based on Neil Armstrongs message The Eagle has landed when the Apollo 11 Lunar Module, nicknamed the Eagle, landed on the moon. The following day, Emata officially became the second Filipino to climb Mount Everest when he reached the summit at 5,34 am NPT, the following day, Garduce reached the summit at 11,20 am NPT. According to a statement by Dale Abenojars wife Liza, her husband actually reached the summit of Mount Everest on May 15.
After nearly a month, Everest chronicler Elizabeth Hawley listed Abenojar as first the Filipino summiter on her Himalayan Database, the ascent was celebrated in the Philippines, appearing on the front page of several Filipino newspapers. Then-President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo called it a mark of Filipino excellence, team leader Regie Pablo compared it to putting a Filipino on the Moon
1933 British Mount Everest expedition
During Wager and Wyn-Harriss attempt, the ice-axe belonging to Andrew Irvine, who disappeared with Mallory on the 1924 attempt while going for the summit, was found on the flanks of the north face. This permission was won by the work of the India Office, the government of India and Lt-Col J. L. R. Weir. There was an urgency to their work owing to a British fear that the Germans and it fell to the Mount Everest Committee, the body that funded all pre-war attempts on Mount Everest, to appoint a leader for the expedition. Hugh Ruttledge was chosen as leader, with the proviso that, at years of age. Ruttledge was keen on inviting Mount Everest veterans, neither Noel Odell nor T. H. Birnie had been on the Kamet expedition, as transport officer. Individually they are good men, but they are a close corporation, with, it seems to me. All members of the expedition who lived in Britain were expected to submit themselves to a physical and psychological test by the RAF Medical Board, the Mount Everest Committee furnished £5,000 towards the costs of the expedition, which were estimated at £11, 000–£13,000.
Further funds were secured by means of Ruttledges book contract with Hodder & Stoughton, a deal with the Daily Telegraph. Many companies supplied items of equipment free of charge or at a discount, in addition, a number of lightweight emergency tents were bought by Longland. High-altitude leather double-boots with clinker nails on their leather soles came from Robert Lawrie of Burnley, while approach boots were supplied by John Marlow and Son, knee-high camp boots made of sheepskin and wool came from Clarke and Morland. Dr T. Magor Cardell and Mr Hamblin jointly designed high-altitude goggles with orange-tinted glass, made in Kashmir to a design suggested by General Bruce, were taken. Beale of London supplied 2,000 feet of Alpine Club rope, as with previous expeditions to Mount Everest, supplemental oxygen was taken. The decision was made to use it above the North Col. The main party left England by sea on 20 January 1933, stopping at Gibraltar, the party alighted at Bombay, where they were assisted by C. E.
Boreham, the manager of the Army and Navy Stores. Ruttledge, an India hand, took them on sightseeing tours to Agra, llakpar Chedi and Nursang were selected as sirdars. In addition, Nima Tendrup, a veteran of many expeditions to Mount Everest, karma Paul, who had been on the 1922 and 1924 British expeditions, was taken as interpreter. On 2 March, in front of the Planters Club in Darjeeling, Ruttledge remarked that the ceremony was conducted with a quiet dignity which no one who was privileged to be present will ever forget. Those with no Himalayan experience departed first, on 3 March, the second group, the expedition was entertained by F. Williamson, the political agent in Sikkim, who gave the party their passport with the Tibetan governments seal