Category:Mountains of Turkey
Pages in category "Mountains of Turkey"
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Mountain – A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak. A mountain is steeper than a hill. Mountains are formed through tectonic forces or volcanism and these forces can locally raise the surface of the earth. Mountains erode slowly through the action of rivers, weather conditions, a few mountains are isolated summits, but most occur in huge mountain ranges. High elevations on mountains produce colder climates than at sea level and these colder climates strongly affect the ecosystems of mountains, different elevations have different plants and animals. Because of the less hospitable terrain and climate, mountains tend to be used less for agriculture and more for resource extraction and recreation, the highest mountain on Earth is Mount Everest in the Himalayas of Asia, whose summit is 8,850 m above mean sea level. The highest known mountain on any planet in the Solar System is Olympus Mons on Mars at 21,171 m, there is no universally accepted definition of a mountain. Elevation, volume, relief, steepness, spacing and continuity have been used as criteria for defining a mountain, whether a landform is called a mountain may depend on local usage. The highest point in San Francisco, California, is called Mount Davidson, notwithstanding its height of 300 m, similarly, Mount Scott outside Lawton, Oklahoma is only 251 m from its base to its highest point. Whittows Dictionary of Physical Geography states Some authorities regard eminences above 600 metres as mountains, in addition, some definitions also include a topographical prominence requirement, typically 100 or 500 feet. For a while, the US defined a mountain as being 1,000 feet or taller, any similar landform lower than this height was considered a hill. However, today, the United States Geological Survey concludes that these terms do not have technical definitions in the US, using these definitions, mountains cover 33% of Eurasia, 19% of South America, 24% of North America, and 14% of Africa. As a whole, 24% of the Earths land mass is mountainous, there are three main types of mountains, volcanic, fold, and block. All three types are formed from plate tectonics, when portions of the Earths crust move, crumple, compressional forces, isostatic uplift and intrusion of igneous matter forces surface rock upward, creating a landform higher than the surrounding features. The height of the feature makes it either a hill or, if higher and steeper, major mountains tend to occur in long linear arcs, indicating tectonic plate boundaries and activity. Volcanoes are formed when a plate is pushed below another plate, at a depth of around 100 km, melting occurs in rock above the slab, and forms magma that reaches the surface. When the magma reaches the surface, it builds a volcanic mountain. Examples of volcanoes include Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines, the magma does not have to reach the surface in order to create a mountain, magma that solidifies below ground can still form dome mountains, such as Navajo Mountain in the US
2. Turkey – Turkey, officially the Republic of Turkey, is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe. Turkey is a democratic, secular, unitary, parliamentary republic with a cultural heritage. The country is encircled by seas on three sides, the Aegean Sea is to the west, the Black Sea to the north, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. The Bosphorus, the Sea of Marmara, and the Dardanelles, Ankara is the capital while Istanbul is the countrys largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Approximately 70-80% of the countrys citizens identify themselves as ethnic Turks, other ethnic groups include legally recognised and unrecognised minorities. Kurds are the largest ethnic minority group, making up approximately 20% of the population, the area of Turkey has been inhabited since the Paleolithic by various ancient Anatolian civilisations, as well as Assyrians, Greeks, Thracians, Phrygians, Urartians and Armenians. After Alexander the Greats conquest, the area was Hellenized, a process continued under the Roman Empire. The Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm ruled Anatolia until the Mongol invasion in 1243, the empire reached the peak of its power in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. During the war, the Ottoman government committed genocides against its Armenian, Assyrian, following the war, the conglomeration of territories and peoples that formerly comprised the Ottoman Empire was partitioned into several new states. Turkey is a member of the UN, an early member of NATO. Turkeys growing economy and diplomatic initiatives have led to its recognition as a regional power while her location has given it geopolitical, the name of Turkey is based on the ethnonym Türk. The first recorded use of the term Türk or Türük as an autonym is contained in the Old Turkic inscriptions of the Göktürks of Central Asia, the English name Turkey first appeared in the late 14th century and is derived from Medieval Latin Turchia. Similarly, the medieval Khazar Empire, a Turkic state on the shores of the Black. The medieval Arabs referred to the Mamluk Sultanate as al-Dawla al-Turkiyya, the Ottoman Empire was sometimes referred to as Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its European contemporaries. The Anatolian peninsula, comprising most of modern Turkey, is one of the oldest permanently settled regions in the world, various ancient Anatolian populations have lived in Anatolia, from at least the Neolithic period until the Hellenistic period. Many of these peoples spoke the Anatolian languages, a branch of the larger Indo-European language family, in fact, given the antiquity of the Indo-European Hittite and Luwian languages, some scholars have proposed Anatolia as the hypothetical centre from which the Indo-European languages radiated. The European part of Turkey, called Eastern Thrace, has also been inhabited since at least forty years ago. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date, the settlement of Troy started in the Neolithic Age and continued into the Iron Age
3. Jebel Aqra – Jebel Aqra, properly Jebel al-ʾAqraʿ, is a limestone mountain located on the Syrian–Turkish border near the mouth of the Orontes River on the Mediterranean Sea. Its Turkish side is known as Mount Kel. Rising from a coastal plain, Jebel Aqra is a mariners landmark which gathers thunderstorms. The cult site is represented by a huge mound of ashes and debris,180 feet wide and 26 feet deep. The researchers only reached as far as the Hellenistic strata before the site was closed, Jebel Aqra has a long history as a sacred mountain. The Hurrians called it Mount Hazzi and considered it the home of their storm god Teshub, the Hittites continued his worship, celebrating Teshubs victory over the sea in the Song of Kumarbi found in their capital Hattusa. They also celebrated the mountain in its own right, naming it as a divine guarantor on their treaties, the ancient port of Ugarit lies 30 kilometers to its south. Baʿal is now identified with Hadad and his variations understood as local cults. It appears in the Hebrew Scriptures as Mount Zaphon, in ancient Canaanite religion, Mount Sapan was sometimes accounted as the home of all the gods, not only Baʿal and his sister. As Mount Zaphon, it appears in role in the Hebrew Scriptures Book of Isaiah. From its importance and its position at the end of Canaan, it also became a metonym. Under various forms, worship continued through antiquity, when it was called Mount Casius, even closer, the earliest Hellenic foothold in the Levant lies at the beach on its northern flank at Al Mina. Here Euboeans and Cypriotes experienced some of their earliest on-site experience of northwest Semitic cultures, the cult of the god of the mountain was transferred, by interpretatio graeca, to Zeus Kasios, the Zeus of Mount Kasios, similar to Ras Kouroun in the Sinai. Tiles from the Greco-Roman sanctuary at the site, stamped with the name, were reused in the Christian monastery that came to occupy the eastern. When kings and emperors climbed Mount Kasios to sacrifice at its peak sanctuary, seleucus I Nicator sought there the advice of Zeus in locating his foundation, a Seleuceia on the coast. Coins struck there as late as the first century BCE still show the citys emblem, in spring 363 the last pagan emperor, Julian, scaled the mountain, where he had an epiphanic vision of Zeus Kasios, according to his friend and correspondent Libanius. Greek theophoric names Kassiodora and Kassiodorus, equally a gift of Kasios, Zaphon, Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible, 2nd ed. Bar Daroma, Chaim, זה גבול הארץ, גבולותיה האמתיים של ארץ ישראל לאור המקורות, Jerusalem, the Pentateuch and Haftorahs, Soncino Press
4. Little Ararat – Little Ararat, also known as Mount Sis or Lesser Ararat, is the sixth tallest peak in Turkey. It is a large satellite cone located on the flank of the massive Mount Ararat. It rises about 1,200 m above the saddle connecting it with the main peak, on 8 November 1829, Baltic German explorer Friedrich Parrot and Armenian writer Khachatur Abovian climbed Little Ararat. Its peak and eastern flank were on the Iranian side of the border until the 1930s, during the Kurdish Ararat rebellion, the Kurdish rebels used the area as a haven against the state in their uprising. Turkey crossed the border and militarily occupied the region, which Iran eventually agreed to cede to Ankara in a territorial exchange, mountains of Ararat Little Ararat, Turkey
5. Mount Ararat – Mount Ararat is a snow-capped and dormant compound volcano in the eastern extremity of Turkey. It consists of two volcanic cones, Greater Ararat, the highest peak in Turkey and the Armenian plateau with an elevation of 5,137 m. The Ararat massif is about 40 km in diameter, scholars agree the biblical mountains of Ararat do not refer to specifically Mt. Ararat. Nevertheless, it has perceived as the traditional resting place of Noahs Ark since the 11th century. It is the national symbol of Armenia and has been considered a sacred mountain by Armenians. It is featured prominently in Armenian literature and art and is an icon for Armenian irredentism, along with Noahs Ark, it is depicted on the coat of arms of Armenia. The first efforts to reach Ararats summit were made in the Middle Ages, however, it was not until 1829 when Friedrich Parrot and Khachatur Abovian, accompanied with four others, made the first recorded ascent. Mount Ararat forms a near-quadripoint between Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran and its summit is located some 16 km west of both the Iranian border and the border of the Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan, and 32 km south of the Armenian border. Following the 1826–28 Russo-Persian War and the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Persian controlled territory was ceded to the Russian Empire, Little Ararat became the point where the Turkish, Persian, and Russian imperial frontiers converged. The current international boundaries were formed throughout the 20th century, the mountain came under Turkish control during the 1920 Turkish–Armenian War. It formally became part of Turkey according to the 1921 Treaty of Moscow, in the late 1920s, Turkey crossed the Iranian border and occupied the eastern flank of Lesser Ararat as part of its effort to quash the Kurdish Ararat rebellion. The Kurdish rebels were using the area as a haven against the state in their uprising, Iran eventually agreed to cede the area to Turkey in a territorial exchange. The Iran-Turkey boundary skirts east of Lesser Ararat, the peak of the Ararat massif. Ararat is the Hebrew spelling of Urartu, a kingdom existed in the Armenian plateau in the 9th-6th centuries BC. The mountain is known as Ararat in European languages, however, none of the native peoples have traditionally referred to the mountain by that name. The traditional Armenian name is Masis, which is transliterated as Massis. However, nowadays, the terms Masis and Ararat are both widely, often interchangeably, used in Armenian, the peaks are referred to in plural as Մասիսներ Masisner. Greater Ararat is known as simply Masis or Մեծ Մասիս, while Lesser Ararat is known as Sis or Փոքր Մասիս
6. Mount Cragus – Mount Cragus or Mount Cragos or Mount Kragos – also recorded as Hiera Acra – is a mountain in Turkey, in what was formerly ancient Lycia, Asia Minor. Pinara, in the interior, was at the base of Cragus, there are coins of the town Cragus of the Roman imperial period, with the epigraph Λυκιων Κρ. or Κρα. or Κραγ. The direction of the shows that it must abut on the sea in bold headlands. In Francis Beauforts map of the coast of Karamania, the Anticragus is marked 6000 feet high, Beauforts examination of this coast began at Yediburun, which means the Seven Capes, a knot of high and rugged mountains that appear to have been the ancient Mount Cragus of Lycia. The ruins of Pinara are where Strabo describes them, on the east side of this range, there is a pass leading between the summits of Cragus and Anticragus. Between the two peaks is a plain 4000 feet above the sea, and above it rises the highest peak of Cragus. The first half of the ascent from the plain is through a thick forest, from the summit there is a view of the whole plain of Xanthus, and of the gorges of the Massicytus, which lies east of it. The side towards the sea is so steep, that from this lofty summit the waves are seen breaking white against the base of this mountain mass. There was a promontory Cragus, according to Scylax and Pliny the Elder, the Hiera Acra of the Stadiasmus seems also to be the Seven Capes. The position of the Cragus between Xanthus and Telmissus is mentioned by Pomponius Mela, and he probably means the same striking part of the range. The rocks and forests of Cragus were embellished by poetic fictions as the residence of Diana. Here, according to the authority quoted by Stephanus of Byzantium, were the so-called θεῶν ἀγρίων ἄντρα and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Smith, William, ed. article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
7. Mount Cragus (Cilicia) – Mount Cragus or Mount Cragos or Mount Kragos was a mountain in ancient Cilicia, Asia Minor, its location is in modern-day Antalya Province, Turkey. At its foot was Antiochia ad Cragum and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Smith, William, ed. article name needed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography
8. Mount Erciyes – Mount Erciyes, also known as Argaeus, is a volcano in Turkey. It is a stratovolcano that is surrounded by many monogenetic vents and lava domes. The bulk of the volcano is formed by flows of andesitic and dacitic composition. At some time in the past, part of the summit collapsed towards the east, the volcano began to form in the Miocene. At first, a volcano farther east named Koç Dağ formed from lava flows, then, again to the east, large explosive eruptions formed a caldera. During the Pleistocene, Erciyes proper grew inside the caldera together with a group of lava domes, lateral eruptions of Erciyes may have generated ash layers in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean during the early Holocene. The last eruptions occurred during the early Holocene and may have deposited ash as far away as Israel, future eruptions of Erciyes may endanger cities in the north. The volcano was glaciated during the Pleistocene, and one regular glacier still exists today, Erciyes was historically known as Argaeus, a name derived from the king of Macedon Argaeus I. Until the 1950s, the name of the volcano was Erciyas, an alternative theory posits that the name of the mountain in Hittite meant white mountain and that the current name also means white mountain. Erciyes lies in the Kayseri Province, the city of Kayseri lies 15 kilometres,25 kilometres, or 20 kilometres north of Erciyes volcano. Other towns in the region are Talas and Hacilar, also north of Erciyes but closer to the volcano, reaching the summit requires mountaineering skills. Supposedly, climbers in antiquity reported that both the Black Sea and the Mediterranean could be seen from the summit, Erciyes Dagi and Hasan Dagi are both large stratovolcanoes that lie in Central Anatolia, on the Turkish microplate. This microplate is part of the zone between the Eurasian Plate, the African Plate, and the Arabian Plate that forms the Alpide Belt. This convergence commenced in the Miocene and formed the Anatolian block, two oceans that existed between these three plates in the Eocene were subducted. During the late Miocene, the Neo-Tethys ocean disappeared, and Africa, later, the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez separated the Arabian Plate from the African Plate, causing the former to collide with Eurasia and forming the Bitlis–Zagros Belt. The Anatolian block was pushed westward between the North Anatolian and East Anatolian faults, a movement that is underway today. In central Anatolia, volcanism commenced in the Miocene, the tectonic environment has been compared with the Basin and Range Province. The Central Anatolian Volcanic Province, of which Erciyes is a part, the Cappadocian volcanic plateau comprises ignimbrites that are up to 2 kilometres thick
9. Mount Hasan – Mount Hasan is an inactive stratovolcano in Aksaray province, Turkey. With an elevation of 3,268 m, it ranks as the second highest mountain of central Anatolia, a caldera 4-5 kilometres wide formed near the current summit around 7500 BC, in an eruption recorded in Neolithic paintings. The ancient settlement of Çatalhöyük collected obsidian from the area of Hasan Dağ, obsidian mirrors and flakes have also been found. It was the mountain from the south in the Byzantine beacon system used to warn the Byzantine capital of Constantinople of incursions during the Arab–Byzantine wars. Approximately a six hours walk is required to climb to the top of the mountain from the highest point accessible by car, the summit offers a fabulous view over the central Anatolian plateau, including distant Cappadocia. List of volcanoes in Turkey List of Ultras of West Asia Hasan Dagi
10. Mount Honaz – Mount Honaz, is a mountain and a national park, located in southwestern Turkey,17 km east of the province seat of Denizli. On April 21,1995, it was proclaimed as a protected area, Honaz, Denizlis depending township that carries the same name as the mountain, is situated on the mountain slopes. At 2,571 m, it is the highest mountain in Turkeys Aegean Region, the mountain is covered with forests, which are particularly dense in its northern side. Ice and snow are omnipresent around its summit, there has been a project for establishing a ski resort on the mountain a few years ago when the provinces marking governor, the late Recep Yazıcıoğlu was in office. However, these plans lie idle for the moment despite the conditions the mountain offers for winter sports. Miscellaneous images of Mount Honaz National Park
11. Mount Ida (Turkey) – Mount Ida is a mountain in northwestern Turkey, some 20 miles southeast of the ruins of Troy, along the north coast of the Gulf of Edremit. The name Mount Ida is the ancient one and it is between Balıkesir Province and Çanakkale Province. Mount Ida is lightly populated upland massif of about 700 km² located to the north of Edremit, a number of small villages in the region are connected by paths. Drainage is mainly to the south, into the Gulf of Edremit, also known as Edremit Bay, however, the Karamenderes River flows from the other side of Mount Ida to the west. Its valley under Kaz Dağları has been called the Vale of Troy by English speakers, currently a modest 2.4 km² of Mount Ida are protected by Kaz Dağı National Park, created in 1993. The climate at lower altitudes has become hot and dry in the deforested landscape. The dry period lasts from May to October, rainfall averages between 631 and 733 mm per year. The mean annual temperature is 15.7 degrees Celsius, with temperatures as high as 43.7 degrees Celsius in Edremit. The forests on the slopes consist mainly of Turkish fir. Deer, wild boar and jackal are common at the area, wolves, lynx, brown bears and big cats once roamed there, but now disappeared from the mountains due to overhunting. In ancient times, the mountain was dedicated to the worship of Cybele, from Gergis the collection passed to Erythrae, where it became famous as the oracles of the Erythraean Sibyl. It seems to have been this very collection, or so it would appear, Mount Ida owes its fame to legendary poet Homer. Mount Ida become one of the most famous mounts in the thanks to Iliad by Homer. Most of the scenes of the mythos in ancient Greece take place in Mount Ida. Idaea was a nymph, mate of the river god Scamander, the Scamander River flowed from Mount Ida across the plain beneath the city of Troy, and joined the Hellespont north of the city. Unbeknownst to all, even to himself, Paris was the son of Priam, when Eris cast the Apple of Discord, inscribed for the fairest, into the wedding festivities of Peleus with Thetis, three great goddesses repaired to Mount Ida to be appraised. Anchises, father of Aeneas, also of the Trojan royal house, was tending sheep on Mount Ida when he was seduced by Aphrodite. Their union led to the birth of Aeneas, the progenitor of Romes Julio-Claudian dynasty
12. Mount Judi – Mount Judi, according to very Early Christian and Islamic tradition, is Noahs apobaterion or Place of Descent, the location where the Ark came to rest after the Great Flood. The Quranic tradition is similar to the Judeo-Christian legend, jewish Babylonian, Syriac, and Islamic traditions identify Mount Judi or Qardu as a peak near the town of Jazirat ibn Umar, at the headwaters of the Tigris, near the modern Syrian–Turkish border. Arab historian Al-Masudi, reported that the spot where the ark came to rest could be seen in his time, Al-Masudi locates Jabal Judi at 80 parasangs from the Tigris. Mount Judi was historically located in the province of Corduene, in northern Mesopotamia, the relation of the names Qardu and Judi is unclear. The origin of Judi is less clear and it is usually interpreted as a corrupted version of the same name, via al-gurdi. The proposal that the two names are ultimately the same was first advanced by the English Orientalist George Sale in his translation of the Quran published in 1734, Mount Al-Judi is also called Thamanin. Probably from a town at the foot of it, the Syrians of the east Tigris had a legend of the ark resting on the Djûdi mountain in the land of Corduene. The Armenians did not traditionally associate Noahs landing site with Mount Ararat, known natively as Masis and it is to be noted, the biblical Ararat is thought be a variation of Urartu, an ancient term for the region north of ancient Assyria which encompasses the Armenian plateau. According to Josephus, the Armenians in the 1st century showed the remains of Noahs ark at a place called αποβατηριον Place of Descent, the Quranic account of the Flood and Noahs Ark agrees with that given in Genesis, with a few variations. One of these concerns the final resting place of the Ark, according to Genesis, according to surah 11,44 of the Quran, the final resting place of the vessel was called Judi, without the word mountain. However, the use of Arabic definite letter Al in front of word Judi in the Quran signifies that it is pointing to a definite place, has it been referring to a general height, it would have been just Judi, not Al-Judi. § And the word was spoken, O earth, and the water sank into the earth, and the will was done, and the ark came to rest on Mount Judi. And the word was spoken, Away with these evil doing folk, masudi also said that the Ark began its voyage at Kufa in central Iraq and sailed to Mecca, where it circled the Kaaba, before finally travelling to Judi. Fasold later vacillated on the claim, the description of medieval geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi matches exactly a 2089 m peak north of Silopi, that is now called Jabal Judi or Judi Dagh by Muslims and Gardu by Christians and Jews. Mt. Cudi on NoahsArkSearch. Com Research concerning Mount Judi including some English articles
13. Mount Nemrut – The name is a relatively modern one, dating back to the Middle Ages. In Armenian legend, Hayk defeated the Biblical king Nimrod and buried him in these mountains, the conquering Arabs gave many ancient ruins they encountered the name Nimrud, including the famous Assyrian capital. The mountain lies 40 km north of Kahta, near Adıyaman and these statues were once seated, with names of each god inscribed on them. The heads of the statues have at some stage been removed from their bodies, the pattern of damage to the heads suggests that they were deliberately damaged as a result of iconoclasm. The statues have not been restored to their original positions, the site also preserves stone slabs with bas-relief figures that are thought to have formed a large frieze. These slabs display the ancestors of Antiochus, who included Armenian, Greek, the same statues and ancestors found throughout the site can also be found on the tumulus at the site, which is 49-metre-tall and 152 m in diameter. It is possible that the tumulus was built to protect a tomb from tomb-robbers since any excavation would quickly fill with loose rock, the statues appear to have Greek-style facial features, but Armenian clothing and hair-styling. The western terrace contains a slab with a lion, showing the arrangement of stars. This may be an indication of when construction began on this monument, possible uses for this site is thought to have included religious ceremonies, due to the astronomical and religious nature of the monument. The arrangement of statues is known by the term hierothesion. Similar arrangements have been found at Arsameia on Nymphaios at the hierothesion of the father of Antiochus, when the Seleucid Empire was defeated by the Romans in 190 BC at the Battle of Magnesia it began to fall apart and new kingdoms were established on its territory by local authorities. Commagene, one of the Seleucid successor states, occupied a land between the Taurus mountains and the Euphrates and this religious program was very possibly an attempt by Antiochus to unify his multiethnic kingdom and secure his dynastys authority. Antiochus supported the cult as a propagator of happiness and salvation, many of the ruins on Mount Nemrud are monuments of the imperial cult of Commagene. The most important area to the cult was the tomb of Antiochus I, although the imperial cult did not last long after Antiochus, several of his successors had their own tombs built on Mount Nemrud. For around half of the year, Mount Nemrud is covered in snow, the effect of which increases weathering, the site was excavated in 1881 by Karl Sester, a German engineer assessing transport routes for the Ottomans. Subsequent excavations have failed to reveal the tomb of Antiochus and this is nevertheless still believed to be the site of his burial. The statues, all of them beheaded, have not been restored to their original condition, in 1987, Mount Nemrut was made a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Tourists typically visit Nemrut during April through October, the nearby town of Adıyaman is a popular place for car and bus trips to the site, and one can also travel from there by helicopter
14. Nemrut (volcano) – Nemrut is a dormant volcano in Eastern Turkey, close to Lake Van. The volcano is named after King Nimrod who is said to have ruled this area in about 2100 BC, the most powerful eruptions of Nemrut occurred in the Pleistocene. Many small eruptions occurred during the Holocene, the last one in 1692, the top of the volcano is a large caldera that hosts three crater lakes. Nemrut is a stratovolcano located in the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian tectonic plates. The collision of plates began in the Middle Eocene and closed the stretch of water. It is the westernmost of these volcanoes, the one that remains active, and generally the only volcano in Anatolia. Nemrut is located 10 km north of the city Tatvan, in the shore of Lake Van. Nemrut was probably formed in the early Quaternary Period, about 1 million years ago and it showed the greatest activity in the Pleistocene, with regular eruptions occurring in the Holocene. In the same period, the top of the volcano collapsed inward. Later, the freshwater Lake Nemrut formed inside the caldera, becoming the second largest caldera lake. Subsequent eruptions separated a small lake Ilı from Lake Nemrut, Nemrut volcano has an elliptical shape, its size at the base is 27×18 km, and its center contains 377.5 km3 of volcanic materials. The caldera of Nemrut is the largest in Turkey, the fourth largest in Europe, locals link the name of the volcano with the legendary ruler Nimrod, who is credited with the construction of the Tower of Babel. Turkish chronicles of the 16th century reproduce a local legend as follows, Native believe that Nemruz used to spend the winters around, for this purpose, he had a castle and a palace built on the summit. He used to live and spend lots of time there and he fell victim to Gods wrath and got caught. Consequently, the god let this mountain, the height of which was not less than 2000 zira collapse and this sinking created a lake of 5000 zira wide. Eruptions of Nemrut are mentioned in Armenian sources of the 15th century and these records allowed to confirm the activity of the volcano during the Holocene and to establish the dates of some eruptions. In 1441 a great sign took place, for the mountain called Nemrud, red-hod stones glowed in the terrible flames, and boulders of enormous size were hurled aloft with peals of thunder. Even in other provinces men saw all this distinctly, a more recent eruption is mentioned in Turkish records, In the northern part of this location there is a canal through which flows a dark water
15. Mount Nif – Mount Nif, Turkish, Nif Dağı, is a mountain in the district of Kemalpaşa, towering over the district center, located immediately to the east of the city of İzmir, in western Turkey. It was one of the nineteen mountains which carried the name Olympus in ancient times, Mount Nif is distinguished from the rest of the mountain chain massif by a narrow but key pass at a locality called Karabel which leads south towards the town of Torbalı. Karabel Pass is famous for its Luvian warrior prince monument carved in rock and dated to late-13th century BC, a younger contemporary, a new reading of its relief inscription, which had been known since the 19th century, was made in 1996 and published in 1998. The monument is called Eti Baba locally, a second pass to the north of Mount Nif separates it, or connects it, since it is still at some altitude, from Mount Sipylus, at the locality called Belkahve. Belkahve is the point of access from the east to İzmir metropolitan area. Ankara-İzmir highway, notably, is checked by its sinuous slopes, Mount Nif is sometimes cited as Kemalpaşa Mountain in reference to the district center, especially in Turkish sources. This is also the case for the stream that crosses the district area. The district center and the administrative area almost invariably go by the name of Kemalpaşa, with the former name used very rarely nowadays
16. Mount Sipylus – Mount Spil, the ancient Mount Sipylus, is a mountain rich in legends and history in Manisa Province, Turkey, in what used to be the heartland of the Lydians and what is now Turkeys Aegean Region. Its summit towers over the city of Manisa as well as over the road between İzmir and Manisa. The Manisa relief, a full faced statue carved into a face is found near Mount Sipylus. It is traditionally identified as Cybele and dated to the late-Hittite or Luwian period in late second millennium BCE, the sculpture is known as Taş Suret in Turkish and sometimes referred to as such also in international literature. The mountain was considered a favorite haunt of the mother goddess, according to an old myth the sculpture was carved by Broteas, Tantalus ugly son. Presumably located on or very near the mountain, the ruins were reportedly still visible around in the beginning of the Common Era. The same Tantalus is famed through Greek mythology by the accounts relating that he had cut up his son Pelops and his son Pelops is said to have migrated later to the Peloponnese, named after him, and to have founded a kingdom. Tantalus daughter was the tragic Niobe, who is associated with the Weeping Rock, later in ancient times, Mount Sipylus, located in Lydia, rose above the site of Magnesia ad Sipylum, whose existence is traced back as far as the 5th century BCE. Magnesia was located along the Hermus River on the plain below and was the scene of the defeat of Antiochus III the Great by the Romans, the famous Weeping Rock is still widely visited. The mountain as a whole presents an area of forests and beautiful scenery. The mountain is also a spot for camping, parachuting, hiking. The highest point of the pass corresponds to a point very near the boundary between İzmir Province and Manisa Province, to bypass the steep and twisted Sabuncubeli Pass, the Sabuncubeli Tunnel is under construction. The 6,480 metres -long tunnel is expected to be opened end 2016, the Locust Plagues of Mount Sipylus