Mont Aiguille is a mountain in the Vercors Plateau of the French Prealps, located 58 km south of Grenoble, in the commune of Chichilianne, and the département of Isère. The mountain, known as one of the Seven Wonders of Dauphiné, is a flat limestone mesa surrounded by steep cliffs. The mountain lies within an area designated in 1985 as the Vercors Regional Natural Park, Mont Aiguilles limestone cliffs, especially on the northwest side, are popular with climbers. Its first climb in 1492 was said to mark the birth of mountaineering, Mont Aiguille is a mesa eroded from the Vercors Plateau in the drainage basin of the Rhône. It is surrounded by cliffs and has a height of 2,085 metres. The surrounding terrain is difficult enough to warrant a technical climb as the easiest method of ascent, the mountain is capped with meadows botanically similar to those on the Vercors High Plateau, but beneath the cliffs there are extensive forests. The mountain lies within the Vercors Regional Natural Park and is in the département of Isère, the nearest access by rail is in the village of Saint-Martin-de-Clelles and by road is from the north via the Col de La Bâtie.
Another feature resulting from this is the presence of meadows on the summit plateau, Mont Aiguille is a limestone mesa, previously connected to the main body of the high plateau of the Vercors Massif. The summit is made up of lower Barremian strata, deposited during the Cretaceous period and this is the same as the plateau to the west, but not as the immediate environs, the lower slopes are composed of older Hauterivian strata. As easily observed, the planes are all roughly level. According to Roman legend, the mountain was torn from the rest of the Vercors when a hunter named Ibicus saw naked goddesses on the mountain and was changed into an ibex as punishment. In the medieval period, Mont Aiguille was traditionally called Mount Inaccessible, since at least the thirteenth century, the mountain has been regarded as one of the Seven Wonders of Dauphiné. The mountain is most noted for its first ascent in 1492, charles VIII ordered that the peak be climbed, so one of his servants, Antoine de Ville, made the ascent using a combination of ladders and other artificial aids.
He was visited in the days by many local members of the nobility. The team bivouacked on the summit for eight days, erecting small crosses, the ascent is described by François Rabelais in his Quart Livre. This was the first recorded climb of any difficulty, and has been said to mark the beginning of mountaineering. The mountain was not climbed again until 1834, nearly 350 years later, less than a month later, it was climbed by seven people at the same time, who reportedly danced and sang La Marseillaise on the summit. In 1940, the top 11 m of the mountain collapsed, in the following 18 years, he staged a further 51 landings on the summit before his final landing in 1975, many carrying paying passengers, and often made using skis
The Alpine Convention is an international territorial treaty for the sustainable development of the Alps. The objective of the treaty is to protect the environment of the Alps while promoting its development. This Framework Convention involves the European Union and eight states, the geographic area of the Alpine Convention covers a 190,959 km2 or 73,730 sq mi encompassing 5867 municipalities. The Alpine Range as defined by the Alpine Convention stretches across 1,200 km or 746 mi, through eight states, the entire territories of Monaco and Liechtenstein are included. Austria and Italy together represent more than 55% of the Convention area, with France, these three states cover the three-quarter of the total surface of the Alpine Convention territory. In 2007, the population of this area was approaching 14 million inhabitants. The Alpine Conference is the body that takes the most important decisions regarding the Convention, the Presidency of the Conference rotates between the Contracting parties, each holding the Presidency for a two-year period.
For the period 2013–2014 the presidency is held by Italy, all the Alpine Conferences, The Permanent Committee is the executive body of the Alpine Conference. It is composed of all Member delegations and guarantees that the basis, the principles, Permanent Committee meets twice a year, last meetings. The Compliance Committee is the body that oversees implementation of the commitments, every 10 years, Contracting Parties have to publish a report concerning the implementation of the Convention and its protocols. The first report was adopted at the Xth Alpine Conference and this treaty dedicated to a specific territory is supported by a Permanent Secretariat, created in 2003, that has its main office in Innsbruck, and a branch office in Bolzano-Bozen, Italy. The Secretariat is headed by a Secretary General, currently M. Markus Reiterer, Permanent Secretariat carries out different projects and activities for promotion of the Alpine Convention. The Permanent Committee can establish Working Groups, with a 2-year-mandate, on 7 the Framework Convention was signed by Austria, France, Italy and Switzerland.
Slovenia signed on 29 and Monaco on 20, ratification occurred between 1994 and 1999. Regarding protocol ratification, Switzerland has not ratified any protocols yet, under the Convention, Member States should adopt specific measures in twelve thematic areas. Two new protocols, not related to a specific area, have since been adopted, Settlement of disputes. The Alpine Convention includes two Declarations that could not been turned into Protocols, Declaration on Population and Culture, Declaration on Climate Change, the Alpine Convention- Reference guide,2010, second edition, available in English, French and Slovenian. The Alpine Convention is taking shape,2004, available in German, cross-border ecological network,2004, available in German, French and Slovenian
Aiguille de Chambeyron
Aiguille de Chambeyron is a mountain of the Cottian Alps and is the highest mountain of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence in southeast France. Together with its neighbour Brec de Chambeyron it is the dominant peak of the upper Ubaye Valley, the mountain is located near the border with Italy, just west of the Main chain of the Alps. It is the point of the Massif du Chambeyron and is the highest peak in the Alps south of Monte Viso. Aiguille de Chambeyron has two summits, with the west one being the slightly higher, two small glaciers existed on its north side, although they have now all but vanished. Coolidge and Christian Almer were the first to climb Chambeyron in 1879
Aiguille du Dru
The Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It is situated to the east of the village of Les Praz in the Chamonix valley, the mountains highest summit is Grande Aiguille du Dru 3,754 m Another, slightly lower sub-summit is, Petite Aiguille du Dru 3,733 m. The two summits are located on the west ridge of the Aiguille Verte and are connected to other by the Brèche du Dru. The north face of the Petit Dru is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. Dent, in his description of the climb, Those who follow us, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs. But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed.
The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, the Petit Dru was climbed in the following year, on 29 August 1879, by J. E. Charlet-Straton, P. Payot and F. Follignet via the south face and the south-west ridge. The first traverse of both summits of the Drus was by E. Fontaine and J. Ravanel on 23 August 1901, the first winter traverse of the Drus was by Armand Charlet and Camille Devouassoux on 25 February 1938. In 1889 both peaks of the Dru were climbed for the first time from the Petit Dru to the Grand Dru by two parties. One party contained Katharine Richardson and guides Emile Rey and Jean-Baptiste Bich, and these 1000 m-high rock faces have seen serious rockfalls in 1950,1997,2003,2005 and 2011, which have considerably affected the structure of the mountain and destroyed a number of routes. Seven years later, from 24–26 July 1962, Gary Hemming and Royal Robbins climbed the American Direct, on 10–13 August 1965, Royal Robbins, this time accompanied by John Harlin, climbed the American Direttissima.
This route was destroyed by the 2005 rockfall, on 4 September 1913 a party of climbers led by Camille Simond and Roberts Charlet-Straton attempted to carry a hollow metal statue of Our Lady of Lourdes up the peak. The Aiguille du Dru on SummitPost
A mountain range is a geographic area containing numerous geologically related mountains. A mountain system or system of ranges, sometimes is used to combine several geological features that are geographically related. Mountain ranges are usually segmented by highlands or mountain passes and valleys, individual mountains within the same mountain range do not necessarily have the same geologic structure or petrology. They may be a mix of different orogenic expressions and terranes, for example thrust sheets, uplifted blocks, fold mountains, most geologically young mountain ranges on the Earths land surface are associated with either the Pacific Ring of Fire or the Alpide Belt. The Andes is 7,000 kilometres long and is considered the worlds longest mountain system. The Alpide belt includes Indonesia and southeast Asia, through the Himalaya, the belt includes other European and Asian mountain ranges. The Himalayas contain the highest mountains in the world, including Mount Everest, mountain ranges outside of these two systems include the Arctic Cordillera, the Urals, the Appalachians, the Scandinavian Mountains, the Altai Mountains and the Hijaz Mountains.
If the definition of a range is stretched to include underwater mountains. The mountain systems of the earth are characterized by a tree structure, the sub-range relationship is often expressed as a parent-child relationship. For example, the White Mountains of New Hampshire and the Blue Ridge Mountains are sub-ranges of the Appalachian Mountains, the Appalachians are the parent of the White Mountains and Blue Ridge Mountains, and the White Mountains and the Blue Ridge Mountains are children of the Appalachians. The position of mountains influences climate, such as rain or snow, when air masses move up and over mountains, the air cools producing orographic precipitation. As the air descends on the side, it warms again and is drier. Often, a shadow will affect the leeward side of a range. Mountain ranges are constantly subjected to forces which work to tear them down. Erosion is at work while the mountains are being uplifted and long after until the mountains are reduced to low hills, rivers are traditionally believed to be the principle erosive factor on mountain ranges, with their ability of bedrock incision and sediment transport.
The rugged topography of a range is the product of erosion. The basins adjacent to a mountain range are filled with sediments which are buried and turned into sedimentary rock. The early Cenozoic uplift of the Rocky Mountains of Colorado provides an example and this mass of rock was removed as the range was actively undergoing uplift