Category:Murdered royalty of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)
Pages in category "Murdered royalty of Macedonia (ancient kingdom)"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Alexander IV of Macedon – Alexander IV, erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great and Princess Roxana of Bactria. Alexander IV was the son of a Macedonian father, Alexander the Great and he was Philip II of Macedons grandson. Because Roxana was pregnant when her died and the sex of the baby was unknown. The factions compromised, deciding that Perdiccas would rule the Empire as regent while Philip would reign, if the child was male, then he would be king. Alexander IV was born in August,323 BC and he brought with him Roxana and the two kings to Macedon and gave up the pretence of ruling Alexanders Empire, leaving former provinces in Egypt and Asia in control of the satraps. When Antipater died in 319 BC he left Polyperchon, a Macedonian general who had served under Philip II and Alexander the Great, as his successor, passing over his own son, Cassander. Cassander allied himself with Ptolemy Soter, Antigonus and Eurydice, the wife of king Philip Arrhidaeus. Polyperchon was allied with Eumenes and Olympias, although Polyperchon was successful at first, taking control of the Greek cities, his fleet was destroyed by Antigonus in 318 BC. When, after the battle, Cassander assumed full control of Macedon, Polyperchon was forced to flee to Epirus, followed by Roxana, a few months later, Olympias was able to persuade her relative Aeacides of Epirus to invade Macedon with Polyperchon. When Olympias took the field, Eurydices army refused to fight against the mother of Alexander and defected to Olympias, after which Polyperchon and Aeacides retook Macedon. Philip and Eurydice were captured and executed on December 25,317 BC, leaving Alexander IV king, Cassander returned in the following year, conquering Macedon once again. Olympias was immediately executed, while the king and his mother were taken prisoner, cassanders response was definitive, to secure his rule, in 309 BC he commanded Glaucias to secretly assassinate the 14-year-old Alexander IV and his mother. The orders were carried out, and they were both poisoned, one of the royal tombs discovered by the archaeologist Manolis Andronikos in the so-called Great Tumulus in Vergina in 1977/8 is believed to belong to Alexander IV. Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, Alexander IV, livius. org, Alexander IV Wiki Classical Dictionary, Alexander IV
2. Archelaus I of Macedon – Archelaus I was a king of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC. He was a capable and beneficent ruler, known for the changes he made in state administration, the military. By the time that he died, Archelaus had succeeded in converting Macedon into a stronger power. Thucydides credited Archelaus with doing more for his kingdoms military infrastructure than all of his predecessors together, Archelaus was a son of Perdiccas II by a slave woman. He obtained the throne by murdering his own uncle Alcetas II and cousin Alexander, such that his father became king, and his half-brother, a child of seven years, the Athenians experienced a crushing defeat at Syracuse in late 413 during which most of their ships were destroyed. This left the Athenians in desperate need of an amount of timber to build new ships. Archelaus generously supplied the Athenians with the timber they needed, in recognition of this, the Athenians honored Archelaus and his children with the titles of proxenos and euergetes. Archelaus went on to many internal reforms. He issued an abundance of good quality coinage and he built strongholds, cut straight roads, and improved the organization of the military, particularly the cavalry and hoplite infantry. Archelaus was also known as a man of culture and extended cultural, in his new palace at Pella, he hosted great poets, tragedians, including Agathon and Euripides, musicians, and painters, including Zeuxis. Archelaus reorganized the Olympia, a festival with musical and athletic competitions honoring Olympian Zeus and the Muses at Dion. The greatest athletes and artists of Greece came to Macedon to participate in this event, in addition, Archelaus competed and won in Tethrippon in both Olympic and Pythian Games. According to Aelian, Archelaus was killed in 399 BC during a hunt, by one of the royal pages, according to Constantine Paparrigopoulos, there were three accomplices, two Thessalians and one Macedonian, Decamnichos. The latter used to be Archelaus protégé, however Decamnichos once insulted, in front of Archelaus, the tragic poet Euripides for the smell of the poets alleged bad breath. This outraged Archelaus who allowed Euripides to flog Decamnichos in punishment, Decamnichos was permitted to remain in the court of Archelaus, however, he did not forget about this treatment and thus participated in the killing of his king a few years later. Other versions of the death are reported by differing sources. Archelaus had several daughters and sons, including Orestes of Macedon and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Archelaus, King of Macedonia. Coinage of Archelaus Ancestry of Archelaus
3. Philip II of Macedon – Philip II of Macedon was the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the son of King Amyntas III. However, his assassination led to the succession of his son Alexander. Philip was the youngest son of the king Amyntas III and Eurydice I, in his youth, Philip was held as a hostage in Thebes, which was then the leading city of Greece. In 364 BC, Philip returned to Macedon, the deaths of Philips elder brothers, King Alexander II and Perdiccas III, allowed him to take the throne in 359 BC. Originally appointed regent for his infant nephew Amyntas IV, who was the son of Perdiccas III, Philips military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonian greatness brought him early success. He first had to remedy a predicament which had greatly worsened by the defeat against the Illyrians in which King Perdiccas himself had died. Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paionians and Thracians promising tributes, momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. Philip had married Audata, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania, however, this did not prevent him from marching against the Illyrians in 358 and crushing them in a ferocious battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died. By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as Lake Ohrid, the Athenians had been unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the gold mines of Mount Pangaion. So Philip reached an agreement with Athens to lease the city to them after its conquest, however, after conquering Amphipolis, Philip kept both cities. As Athens had declared war against him, he allied Macedon with the Chalkidian League of Olynthus and he subsequently conquered Potidaea, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356. In 357 BC, Philip married the Epirote princess Olympias, who was the daughter of the king of the Molossians, Alexander was born in 356, the same year as Philips racehorse won at the Olympic Games. During 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to Philippi and he then established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which yielded much of the gold he later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general Parmenion defeated the Illyrians again, in 355–354 he besieged Methone, the last city on the Thermaic Gulf controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip was injured in his eye, despite the arrival of two Athenian fleets, the city fell in 354. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the Thracian coast, Philip was involved in the Third Sacred War which had begun in Greece in 356. In summer 353 he invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians under the brother of Onomarchus, the latter however defeated Philip in the two succeeding battles
4. Roxana – Roxana was a Sogdian princess of Bactria and a wife of the Greek Macedonian king, Alexander the Great. She was born in c.340 BC though the date remains uncertain. Roxana was born in c.340 BC—she was the daughter of a Bactrian nobleman named Oxyartes, who served Bessus and he was thus probably also involved in the murder of the last Achaemenid king Darius III. Alexander thereafter made an expedition into India and while there he appointed Oxyartes as the governor of the Hindu Kush region which was adjoining India, during this period, Roxana was in a safe place in Susa. When Alexander returned to Susa, he promoted a brother of Roxana to the elite cavalry. After Alexanders sudden death at Babylon in 323 BC, Roxana is believed to have murdered Alexanders other widow, Stateira II, and possibly Stateiras sister, Drypteis, Roxana had borne a son to Alexander after his death and would have wanted no competition. Roxana and her Greek-Persian son, named Alexander IV after his father, were protected by Alexanders mother, Olympias. Olympias assassination in 316 BC allowed Cassander, who imprisoned Roxana and Alexander in the citadel of Amphipolis under the supervision of Glaucias, since Alexander IV was the legitimate heir to the Alexandrian empire, Cassander ordered Glaucias to poison Alexander and Roxana c.310 BC. Roxana is one of the characters in The Romance of Alexander and Roxana by Marshall Monroe Kirkman,1909, reprinted 2010. Roxana appears as one of the characters in A Conspiracy of Women by Aubrey Menen,1965, Roxana appears as one of the minor characters in The Persian Boy by Mary Renault,1972, ISBN 0-394-48191-7. Roxana appears as one of the characters in Funeral Games by Mary Renault,1981, Roxana appears as one of the characters in Alexander, The Ends of the Earth by Valerio Massimo Manfredi,2002, ISBN 978-0-7434-3438-6. Roxana is the character in Roxana Romance by A. J. Cave,2008, Hardcover ISBN 978-0-9802061-0-4. Roxana is one of the characters in The Conquerors Wife by Stephanie Thornton,2015, Softcover ISBN 978-0-451-47200-7 In the film Alexander. Balkh Alexandre et Roxane, opera by Mozart Badian, Ernst, the Nature of Alexander the Great. Horn, LT Bernd, Spencer, Emily, eds, no Easy Task, Fighting in Afghanistan, Dundurn Press Ltd, p.40, ISBN9781459701649 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Roxana. Roxane by Jona Lendering Wiki Classical Dictionary, Roxane, daughter of Oxyartes Roxana from Charles Smiths Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology
5. Stateira II – Stateira II, possibly also known as Barsine, was the daughter of Stateira I and Darius III of Persia. After her fathers defeat at the Battle of Issus, Stateira and they were treated well, and she became Alexanders second wife at the Susa weddings in 324 BC. At the same ceremony Alexander also married her cousin, Parysatis, after Alexanders death in 323 BC, Stateira was killed by Roxana, his first wife. In his list of marriages that occurred at Susa, Arrian, historian William Woodthorpe Tarn asserts that her official name was Barsine, but she was likely commonly called Stateira. Tarn cites other instances of confusion, noting that by the end of the 3rd century BC, Stateira was the eldest daughter of Darius III of Persia and his wife, also named Stateira. Both of her parents were described as handsome or beautiful, leading Tarn to speculate Stateira was sufficiently good-looking, at any rate for a princess. Her birthdate is unknown, by 333 BC she was of marriageable age, after Alexander the Great invaded Persia, Stateira and her family accompanied Darius army. In November 333 Alexanders army defeated the Persians at the Battle of Issus, Darius fled, and the Macedonian army soon captured his family. For the next two years, Stateira and her family followed Alexanders army and her mother died at some point between 333 and 331, leaving Sisygambis to act as her guardian. Although Darius tried several times to ransom his family, Alexander refused to return the women, Darius then offered Alexander Stateiras hand in marriage and agreed to relinquish his claim to some of the land Alexander had already seized in exchange for ending the war. Alexander declined the offer, reminding Darius that he already had custody of both the land and Stateira, and that if he chose to marry her Darius permission would not be necessary. In 330 BC, Alexander left Stateira and her family in Susa with instructions that she should be taught Macedonian, historian Elizabeth Donnelly Carney speculates that Alexander had already decided to marry Stateira and was preparing her for life as his wife. Stateira became Alexanders second wife in 324 BC, almost ten years after her capture, ninety other Persian noblewomen were married to Macedonian soldiers who were loyal to Alexander, this included Drypetis, who married Alexanders friend, Hephaestion. At the same ceremony, Alexander married Parysatis, daughter of previous Persian ruler Artaxerxes III and it was fairly common practice for conquering rulers to marry the widow or daughter of the man they had deposed. By wedding both women, Alexander cemented his ties to both branches of the family of the Achaemenid Empire. Alexander died the year,323 BC. After his death, his first wife Roxana colluded with Perdiccas to kill Stateira, Roxana wished to cement her own position and that of her son, Alexander IV, by ridding herself of a rival who could be - or claim to be - pregnant. According to Plutarchs account, Stateiras sister, Drypetis, was killed at the time, Carney believes that Plutarch was mistaken