Category:N M Rothschild & Sons
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- ► N M Rothschild & Sons people (52 P)
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1. De Beers – The De Beers Group of Companies has a leading role in the diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors. The company is active in open-pit, large-scale alluvial, coastal. The company operates in 28 countries and mining takes place in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa, until the start of the 21st century, De Beers effectively had total control over the diamond market as both a monopoly and monopsony of diamonds. The company was founded in 1888 by British businessman Cecil Rhodes, who was financed by the South African diamond magnate Alfred Beit and the London-based N M Rothschild & Sons bank. In 1926, Ernest Oppenheimer, a German immigrant to Britain who had earlier founded mining giant Anglo American plc with American financier J. P. Morgan, was elected to the board of De Beers. He built and consolidated the companys global monopoly over the industry until his death in 1957. After they discovered diamonds on their land, the demands of the British government forced them to sell their farm on July 31,1871. Vooruitzicht would become the site of the Big Hole and the De Beer Mine and their name, which was given to one of the mines, subsequently became associated with the company. He invested the profits of this operation into buying up claims of small mining operators and he soon secured funding from the Rothschild family, who would finance his business expansion. The agreement soon proved to be very successful — for example during the slump of 1891–1892. The Second Boer War proved to be a time for the company. Kimberley was besieged as soon as war broke out, thereby threatening the companys valuable mines, in 1898, diamonds were discovered on farms near Pretoria, Transvaal. One led to the discovery of the Premier Mine, the Premier Mine was registered in 1902 and the Cullinan Diamond, the largest rough diamond ever discovered, was found there in 1905. However, its owner refused to join the De Beers cartel, instead, the mine started selling to a pair of independent dealers named Bernhard and Ernest Oppenheimer, thereby weakening the De Beers cartel. Francis Oats, who became chairman of De Beers in 1908, was dismissive of the threats from the Premier Mine, however, production soon equalled all of the De Beers mines combined. Ernest Oppenheimer was appointed the agent for the powerful London Syndicate. During World War I, the Premier Mine was finally absorbed into De Beers, when Rhodes died in 1902, De Beers controlled 90% of the worlds diamond production. Ernest Oppenheimer took over the chairmanship of the company in 1929, after buying shares, Oppenheimer was very concerned about the discovery of diamonds in 1908 in German South West Africa, fearing that the increased supply would swamp the market and force prices down
2. Suez Canal – The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez. It was constructed by the Suez Canal Company between 1859 and 1869, after 10 years of construction, it was officially opened on November 17,1869. It extends from the terminus of Port Said to the southern terminus of Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Its length is 193.30 km, including its northern and southern access channels, in 2012,17,225 vessels traversed the canal. The original canal was a waterway with passing locations in the Ballah Bypass. It contains no locks system, with seawater flowing freely through it, in general, the canal north of the Bitter Lakes flows north in winter and south in summer. South of the lakes, the current changes with the tide at Suez, the canal is owned and maintained by the Suez Canal Authority of Egypt. Under the Convention of Constantinople, it may be used in time of war as in time of peace, by every vessel of commerce or of war, without distinction of flag. In August 2014, construction was launched to expand and widen the Ballah Bypass for 35 km to speed the canals transit time, the expansion was planned to double the capacity of the Suez Canal from 49 to 97 ships a day. At a cost of $8.4 billion, this project was funded with interest-bearing investment certificates issued exclusively to Egyptian entities, the New Suez Canal, as the expansion was dubbed, was opened with great fanfare in a ceremony on 6 August 2015. On 24 February 2016, the Suez Canal Authority officially opened the new side channel and this side channel, located at the northern side of the east extension of the Suez Canal, serves the East Terminal for berthing and unberthing vessels from the terminal anytime of day and night. Ancient west–east canals were built to travel from the Nile River to the Red Sea. One smaller canal is believed to have been constructed under the auspices of Senusret II or Ramesses II. Another canal, probably incorporating a portion of the first, was constructed under the reign of Necho II, the legendary Sesostris may have started work on an ancient canal joining the Nile with the Red Sea. In his Meteorology, Aristotle wrote, One of their kings tried to make a canal to it, so he first, and Darius afterwards, stopped making the canal, lest the sea should mix with the river water and spoil it. Strabo wrote that Sesostris started to build a canal, and Pliny the Elder wrote,165. Later the Persian king Darius had the idea, and yet again Ptolemy II. This proved to be the canal made by the Persian king Darius I
3. British South Africa Company – The company received a Royal Charter in 1889 modelled on that of the British East India Company. Its first directors included the Duke of Abercorn, Rhodes himself, Rhodes hoped BSAC would promote colonisation and economic exploitation across much of south-central Africa, as part of the Scramble for Africa. The BSAC was created in the expectation that the fields of Mashonaland would provide funds for the development of other areas of Central Africa. BSAC regarded its lands north of the Zambezi as territory to be held as cheaply as possible for future, rather than immediate, the BSAC also created the Rhodesian railway system and owned the railways there until 1947. The Royal Charter of the British South Africa Company came into effect on 20 December 1889 and this was initially for a period of 25 years, later extended for a further 10 years, so it expired in 1924. The company had been incorporated in October 1888, and much of the time after Rhodes arrived in London in March 1889, in these discussions, Rhodes led the BSAC negotiators. These two groups had originally been in competition but united because of economic interests. Gifford and Cawstons interests were represented by the Bechuanaland Exploration Company and its offshoot, the British South Africa Company leased mineral rights from the Central Search Association, paying it half the net profits from mineral exploitation. From the start, Gifford disliked Rhodes, who he thought had acquired too much power in BSAC and had marginalised him, Cawston supported Rhodes only in those commercial activities likely to make a profit and not in any less commercial ventures. The four other directors were appointed to represent the other shareholders, the dukes of Abercorn and of Fife, respectively chairman and vice-chairman were appointed to give the company prestige but they took little part in running the company. Neither had previous interest in Africa and Fife had no business experience, albert Grey, later Earl Grey had an active role as a liaison between Rhodes in South Africa and government officials in London. He and Horace Farquhar, a prominent London banker, completed the first Board, lochs successor as High Commissioner from 1895, Sir Hercules Robinson inherited these plans, but none of Loch, Robinson or Ripon took any steps to promote such a rising. Joseph Chamberlain, who succeeded Ripon in 1895, was almost certainly aware that Rhodes was planning a rising, Rhodes and Jameson made plans to assist, and probably to promote, a Johannesburg rising. Earl Grey was the only London-based director to know about plans for the Jameson Raid, Grey communicated at least some of the plan to Joseph Chamberlain, who avoided specifically endorsing it. News of the Raid shocked the BSAC directors who, except for Beit and Grey, Rhodes at first denied responsibility for Jamesons actions but, in the face of further revelations, he assumed full responsibility for them. The BSAC Board recognised that the company would be attacked, and he offered to resign as managing director, but a decision on this was deferred despite the demands of Cawston and Gifford for its acceptance. However, after the trial of the Jameson raiders implicated Rhodes further and following pressure from Chamberlain, Rhodes, after his removal, Rhodes remained a major shareholder in the BSAC and he continued to be involved unofficially in its affairs. In 1898, the Duke of Fife and Lord Farquhar both resigned from the Board, Rhodes and Beit replaced them and another supporter of Rhodes also joined the Board, as Rhodes had recaptured full control over the company, Cawston decided to resign
4. Rhodes Scholarship – The Rhodes Scholarship, named for the British mining magnate and South African politician Cecil John Rhodes, is an international postgraduate award for students to study at the University of Oxford. It is widely considered to be one of the worlds most prestigious scholarships, established in 1902, it was the first large-scale programme of international scholarships, inspiring the creation of a great many other awards in other countries. With the scholarships, he aimed at making Oxford University the educational centre of the English-speaking race, since its creation, controversy has surrounded both its former exclusion of women, and Rhodes Anglo-supremacist beliefs and legacy of colonialism. As of 2016, there have been 7,776 scholars since the programmes inception, more than 4,700 are still living. The Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, which was established in 1902 under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, Rhodes motivation in establishing the scholarship is reflected in his will. Stead noted that it him to the world as the first distinguished British statesman whose Imperialism was that of Race, with the scholarships, he aimed at making Oxford University the educational centre of the English-speaking race. With this motivation in mind, the legacy originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies and these three were chosen because it was thought that a good understanding between England, Germany and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world. In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States and it also cooperates with universities in China, BLCC for example. BLCC offers high-level scholarships for students who aim to study Chinese in Beijing. In 1953, the Parliament of the United Kingdom created the Marshall Scholarship as an alternative to the Rhodes Scholarship that would serve as a living gift to the United States. For at least its first 75 years, Rhodes Scholars usually studied for a second Bachelor of Arts degree, while that remains an option, more recent scholars usually study for an advanced degree. In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003 and these were John Brademas, Bob Hawke, Rex Nettleford and David R. Woods. During the centenary celebrations, the foundation of the Mandela Rhodes Foundation was also marked, Cecil Rhodes wished current scholars and Rhodes alumni to have opportunities of meeting and discussing their experiences and prospects. Each countrys scholarship varies in its selectivity, in the United States, in 2014, there were 857 university-endorsed applicants for the Americans Rhodes scholarship, of whom 3. 7% were ultimately elected. In Canada between 1997-2002, there were an average of 234 university-endorsed applicants annually for 11 scholarships, for a rate of 4. 7%. An early change was the elimination of the scholarships for Germany during the First, no German scholars were chosen from 1914 to 1929, nor from 1940 to 1969. Rhodess bequest was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, a change occurred in 1929, when an Act of Parliament established a fund separate from the original proceeds of Rhodess will and made it possible to expand the number of scholarships. Between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to countries in the European Community