The mille-feuille, vanilla slice, custard slice, known as the Napoleon, is a French pastry whose exact origin is unknown. Its modern form was influenced by improvements of Marie-Antoine Carême, traditionally, a mille-feuille is made up of three layers of puff pastry, alternating with two layers of pastry cream, but sometimes whipped cream or jam are substituted. The top pastry layer is dusted with sugar, and sometimes cocoa, pastry crumbs. Alternatively the top is glazed with icing or fondant in alternating white and brown stripes, all the elements of the recipe are present in numerous cookbooks since, at least, the 16th century but the exact origin of the mille-feuille is unknown. The earliest mention of the name itself appears in 1733 in an English-language cookbook written by French chef Vincent La Chapelle. Unlike the modern cake, the 18th-century Mille-feuille is served stuffed with jam, in French, the first mention of the Mille-feuille appears a little later, in 1749, in a cookbook by Menon.
The word mille-feuille is not used again in the books of the 18th century. However, under the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte, several of the fanciest Parisian pastry shops appear to have sold the cake, during the 19th century, all recipes are filled with jam with the exception of the 1876 recipe by Urbain Dubois which is served with Bavarian cream. According to Alan Davidson in the Oxford Companion to Food, the invention of the form is attributed to Szeged, Hungary. Traditionally, a mille-feuille is made up of three layers of pastry, and two layers of crème pâtissière. The top layer is coated with a sprinkling of powdered sugar, in variations, the top is glazed with icing, in alternating white and brown strips, and combed. Today, there are savory mille-feuille, with cheese and spinach or other savory fillings, according to La Varenne, it was earlier called gâteau de mille-feuilles, referring to the many layers of pastry. Using traditional puff pastry, made with six folds of three layers, it has 729 layers, with some modern recipes it may have as many as 2,048.
The variant name of Napoleon appears to come from napolitain, the French adjective for the Italian city of Naples, there is no evidence to connect the pastry to the emperor himself. In France, a Napoléon is a type of mille-feuille filled with almond flavoured paste. In Russian literature, a cake named Наполеон is first mentioned as early as in the first half of the 19th century, alexander Bestuzhev explained the emergence of such names by the romantic and historicist spirit of that time. The cake has enjoyed a great popularity since the centenary celebration of the Russian victory over Napoleon in the Patriotic War of 1812. During the celebrations in 1912, triangular-shape pastries were sold resembling the bicorne, the many layers of the cake symbolized La Grande Armée
Maggs Bros Ltd
Maggs Bros Ltd is one of the longest-established antiquarian booksellers in the world, established in 1853 by Uriah Maggs, born c.1828 in Midsomer Norton, Somerset. All four of Uriahs sons eventually joined the business, taking over on his retirement in 1894, the initial Maggs Brothers of the firms title were Benjamin and Henry, joined by Charles and Ernest. In 1908 B. D. Maggs served a term as President of the Antiquarian Booksellers Association. Maggs Bros. is still under ownership, and as of 2016 was managed by Edward Maggs. In 1916 Maggs Bros bought the penis of Napoleon Bonaparte from the descendants of Abbé Ange Paul Vignali, Vignali apparently brought it to Corsica, and died in a vendetta in 1828. He passed on the memento to his sister, who at her death passed it on to her son, in 1924, the desiccated item was sold to a Dr. A. S. Rosenbach, who mounted it in a case of blue morocco and velvet. In 1927, it was exhibited at the Museum of French Art, in 1931 Ernest Maggs had travelled to the Soviet Union with a colleague, Maurice Ettinghausen, who was both a bookseller and a scholar.
When they saw the priceless Codex Sinaiticus, Ettinghausen remarked to his hosts, “If you ever want to sell it, some time later, Maggs received a postcard saying that the Soviet government would be prepared to sell the Codex Sinaiticus for £200,000. The British group offered £40,000, finally, a price of £100,000 was agreed upon, an enormous sum, the British government agreed to pay half the amount and guaranteed the remainder if it were not raised by public subscription. In 1998 the firm bought for £4,200,000 a copy of the first book printed in England, the price remained the record paid for a printed book as of 2016. Its premises are at 50 Berkeley Square, widely known as the most haunted house in London, George Canning, Great Britains shortest-serving Prime Minister,1961 catalogue The Antiquarian Booksellers Association website
Marguerite Georges was a French stage actress. She was one of the most famous French actresses of her time and she is known for her affair with Napoleon, but claimed to have had an affair with the Duke of Wellington, a claim which is considered probable by some historians. She published under the name Marguerite-Josephine Weimer George, Marguerite Georges was born Marguerite-Josephine Weimer in Bayeux, the daughter of a German employed in the theatre orchestra in Amiens. She debuted on stage in 1802 at the age of fifteen at the Théâtre Français in Paris and her affair with Napoleon took place between 1802 and 1804, and was rumoured to be the reason she left France in 1808. She was active in Saint Petersburg in Russia in 1808–1812, debuting at St. Petersburg, in Phèdre and she toured Europe in 1812–1813, during which she performed at the Royal Dramatic Theatre in Stockholm and Dresden. She was active at the Théatre Français in 1813–1818, at the Odéon Theatre and her affair with Wellington is supposed to have taken place in 1814, and would make her one of two women known to have shared the two opponents beds, the other one being Giuseppina Grassini.
Unlike Grassini, she was enough in life to compare their sexual performances. In 1814 she had a child, Maria Alexandrovna Parijskaia, fathered by Tsar Alexander I of Russia and she lived at 25 Rue Madame, but moved to a boarding house at Rue de Helder. She retired in 1853, and received a pension from Joseph Bonaparte, Works by Marguerite Georges at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Marguerite Georges at Internet Archive http, //runeberg. org/nfbi/0520. html http, //www. xs4all. nl/~androom/biography/p022534. htm
Treaty of Fontainebleau (1814)
The Treaty of Fontainebleau was an agreement established in Fontainebleau, France, on 11 April 1814, between Napoleon I and representatives from the Austrian Empire and Prussia. The treaty was signed at Paris on 11 April, by the plenipotentiaries of both sides, and ratified by Napoleon on 13 April, with this treaty, the allies ended Napoleons rule as emperor of France and sent him into exile on Elba. In the War of the Sixth Coalition, a coalition of Austria, Russia, the United Kingdom and a number of German states, drove Napoleon out of Germany in 1813. On 31 March, the Coalition powers issued a declaration to the French nation, The allied powers having occupied Paris, the intentions which I have just expressed are common to me with all the allied powers. Alexander, Paris, 31st March 1814, Three P. M, the next day the French Senate agreed to the Coalitions terms and passed a resolution deposing Napoleon. They passed a decree dated 5 April, justifying their actions, Napoleon Buonaparte is cast down from the throne, and the right of succession in his family is abolished.
The French people and army are absolved from their oath of fidelity to him, the present decree shall be transmitted to the departments and armies, and proclaimed immediately in all the quarters of the capital. During 3 April 1814, word reached Napoleon who was at the Palace of Fontainebleau that the French Senate had dethroned him. While the plenipotentiaries were travelling to deliver their message, Napoleon heard that Auguste Marmont had placed his corps in a hopeless position and that their surrender was inevitable. The Coalition sovereigns were in no mood to compromise and rejected Napoleons offer, A regency with the Empress and her son, sounds well, I admit, in vain will he promise to remain quiet in the retreat which will be assigned to him. You know even better than I his devouring activity, his ambition, some fine morning he will put himself at the head of the regency, or in its place, the war will recommence, and all Europe will be on fire. The very dread of such an occurrence will oblige the Allies to keep their armies on foot, and thus frustrate all their intentions in making peace.
Over the next few days with his reign over France now at an end, the treaty was negotiated and signed by the plenipotentiaries in Paris on 11 April. The agreement contained a total of twenty-one articles, all of Napoleons successors and family members were prohibited from attaining power in France. The treaty established the island of Elba as a principality to be ruled by Napoleon. Elbas sovereignty and flag were guaranteed recognition by foreign powers in the accord, in another tenet of the agreement, the Duchy of Parma, the Duchy of Placentia, and the Duchy of Guastalla were ceded to Empress Marie-Louise. Moreover, a male descendant of Empress Marie-Louise would be known as the Prince of Parma, Placentia. He was permitted to take with him 400 men to serve as his personal guard, the signatories were Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, Marshal MacDonald, Duke of Tarentum, Marshal Ney, Duke of Elchingen, Prince Metternich, Count Nesselrode, and Baron Hardenberg
Coat of arms of Napoleonic Italy
The Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Italy was used as the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Italy during the reign of Napoleon as King of Italy. Second pale, a silver pale charged with the blue Milanese serpent of the House of Visconti. Third pale, the upper portion shows the lion of Saint Mark with a red cap on its head, while the lower portion shows the arms of Bologna. Inescutcheon, the shield is charged with a gold inescutcheon displaying an iron crown with six points inside a red border with eight silver rings. The heraldic shield is encircled by the collar of the Légion dhonneur. Above the imperial eagle rises a Napoleonic star, the eagle is surrounded by a green mantle that is lined with ermine and surmounted by a royal crown in gold. A more complete description of the arms of the Kingdom of Italy is as follows. Overall an inescutcheon bearing, Or an iron crown radiant, on a bordure Gules eight plates Argent, the shield encircled by the collar of the Légion dhonneur on the breast of an imperial eagle Or, within a mantle Vert lined Ermine, crowned by a royal crown Or.
This coat of arms can be seen on the coins minted in the kingdom, emblem of Italy Flags of Napoleonic Italy Kingdom of Italy
Battle of the Pyramids
The Battle of the Pyramids, known as the Battle of Embabeh, was a major engagement fought on July 21,1798 during the French Invasion of Egypt. The French army under Napoleon Bonaparte scored a victory against the forces of the local Mamluk rulers. It was the battle where Napoleon employed one of his significant contributions to military tactics, actually a rectangle, the deployment of the French brigades into these massive formations repeatedly threw back multiple cavalry charges by the Egyptians. The victory effectively sealed the French conquest of Egypt as Murad Bey salvaged the remnants of his army, French casualties amounted to roughly 300, but Egyptian casualties soared into the thousands. Napoleon entered Cairo after the battle and created a new administration under his supervision. The battle exposed the fundamental military and political decline of the Ottoman Empire throughout the past century, Napoleon named the battle after the Egyptian pyramids because they were faintly visible on the horizon when the battle took place.
In July 1798, Napoleon was marching from Alexandria toward Cairo after invading and capturing the former and he met the forces of the ruling Mamluks nine miles from the Pyramids, and only four miles from Cairo. The Mamluk forces were commanded by two Georgian mamluks Murad Bey and Ibrahim Bey and had powerful and highly developed cavalry and this fight was known as The Battle of Chobrakit. Napoleon realized that the only Egyptian troops of any worth on the battlefield were the cavalry and he exhorted his troops, Forward. Remember that from those monuments yonder forty centuries look down upon you, Napoleon ordered an advance on Murads army with each of the five divisions of his army organized into hollow rectangles with cavalry and baggage at the center and cannon at the corners. The French divisions advanced south in echelon, with the right flank leading, from right to left, Napoleon posted the divisions of Louis Charles Antoine Desaix, Jean Reynier, Dugua and Louis André Bon. In addition, Desaix sent a detachment to occupy the nearby village of Biktil.
Murad anchored his right flank on the Nile at the village of Embabeh and his Mamluk cavalry deployed on the desert flank. Ibrahim, with a army, watched helplessly from the east bank of the Nile, unable to intervene. Chandler asserts that Napoleons 25, 000-strong army outnumbered Murads 6,000 Mamluks and 15,000 infantry, at about 3,30 pm, the Mamluk cavalry hurled itself at the French without warning. The divisional squares of Desaix and Dugua held firm and repelled the horsemen with point-blank musket, unable to make an impression on the French formations, some of the frustrated Mamluks rode off to attack Desaixs detached force. Meanwhile, nearer the river, Bons division deployed into attack columns, breaking into the village, the French routed the garrison. Trapped against the river, many of the Mamluks and infantry tried to swim to safety, Napoleon reported a loss of 29 killed and 260 wounded
Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte was the only President of the French Second Republic and, as Napoleon III, the Emperor of the Second French Empire. He was the nephew and heir of Napoleon I and he was the first President of France to be elected by a direct popular vote. He remains the longest-serving French head of state since the French Revolution, during the first years of the Empire, Napoleons government imposed censorship and harsh repressive measures against his opponents. Some six thousand were imprisoned or sent to penal colonies until 1859, thousands more went into voluntary exile abroad, including Victor Hugo. From 1862 onwards, he relaxed government censorship, and his came to be known as the Liberal Empire. Many of his opponents returned to France and became members of the National Assembly, Napoleon III is best known today for his grand reconstruction of Paris, carried out by his prefect of the Seine, Baron Haussmann. He launched similar public works projects in Marseille, Napoleon III modernized the French banking system, greatly expanded and consolidated the French railway system, and made the French merchant marine the second largest in the world.
He promoted the building of the Suez Canal and established modern agriculture, Napoleon III negotiated the 1860 Cobden–Chevalier free trade agreement with Britain and similar agreements with Frances other European trading partners. Social reforms included giving French workers the right to strike and the right to organize, womens education greatly expanded, as did the list of required subjects in public schools. In foreign policy, Napoleon III aimed to reassert French influence in Europe and he was a supporter of popular sovereignty and of nationalism. In Europe, he allied with Britain and defeated Russia in the Crimean War and his regime assisted Italian unification and, in doing so, annexed Savoy and the County of Nice to France, at the same time, his forces defended the Papal States against annexation by Italy. Napoleon doubled the area of the French overseas empire in Asia, the Pacific, on the other hand, his armys intervention in Mexico which aimed to create a Second Mexican Empire under French protection ended in failure.
Beginning in 1866, Napoleon had to face the power of Prussia. In July 1870, Napoleon entered the Franco-Prussian War without allies, the French army was rapidly defeated and Napoleon III was captured at the Battle of Sedan. The French Third Republic was proclaimed in Paris, and Napoleon went into exile in England, charles-Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, known as Louis Napoleon and Napoleon III, was born in Paris on the night of 20–21 April 1808. His presumed father was Louis Bonaparte, the brother of Napoleon Bonaparte. His mother was Hortense de Beauharnais, the daughter by the first marriage of Napoleons wife Joséphine de Beauharnais, as empress, Joséphine proposed the marriage as a way to produce an heir for the Emperor, who agreed, as Joséphine was by infertile. Louis married Hortense when he was twenty-four and she was nineteen and they had a difficult relationship, and only lived together for brief periods
Lirato, ou Lemporté is an opéra-comique in one act by the French composer Étienne Méhul with a French-language libretto by Benoît-Joseph Marsollier. It was first performed at the Théâtre Favart, Paris on 17 February 1801, written in a lighter style than Méhuls operas of the 1790s, Lirato is famous for being part of a deception the composer played on his friend Napoleon Bonaparte. Méhul had been introduced to Napoleon by his wife Josephine and attended meetings with the future emperor at his residence at Malmaison. Many biographers have claimed that Napoleon did not like music. In fact he did, but preferred the Italian operas of such as Giovanni Paisiello. According to the harpist Martin Pierre dAlvimare, Napoleon criticised Méhul for emulating in his works an all too Teutonic style, Méhul decided to try his hand at writing a work in a lighter, more Italianate vein and thus trick Napoleon. On 7 February 1801 the Journal de Paris announced the performance of a translation of an Italian piece, Lirato.
The letter was probably a fake one from Méhul himself, the opening night, with Napoleon among the audience, was an immense success. The audience demanded to see the author and were surprised when Méhul appeared on stage to accept their applause. Napoleon took the joke in good part, telling Méhul to deceive me often like that, Lirato was revived at the Opéra-Comique in 1852 and at the Théâtre-Lyrique in 1868. A performance at the Opéra-Comique on 17 October 1917 marked the centenary of Méhuls death, The garden of Pandolphes country house near Florence Pandolphe is a rich but grumpy old man who becomes angry at the slightest thing. He has threatened to disinherit his young nephew Lysandre, as the opera opens, Lysandre is pacing the garden with his servant Scapin, awaiting a meeting with Pandolphe. Lysandre is in love with Isabelle, but has not heard from her for a month, the two men swear to be faithful forever. Lysandre is enraged at Pandolphes plans to marry Isabelle to Balouard, his pedantic, Scapin vows to do everything he can to help his master, but he runs off when Pandolphe emerges from the house in a foul temper.
Pandolphe tells Lysandre he intends to cut him out of his will, Lysandre still refuses to become angry. Once Pandolphe has left, Scapin re-enters bringing Isabelle and Nérine with him, Lysandre tells Isabelle of his uncles plan to marry her off to Balouard. Isabelle is horrified but Scapin says he has a plot to make Pandolphe angry with Balouard, Isabelle hopes that by pretending to be vain and fickle she will put Balouard off. Isabelle hints she already has a lover, which makes Balouard decline the marriage offer, who does not yet know the good news, is in a desperate state
On March 17,1808, Napoleon I created three decrees in a failed attempt to bring equality and to integrate the Jews into French society after the Jewish Emancipation of 1790-1791. The Infamous Decree, the third of the three, had adverse effects, Napoleon Bonaparte initially won allegiance of Jews when in 1797 he emancipated Jews in Ancona, Italy. He officially chose two High Priests of the Jewish Nation and seven councillors to the High Priests. He allegedly encouraged Jews to reclaim Jerusalem in 1799 with the help of his army in a letter to a rabbi in Jerusalem, but the letter is suspected by many to be a forgery. He in no way acted against the Jews until the early 19th century, such as author Franz Kobler, attribute Napoleon’s change in attitude to Napoleon’s new attachment to France and his newfound desire to protect the interests of the French people. When he was the hero of the Jews, he still was an “ardent patriot” of his island of Corsica. Napoleon sided with popular French opinion, though he desired equality for the Jews, he called them “the most despicable of men” and proclaimed he did not want their number to increase in an 1808 letter to his brother Jerome.
The group he conferred with was dubbed the Great Sanhedrin. and met in 1807. Such measures were a prelude to the passing of the three decrees on March 17,1808. ”To mandate the assimilation of Jews into French society, some of the members were a part of the Great Sanhedrin which met in 1807. The consistories consisted of a rabbi, possibly another rabbi. The consistories acted to enforce Sanhedrin rules through the use of education, there was one consistory for every town that contained 2,000 or more Jews. The Infamous Decree, known as the decree, presumed all Jews guilty of chicanery unless proven innocent. It annulled all debts owed to Jews by married women and soldiers and voided any loan that had interest rates exceeding 10 percent. ”To keep tabs on businesses that had survived the new restrictions, the decree mandated that all business require a patent or license that had to be renewed yearly. Not only did the decree hurt the Jews economically but it changed their military rights, the final restriction of the Jews was an attempt to strengthen their bond with the government and the country.
The decree made it so that the Jewish conscripts couldn’t find replacements for themselves when drafted like other Frenchmen were allowed to do, as a consequence of the first three decrees and final decree was implemented on July 20,1808. This final decree declared that all Jews acquire a family name to help the government. They were restricted in their choice of names and weren’t allowed to pick names from the Hebrew Bible or any town names, the three decrees were set up to expire after 10 years and would only be continued if renewed after that period. In 1818 Louis XVIII opted to not renew the decree and thus it ended, Louis XVIII was thereafter known as the “liberator of Jews. ”After the decrees were not renewed after 10 years, Jews migrated into three main cities, Paris and Lorraine
Napoleon and the Jews
Napoleon Bonaparte of the First French Empire enacted laws that first emancipated Jews in France, establishing them as equal citizens to other Frenchmen. In addition, in countries that he conquered during the Napoleonic Wars, he emancipated the Jews, for instance, he overrode old laws restricting Jews to reside in ghettos, as well as lifting laws that limited Jews rights to property and certain occupations. Historians have disagreed about Napoleons intentions in these actions, as well as his personal and political feelings about the Jewish community, some have said he had political reasons but did not have sympathy for the Jews. His actions were opposed by the leaders of monarchies in other countries. After his defeat by Great Britain, a counter-revolution swept many of these countries, the French Revolution abolished the different treatment of people according to religion or origin that had existed under the monarchy. Roman Catholicism had been the state religion, closely tied historically to the monarchy.
The 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen guaranteed freedom of religion and free exercise of worship, at that time, most other European countries implemented measures that restricted the rights of people in their nations who practiced minority religions. In the early 19th century, through his conquests in Europe, Napoleon Bonaparte spread the modernist ideas of revolutionary France, equality of citizens and the rule of law. Napoleons personal attitude towards the Jews has been interpreted in various ways by different historians, Napoleon was concerned about the role of Jews as money lenders, wanting to end that. The treatment of the Alsace Jews and their debtors was raised in the Imperial Council on 30 April 1806 and it is necessary to stop the harm by preventing it, to prevent it, it is necessary to change the Jews. Once part of their youth will take its place in our armies, they cease to have Jewish interests and sentiments. Through his policies overall, Napoleon greatly improved the condition of the Jews in France and Europe, starting in 1806, Napoleon passed a number of measures enhancing the position of the Jews in the French Empire.
He recognized a representative elected by the Jewish community, the Sanhedrin. In conquered countries, he abolished laws restricting Jews to living in ghettos, in 1807, he designated Judaism as one of the official religions of France, along with Roman Catholicism, and Lutheran and Calvinist Protestantism. In 1808 Napoleon rolled back a number of reforms, declaring all debts with Jews to be annulled, reduced or postponed and this caused so much financial loss that the Jewish community nearly collapsed. In an effort to promote assimilation, Jews were restricted in where they could live, Napoleon ended these restrictions by 1811. Besides, I should have drawn great wealth to France as the Jews are very numerous, moreover, I wanted to establish an universal liberty of conscience. Far from that, I have avoided doing anything which could show any esteem for the most despicable of mankind and he has already given arms to a great number, and their battalions threaten Aleppo
Reverend Richard Boys MA was a Church of England clergyman and author, most notable for his tenure as Chaplain on St. Helena at the time of Napoleon Bonapartes exile there. A controversial figure during his time there, he played a part in the mystery surrounding Napoleons Death Mask. Richard Boys was born in 1785, the son of John Boys. He was educated at The Kings School, afterward joining the Royal Engineers but renewed his studies and he was appointed chaplain to the East India Company and made junior chaplain at St. Helena in 1811. The forthright and uncompromising Boys quickly gained notoriety on the island and he had a fractious relationship with the Senior Chaplain, the Rev. After the compulsory retirement of Rev. Jones in 1815, Boys was chosen to succeed him, the promotion did little to rein in the chaplains strident nature as further council records attest. On 30 March 1817 the Council asked Mr Boys for an explanation of his conduct in refusing to take into the church a coffin for burial and he countered by claiming that the funeral attendees were pagans who were disrespecting the church.
In 1821 the minutes recall an incident when the Reverend publicly accused a shopkeeper of being a liar and a spy, calling him in the street, Blenkens. On this occasion Boys received an official reprimand, Boys did not restrict his eccentric behaviour to St Helena. Almost inevitably, Boys came into conflict with the islands Governor Sir Hudson Lowe, Boys took umbrage to the behaviour of Rear admiral Plampin, one of Lowes most erstwhile supporters, who was living in sin with a lady who was not his wife. Boys barely disguised diatribes against the officer during his sermons caused Plampin severe embarrassment and he appealed to Lowe for action against Boys. On the eve of Lowes departure from the island and return to the United Kingdom, the vehemance of the sermon prompted Lowe to lodge an official complaint with the island council. Defiant as ever, Boys declined to provide the council with a copy of the sermon, Richard Boys granddaughter Lilian Boys-Behrens 1926 book Under Thirty-Seven Kings asserts that Rev.
Mr. Boys. It has been claimed that Boys had one meeting with Napoleon though there is no evidence of it having taken place. When Cipriani, Napoleons major-domo died and his junior chaplain buried the man, Napoleon was astonished when he heard of it, and said a priest would not have done so much for a Protestant. As a token of appreciation of their conduct Napoleon desired to give the two chaplains a present, a snuffbox was purchased in Jamestown and offered to Boys, but was refused owing to the severe penalties attached to any acceptance of gifts from the exile. It has claimed that chair from Napoleons house at Longwood, was bought by Boys at an auction after Napoleons death. This chair was brought back by Boys when he returned to England and was bequeathed to Maidstone Museum & Art Gallery
Retour des cendres
After defeat in the War of the Sixth Coalition in 1814, Napoleon abdicated as emperor of the French, and was exiled to the Mediterranean island of Elba. The following year he returned to France, took up the throne, the powers which had prevailed against him the previous year mobilized against him, and defeated the French in the Battle of Waterloo. Napoleon returned to Paris and abdicated on 22 June 1815, foiled in his attempt to sail to the United States, he gave himself up to the British, who exiled him to the remote island of St Helena in the south Atlantic Ocean. He died and was buried there in 1821, on the Emperors death, Comte Bertrand unsuccessfully petitioned the British government to let Napoleons wish be granted. After the July Revolution a petition demanding the remains reburial in the base of the Colonne Vendôme was refused by the Chambre des Députés on 2 October 1830 and he hoped to flatter the lefts dreams of glory and restore the reputation of the July Monarchy. It was, Louis-Philippes policy to try to regain all the glories of France, to which he had dedicated the Château de Versailles, yet he was still reluctant and had to be convinced to support the project against his own doubts.
A heated discussion began in the press, raising all sorts of objections as to the theory, the town of Saint-Denis petitioned on 17 May that he instead be buried at their basilica, the traditional burial place of French kings. On 25 and 26 May the bill was discussed in the Chambre and it was proposed by Bertrand Clauzel, an old soldier of the First French Empire who had been recalled by the July Monarchy and promoted to Marshal of France. In the commissions name he approved the choice of Les Invalides as the burial site, the proposal was defended by Odilon Barrot, whilst the hottest opponent of it was Lamartine, who found the measure dangerous. Lamartine stated before the debate that Napoleons ashes are not yet extinguished, before the sitting, Thiers tried to dissuade Lamartine from intervening but received the reply No, Napoleons imitators must be discouraged. But who could think to him today. Only to receive Lamartines reply that spread right round Paris - I do beg your pardon, during the debate Lamartine stated, In conclusion Lamartine invited France to show that she to create out of this ash war, legitimate monarchs, pretenders, or even imitators.
Hearing this peroration, which was directed against him, Thiers looked devastated on his bench. Even so, the Chambre was largely favourable and voted through the measures requested, the Napoleonic myth was already fully developed and only needed to be crowned. The July Monarchys official poet Casimir Delavigne wrote, you have seen him again and your cry of joy, O France, Drowns out the noise of your cannon, Your people, a whole people reaching out from your riverbanks, Holds out its arms to Napoleon. On 4 or 6 June General Bertrand was received by Louis-Philippe, who gave him the Emperors arms, at 7pm on 7 July 1840 the frigate Belle Poule left Toulon, escorted by the corvette Favorite. The Prince de Joinville, the third son and a career naval officer, was in command of the frigate. Captain Guyet was in command of the corvette, which transported Louis Marchand, Napoleons chief valet de chambre, others on the expedition included Abbé Félix Coquereau, Hernoux, Lieutenant Touchard, General Bertrands young son Arthur, and ships doctor Rémy Guillard