Category:National Historic Landmark lighthouses
Pages in category "National Historic Landmark lighthouses"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Block Island Southeast Light – Block Island Southeast Light is a lighthouse located on Mohegan Bluffs at the southeastern corner of Block Island, Rhode Island. It was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1997 as one of the most architecturally sophisticated lighthouses built in the United States in the 19th century. Although Congress appropriated $9,000 to build this light in 1856 and this light was finally built in 1874, with the lamp first lit on February 1,1875. It is an expression of the Gothic Revival executed in brick, and was a marked contrast to earlier lighthouses. The main tower is 67 feet in height, with a granite foundation and brick exterior. This is topped by a sixteen-sided pyramidal copper roof with a ball ventilator, the original roof was cast iron, and was replaced in 1994. The keepers house is attached to the tower by a 1-1/2 story connecting wing and it is a 2-1/2 story brick structure with identical projecting 1-1/2 story kitchen wings at its rear, and a steeply-pitched gable roof with windows extending into the roofline. There are porches on either side of the connector, one for each of the two dwellings in the building, which were originally identical and that on the southwest side has retained original trim, which includes beveled, bracketed posts. The north wing was designated for the keeper, while the wing was for his assistants. The only major alterations to the residences have been for the introduction of modern plumbing, the roof was originally shingled, and since been covered by a variety of materials, most recently slate shingles. The original optic was a first order Fresnel lens standing about 12 feet tall with four circular wicks burning lard oil, the lard oil was replaced by kerosene in the 1880s. The lens was modified in 1929 to rotate floating on a pool of mercury, at first driven by a clockwork mechanism, in 1990, the Coast Guard deactivated the light and replaced it with a nearby steel tower. Because of ongoing erosion of the bluffs, in 1993 the entire 2,000 ton structure was moved about 300 feet back from the cliffs, ownership of the lighthouse was transferred in 1992 to the Southeast Lighthouse Foundation, which is dedicated to its preservation. The light was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990, as of its 1997 designation, it was one of only twelve lighthouses which used a first-order Fresnel lens. The lighthouse has a museum and gift shop in the base of the tower. The tower is open during the summer season offering guided tours to the top, proceeds from tours are used for restoration of the lighthouse. Block Island North Light List of National Historic Landmarks in Rhode Island National Register of Historic Places listings in Washington County, Rhode Island Historic American Engineering Record No
2. Boston Light – Boston Light is a lighthouse located on Little Brewster Island in outer Boston Harbor, Massachusetts. The first lighthouse to be built on the dates back to 1716. The structure was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1964, the first keeper of Boston Light was George Worthylake, who drowned, along with his wife and daughter, when returning to the island in 1718. During the American Revolution, the lighthouse was held by British forces and was attacked. As the British forces withdrew in 1776, they blew up the tower, the lighthouse was eventually reconstructed in 1783, to the same 75-foot height as the original tower. In 1856 it was raised to its present height of 98 feet, the lighthouse established in America was on Little Brewster Island in Boston Harbor and was first lit September 14,1716. A tonnage tax of 1 penny per ton on all vessels, except coasters, moving in or out of Boston Harbor, the first keeper, George Worthylake, with a salary of £50 a year, also acted as pilot for vessels entering the harbor. In 1718 he and his wife and daughter, with two men, were drowned when the boat capsized as they were returning to the island from Boston. Young Benjamin Franklin, then a printer in Boston, wrote a ballad about the incident entitled Lighthouse Tragedy and sold it on the streets of Boston. In 1719 he asked That a great Gun may be placed on Said Island to answer Ships in a Fogg, the gun is shown on a mezzo-tint engraving of Boston Light made by Burgess in 1729. Hayes’ successor in 1734 was Robert Ball who petitioned the court for preference in piloting vessels into the harbor. The court designated him as established pilot of the harbor for the three years. In 1751 the lighthouse was damaged by fire so that only the walls remained. In 1774 the British took over the island and in 1775 the harbor was blocked, on July 20,1775, a small detachment of American troops under Major Voss visited the island and burned the wooden parts of the lighthouse. They were intercepted on leaving by British small boats and attacked, a direct hit on one of the British boats by an American field piece on Nantasket Head caused the British to retire to their boats with comparatively heavy losses. Major Tupper and his men were commended by General Washington, when the British left Boston, March 17,1776, a number of their ships remained in the harbor. On June 13,1776, American soldiers landed on Long Island, Boston Harbor, before sailing away, the British sent a boat ashore at Boston Light and left a time charge which blew up the lighthouse. The top of the old lighthouse was used to supply ladles for American cannon, in 1783 the Massachusetts Legislature supplied £1,450 to erect a new lighthouse on the site of the old
3. Cape Ann Light Station – The current pair of lighthouses were built in 1861. They were both equipped with first order Fresnel lenses, which stood approximately 10 feet high and weighed several tons. After being decommissioned in the early 1980s, the lens from the tower was moved to the U. S. Coast Guard Museum at the United States Coast Guard Academy in New London. In 2013 a joint effort by the Cape Ann Museum and the Thacher Island Association brought the lens back to Cape Ann, the first order lens is now on display at the Cape Ann Museum in Gloucester, Massachusetts. When these lights were built, there was no way to produce a light and. The only way to create a distinction was to more than one light. There were two lights at Plymouth and three at Nauset Beach and it was relighted as a Private Aid to Navigation in 1989. Both lights are now owned by the Town of Rockport and managed by the Thacher Island Association, the station was added to the National Register of Historic Places as Twin Lights Historic District—Cape Ann Light Station on October 7,1971, reference number 71000355. In 2001 they became the 9th light station to be recognized as a National Historic Landmark, Cape Ann Light is the southern lighthouse that comprise the station. Thacher Island North Light is the northern most lighthouse that comprise the station, the south lights official name in the US Coast Guard Light List is Cape Ann Light, number 1-295. The north lights official name is Thacher Island North Light, number 1-305, the National Historic Landmark listing name is Twin Lights Historic District—Cape Ann Light Station. The lights are known locally as the Twin Lights or Thacher Island Lights, National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
4. Cape Hatteras Light – Cape Hatteras Light is a lighthouse located on Hatteras Island in the Outer Banks in the town of Buxton, North Carolina and is part of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore. The Outer Banks are a group of islands on the North Carolina coast that separate the Atlantic Ocean from the coastal sounds, Atlantic currents in this area made for excellent travel for ships, except in the area of Diamond Shoals, just offshore at Cape Hatteras. Nearby, the warm Gulf Stream ocean current collides with the colder Labrador Current, creating conditions for powerful ocean storms. The large number of ships that ran aground because of these shifting sandbars gave this area the nickname Graveyard of the Atlantic and it also led Congress to authorize the construction of the Cape Hatteras Light. Its 210-foot height makes it the tallest brick structure in the United States. Since its base is almost at sea level, it is only the 15th highest light in the United States, exhibits include the history, maritime heritage and natural history of the Outer Banks and the lighthouse. The visitor center offers information about the Cape Hatteras National Seashore, ranger programs, the Cape Hatteras Lighthouse was constructed in 1802. The Cape Hatteras light marked very dangerous shoals which extend from the cape for a distance of 10 nautical miles, the original tower was built of dark sandstone and retained its natural color. The original light consisted of 18 lamps, with 14-inch reflectors and it was visible in clear weather for a distance of 18 miles. In July 1851, Lt. David D. Porter, USN, reported as follows, in 1848 the 18 lamps were changed to 15 lamps with 21-inch reflectors and the light had become visible in clear weather at a distance of 20 miles. In 1854 a first-order Fresnel lens with flashing light was substituted for the old reflecting apparatus. In 1860 the Lighthouse Board reported that Cape Hatteras Lighthouse required protection, in 1862 the Board reported Cape Hatteras, lens and lantern destroyed, light re-exhibited. At the behest of mariners and officers of the U. S. Navy, the Light-House Board was a federal agency under the direction of the Treasury Department but was headed by a multi-agency committee. The Board consisted of two Army Engineers, two Navy officers, two scientists, and one additional officer from both the Army and Navy to serve as secretaries. Congress established the Board in 1852 for the purpose of creating a unified, prior to 1852, lighthouse construction generally rested with local authorities, ultimately leading to a disjointed, ineffective national system. Completed in just under two years under the direction of brevet Brigadier General J. H. Simpson of the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers, the new Cape Hatteras lighthouse cost $167,000. The new tower, from which the light was first exhibited December 16,1871, was the tallest brick lighthouse tower in the world. It was 200 feet above ground and the height of the light was 208 feet above water
5. Cape Henry Lighthouse – The Cape Henry Lighthouse is a lighthouse at Cape Henry, the landform marking the southern entrance to Chesapeake Bay in the U. S. state of Virginia. The location has long been important for the amount of ocean-going shipping traffic for the harbors, its rivers. The original lighthouse was the first authorized by the U. S. government and it was also the first federal construction project under the Constitution, for an original contract amount of $15,200. A second lighthouse was built and completed in 1881 a short distance away after concern arose about the stability of the first, both towers of the light station were designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970. The first work of the new U. S. Federal government, McComb was one of the architects involved in the construction of New York City Hall and would design other lighthouses. The lighthouses design was based on the 1767 Cape Henlopen Light, the lighthouse was damaged by Confederate forces during the American Civil War, but was repaired by Union forces in 1863, who depended on the light for navigation. The old tower remained standing, used as a daymark and as a basis for triangulation, the lighthouse was fully automated in 1983 and remains in use today. In 1798, Benjamin Latrobe visited Cape Henry Lighthouse and described it as a truncated pyramid of eight sides. The Old Cape Henry Lighthouse is 26 feet in diameter at its base and it was built with Aquia Creek sandstone from the same source as the White House. The new lighthouse,157 feet tall, was built of cast iron and wrought iron, the older lighthouse was acquired in 1930 by Preservation Virginia. A brick lining and an iron stairway have been added to the interior, the lighthouse is open to the public and a fine view can be enjoyed from its observation platform. It was designated a National Historic Landmark on January 29,1964, in 2002 the American Society of Civil Engineers designated the lighthouse a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark. The lighthouses are located in the city of Virginia Beach within the boundaries of Joint Expeditionary Base East, the Cape Henry Memorial is adjacent to the lighthouses
6. United States lightship Chesapeake (LV-116) – United States lightship Chesapeake is a museum ship owned by the National Park Service and on a 25-year loan to Baltimore City, and is operated by Historic Ships in Baltimore, Maryland. A National Historic Landmark, she is one of a number of preserved lightships. Since 1820, several lightships have served at the Chesapeake lightship station and have been called Chesapeake and it was common for a lightship to be reassigned from one Lightship Station to another and thus renamed and identified by its new station name. Even though the name changed during a Lightships service life, the number never changed. The United States Coast Guard assigned new numbers to all lightships still in service in April 1950. After that date, Light Ship / Light Vessel 116 was then known by the new Coast Guard Hull number, in January 1965 the Coast Guard further modified all lightship hull designations from WAL to WLV, so Chesapeake became WLV-538. Chesapeake had many redundant systems in order to maintain her position through most storms, the 5,000 pounds main anchor was backed up by a second 5000-pound anchor attached to the side of the ship. The 30,000 candela main light was also backed up with a secondary lamp, on more than one occasion the main anchor chain snapped during violent storms and the ship had to use her engines to stay in place and drop her second anchor. Chesapeake took on the name of station where she was anchored. The ship was also absorbed into the Coast Guard in 1939, Service in the US Coast Guard meant a pay cut for the sailors aboard Chesapeake and other Lightships, as well as the requirements for the crew to pass Coast Guard physical exams and wear uniforms. Coast Guard officers, usually a Warrant Bosn, were placed in command of the lightships. It did also, however, mean better supplies and training reached the crew, in the 1960s with the introduction of automated buoys as well as permanent light stations, the lightship fleet was slowly mothballed. Chesapeake left her station at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay in September 1965 when she was replaced by a large and this station was helicopter accessible and was easier to maintain than a lightship. Eventually the light tower was fully automated, eight lightships were built after Chesapeake. Chesapeakes last tour of duty was at the mouth of the Delaware Bay from 1966 to 1970 where she was named DELAWARE, a large 104 ton buoy beacon replaced her at this station in 1970. After leaving Delaware Bay, Chesapeake was moored in Cape May and she was then transferred to the National Park Service and used as a seagoing environmental education classroom until she was handed over to the city of Baltimore in 1982. In 1988 Chesapeake became part of the Baltimore Maritime Museum, now the Historic Ships In Baltimore museum and is moored at Pier 3 in Baltimores Inner Harbor and she is open for touring after a paid admission to the Museum. Chesapeake was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on 1 August 1980 and was designated a National Historic Landmark on 20 November 1989, Chesapeake and her companions are major contributing elements in the Baltimore National Heritage Area
7. United States lightship Columbia (WLV-604) – United States lightship Columbia is a lightship located in Astoria, Oregon, United States of America. Columbia was formerly moored near the mouth of the Columbia River, commissioned in 1951, Columbia was the fourth and final lightship stationed at the mouth of the Columbia River. Built by Rice Brothers Shipyard in Boothbay, Maine, Columbia was launched with her sister-ship, the new WLV-604 replaced the aging vessel LV-93, which had been in service on the Columbia River since 1939. The Columbia River lightships guided vessels across the Columbia River Bar, Columbia was the final lightship to be decommissioned on the U. S. She was replaced by a navigational buoy soon after. The buoy has since been retired, because of its importance, the Coast Guard had a permanent 18 man crew stationed on board, consisting of 17 enlisted men and one warrant officer who served as ships captain. Everything the crew needed had to be on board, in the winter, weeks of rough weather prevented any supplies from being delivered. Life on board the lightship was marked by stretches of monotony. The crew worked two to four week rotations, with ten men on duty at all times, in 1978, Columbia was added to the National Register of Historic Places. It was removed from the Register in 1983 due to relocation from its historic location and she was returned to the Register in 1989 when she was declared a National Historic Landmark, listed under the name Lightship WAL-604, Columbia. WLV-604 is now located at the Columbia River Maritime Museum, alongside the navigational buoy that replaced her in 1979, list of lighthouses on the Oregon Coast Columbia Bar Media related to US Lightship Columbia at Wikimedia Commons Sunset Empire Amateur Radio Club station, W7BU, Lightship COLUMBIA museum. OR-159, Lightship Columbia, Columbia River Maritime Museum, Astoria, Clatsop County, OR,5 photos,4 data pages,1 photo caption page
8. Grosse Point Light – The historic Grosse Point Light is located in Evanston, Illinois. Following several shipping disasters near Evanston, residents successfully lobbied the government for a lighthouse. The lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places on September 8,1976, on 20 January 1999, the lighthouse was designated a National Historic Landmark. It is maintained under the jurisdiction of the Evanston Lighthouse Park District, the United States government agreed to construct the lighthouse at Grosse Point after several maritime disasters near the area showed need for it. Particularly influential was the 1860 sinking of the Lady Elgin, a disaster which claimed more than 300 lives, the citizens of Evanston petitioned the government for the light station, but the Civil War delayed any funding for the project. Lighthouses in Chicago proper were proving themselves insufficient, so there was a perceived need for action, the project to construct a lighthouse began in 1872, supervised by Orlando Metcalf Poe, who designed the buildings. Most of the construction was completed by June 30,1873, finally, in March 1874, the light commenced operation. The building is designed in Italianate architecture, in summer 1865 Colonel Poe became the Lighthouse Boards chief engineer, in 1870 he was promoted to the position of Chief Engineer of the Upper Great Lakes 11th Lighthouse District. In this capacity he designed eight Poe style lighthouses and oversaw construction of several, in 1935, the federal government turned over the grounds and the buildings, except for the lighthouse tower and light, to the city of Evanston. In 1941, the Grosse Point Light Station was decommissioned by the United States Coast Guard as a precaution against possible air raids in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor, after the decommissioning, the city received the tower and the light. But the lease allows the government to take the station back if they ever needed it for official use. The light was reignited in 1945 and has served as a navigational aid ever since. The lighthouse is operated by the Lighthouse Park District of Evanston, Illinois, once known as the Northeast Park District, Illinois has two well-known and historic light stations in the Chicago area, plus two pierhead lights. Chicago has no area lighthouse preservation group, and this light has been the beneficiary of preservation efforts in the area. The Calumet Harbor Light—just across the border in Indiana, and one of eleven past or present lighthouses in Indiana, was demolished in 1995, the Gross Point Lights primary structure is the conical light tower. The tower stands on a foundation with wooden piles that reach to a depth of 30 feet. The towers two outer walls include an air space between them. The inner wall has a thickness of 8 inches and rises vertically, the outer wall, at a thickness of 12 inches, rises at a slight incline and gives the tower its conical shape
9. United States lightship Huron (LV-103) – The United States lightship Huron is a lightvessel that was launched in 1920. She is now a museum ship moored in Pine Grove Park, Port Huron, St. Clair County, Huron is one of many lightvessels that plied the waters of the Great Lakes. In 1832 the first lightship on the Great Lakes was placed at Waugoshance Shoal and that wooden light ship was the Lois McLain. In 1851 she was replaced by the Waugoshance Light, which is at one of the most hazardous areas near the Straits of Mackinac, Michigan. In Lake Huron, Huron was the ship to be placed at Corsica Shoals. Three vessels bore the designation of Huron Lightship from 1893 to 1970,61, a wooden-hulled ship, painted red with white lettering saying Corsica Shoals on her sides. Lightship No.61 served from September 1893 until 1921, the grounding of Lightship No.61 was a contributing factor in the loss of the Matthew Andrews at Corsica Shoals. In any event, she was reclaimed and repaired, and remained in service until 1920, in the same storm, Lightship Buffalo foundered near Buffalo in Lake Erie, with the loss of six lives. See Shipwrecks of the 1913 Great Lakes storm and List of victims of the 1913 Great Lakes storm, Buffalo was salvaged and saw service with the Coast Guard until 1936. In 1921, Lightship No.61 was replaced by Lightship No,96, the first vessel to actually be called Huron Lightship. In 1925, there were ten lightvessels on the Great Lakes, fifteen years later, only Huron remained. A list of Great Lakes lightvessel assignments is available, Huron was built by the Consolidated Shipbuilding Company in Morris Heights, New York. Her keel was laid in 1918 and completed at a cost of $147,428. At 96.5 feet long,24 feet in the beam, drawing 9.5 feet, commissioned in 1921 as Lightship Number 103, she operated primarily in southern Lake Huron near Port Huron and the mouth of the St. Clair River. Huron spent the 1924,1925,1926 and 1929 seasons lighting Grays Reef and she was assigned in 1934 and 1935 seasons to the North Manitou Shoal. In 1935 she was transferred to the Eleventh District for one year, after 1945 as Huron, she was the only lightship that was painted black. In 1948, she was refitted to diesel power with twin six-cylinder GM 6-71 engines at the Defoe Shipbuilding Company of West Bay City, after this conversion, her top speed was 9 knots. On 7 May 1958, Coast Guardsman Robert Gullickson perished when a wave swamped a tender from Huron Lightship that he was aboard and he is memorialized on the ship, as he was the only casualty during her many years of service
10. Montauk Point Light – The lighthouse was the first to be built within the state of New York, and was the first public works project of the new United States. It is the fourth oldest active lighthouse in the United States, the lighthouse, which is located on Turtle Hill at the easternmost tip of Long Island, at 2000 Montauk Highway, is a privately run museum, and is not part of Montauk Point State Park. Entry to the lighthouse costs $10.00 for an adult, Montauk Light was the first lighthouse in New York State, and is the fourth-oldest active lighthouse in the United States. The current light, installed in July 2001, equivalent to approximately 290,000 candle power, flashes every 5 seconds, construction on the lighthouse was authorized by the Second United States Congress, under President George Washington on April 12,1792. Ezra LHommedieu, a prominent lawyer, member of the Continental Congress, and he represented the New York City Chamber of Commerce on discussions related to the lighthouse. He made the case that New York City was first among American ports in the volume of its foreign commerce, by 1797, the harbor was handling a third of the nation’s trade with other countries. Due to prevailing winds in winter, shippers approaching from sea needed a lighthouse at the end of Long Island to guide them along the side into New York harbor. LHommedieu chose the site for the lighthouse and designed it, the project began on June 7,1796, and was completed on November 5,1796, the first public works project of the new United States of America. Sometime in early April 1797, keeper Jacob Hand lit the wicks in the lamps in the tower, and it continued under civilian keepers until World War II, when the US Army took it over. In 1860 the lighthouse underwent a massive renovation when two new levels and a larger lantern were added. This increased the height of the tower from its original 80 feet to its current height of 1106, a steam-powered fog signal was installed in 1873, with a fog signal building in 1897. The tower was all white, its single brown stripe was added in 1899. A fourth-order fixed red range-light was added to the deck of the tower in 1903 to warn of Shagwong Reef. This light was damaged in the hurricane of September 21,1938. During World War II, the lighthouse was taken over by the U. S. Army as part of the Eastern Coastal Defense Shield, the last three civilian keepers—Thomas Buckridge, Jack Miller, and George Warrington—departed in the spring of 1943. Adjacent to the lighthouse, Camp Hero was opened by the Army in 1942 and was fortified with huge guns during the war. Those gun emplacements and concrete observation bunkers are still visible, in 1946 the United States Coast Guard took over maintenance of the lighthouse and operated it until the station was automated on February 3,1987. In May of that year, the museum opened to the public