She was one of 20 women slaves given to the Spaniards by the natives of Tabasco in 1519. Later, she became a mistress to Cortés and gave birth to his first son, Martín, the historical figure of Marina has been intermixed with Aztec legends. In Mexico today, La Malinche remains iconically potent and she is understood in various and often conflicting aspects as the embodiment of treachery, the quintessential victim, or simply as symbolic mother of the new Mexican people. The term malinchista refers to a disloyal countryperson, especially in Mexico, La Malinche was born sometime between 1496 and 1501, in the region between the Aztec-ruled Valley of Mexico and the Maya states of the Yucatán Peninsula. She was named Malinalli after the Goddess of Grass, and Tenepal meaning one who speaks with liveliness, in her youth, her father Cacique of Paynala died, and her mother remarried another Cacique and bore a son. Now a stepchild, the girl was given to people from Xicalango. Bernal Díaz del Castillo claims Malinallis family faked her death by telling the townspeople that a deceased child of a slave was Malinalli.
The Xicalango gave the child to the Tobascans, Malinalli was introduced to the Spanish in April 1519, when she was among 20 slave women given by the Chontal Maya of Potonchán after the Spaniards defeated them in battle. At this time, she was probably in her teens or early 20s. Bernal Díaz del Castillo remarked on her beauty and graciousness, she was the one of the slaves whose name he remembered. Cortés singled her out as a gift for Alonso Hernandez Puertocarrero, according to Díaz, she spoke to emissaries from Moctezuma in their native tongue Nahuatl and pointed to Cortés as the chief Spaniard to speak for them. Cortés had located a Spanish priest, Gerónimo de Aguilar, who had spent several years in captivity among the Maya peoples in Yucatán following a shipwreck, thus, he had learned some Mayan, but he did not speak Nahuatl. Cortés used Marina for translating between the Nahuatl language and the Chontal Maya language, Aguilar could interpret from Mayan to Spanish until Marina learned Spanish and could be the sole interpreter.
She accompanied Cortés so closely that Aztec codices always show her picture drawn alongside of Cortés, the natives of Tlaxcala, who formed an alliance with Cortés against Moctezuma, called both Marina and Cortés by the same name, Malintzin. According to surviving records, Marina learned of a plan by natives of Cholula to cooperate with the Aztecs to destroy the small Spanish army and she alerted Cortés to the danger and even pretended to be cooperating with her native informants while Cortés foiled their plot to trap his men. Cortés turned the tables on them and slaughtered many Cholulans, in this manner, she is often considered as a traitor by many and her name is not revered among many locals. Historians such as Prescott generally lost track of Marina after her journey to Central America, some contemporary scholars have estimated that she died less than a decade after the conquest of Mexico-Tenochtitlan at some point in 1529. Historian Sir Hugh Thomas in his book Conquest reports the date of her death as 1551, deduced from letters he discovered in Spain alluding to her as alive in 1550
Angel of Independence
El Ángel was built in 1910 during the presidency of Porfirio Díaz by architect Antonio Rivas Mercado, to commemorate the centennial of the beginning of Mexicos War of Independence. In years it was made into a mausoleum for the most important heroes of that war and it is one of the most recognizable landmarks in Mexico City, and it has become a focal point for both celebration or protest. It resembles the July Column in Paris and the Berlin Victory Column in Berlin, the base of the column is quadrangular with each vertex featuring a bronze sculpture symbolizing law, war and peace. Originally there were nine steps leading to the base, but due to the sinking of the ground, on the main face of the base facing downtown Mexico City, there is an inscription reading La Nación a los Héroes de la Independencia. In front of this inscription is a statue of a giant lion led by a child, representing strength. Next to the column there is a group of statues of some of the heroes of the War of Independence.
The column itself is 36 metres high, the structure is made of steel covered with quarried stone decorated with garlands and rings with the names of Independence figures. Inside the column is a two-hundred step staircase which leads to a viewpoint above the capital, the Corinthian-style capital is adorned by four eagles with extended wings from the Mexican coat of arms used at the time. Crowning the column there is a 6.7 metres statue by Enrique Alciati of Nike and it is made of bronze, covered with 24k gold and weighs 7 tons. In her right hand the Angel, as it is known, holds a laurel crown above Miguel Hidalgos head, symbolizing Victory, while in her left she holds a broken chain. Construction of El Ángel was ordered in 1900 by President Porfirio Díaz, the commission determined that the foundations of the monument were poorly planned, so it was decided to demolish the structure. All the sculptures were made by Italian artist Enrique Alciati, one of the faces in the doors is of one of Rivas Mercado´s daughter, Antonieta.
The monument was completed in time for the festivities to commemorate the first hundred years of Mexican Independence in 1910, the opening ceremony was attended by President Díaz and several foreign dignitaries. The main speaker at the event was Mexican poet Salvador Díaz Mirón, an eternal flame honoring these heroes was installed in the base of the column at the order of President Emilio Portes Gil in 1929. The monument suffered some damage during an earthquake on July 28,1957 when the sculpture of the Winged Victory fell to the ground, sculptor José Fernández Urbina was in charge of the restoration, which lasted more than a year. The monument was reopened on September 16,1958 and it survived the devastating earthquake of September 19,1985 with some damage to the staircases and the reliefs, but none to the Angel. In 1925, during the administration of Plutarco Elías Calles, the remains of the following Heroes of the Mexican Independence were interred in a mausoleum under the base of the monument.
He was released by the inquisition to secular authorities and executed in the auto de fe of 1659, the actual remains of insurgents are buried in the mausoleum, Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, Chief instigator of independence in 1810 and Father of the Nation
Himno Nacional Mexicano
The Mexican National Anthem, known as Mexicans, at the call of war, is the national anthem of the United Mexican States. The anthem first started being used in 1854, although it was not officially adopted de jure until 1943, in 1854 he asked, Jaime Nunó to compose the music which now accompanies Gonzálezs poem. The anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus, effectively entered into use on September 16,1854, on November 12,1853, President Antonio López de Santa Anna announced a competition to write a national anthem for Mexico. The competition offered a prize for the best poetic composition representing patriotic ideals, Francisco González Bocanegra, a talented poet, was not interested in participating in the competition. He argued that writing love poems involved very different skills from the required to write a national anthem. Under false pretenses, she lured him to a bedroom in her parents house, locked him into the room. Inside the room in which he was temporarily imprisoned were pictures depicting various events in Mexican history which helped to inspire his work, after four hours of fluent inspiration, Francisco regained his freedom by slipping all ten verses of his creation under the door.
After Francisco received approval from his fiancée and her father, he submitted the poem, González was announced the winner in the publication Official Journal of the Federation on February 3,1854. A musical composition was chosen at the time as the lyrics. The winner was Juan Bottesini, but his entry was disliked due to aesthetics and this rejection caused a second national contest to find music for the lyrics. At the end of the second contest, the music that was chosen for Gonzálezs lyrics was composed by Jaime Nunó, at the time of the second anthem competition, Nunó was the leader of several Mexican military bands. He had been invited to direct these bands by President Santa Anna, about the time that Nunó first came to Mexico to start performing with the bands, Santa Anna was making his announcement about creating a national anthem for Mexico. Nunós anthem music composition was made like masterpieces of music, with a high quality in composition. Out of the few musical compositions submitted, Nunós music, titled God, the anthem was officially adopted on Independence Day, September 16 of that same year.
The inaugural performance was directed by Juan Bottesini, sung by soprano Claudia Florenti, officially since 1943, the full national anthem consists of the chorus, 1st stanza, 5th stanza, 6th stanza and 10th stanza. The modification of the lyrics was ordered by President Manuel Ávila Camacho in a decree printed in the Diario Oficial de la Federación. When the anthem is played at sporting events, such as the Olympic Games and the FIFA World Cup, the parts of the anthem that are played are the chorus, 1st stanza. When opening and closing television and or radio programming, stations have played a modified national anthem consisting of the chorus, 1st stanza, chorus, 10th stanza
The Spanish terms vaquero and ranchero are similar to the charro but different in culture, mannerism, clothing and social status. Charreada has become the sport of Mexico and maintains traditional rules. The Real Academia maintains the same definition and origin, the viceroyalty of New Spain had prohibited Native Americans from riding or owning horses with the exception of the Tlaxcaltec nobility and other allied chieftains and their descendants. However, cattle raising required the use of horses, for which farmers would hire cowboys that were prefereably mestizo, after the Mexican War of Independence, horse riding exploded in popularity. Many men became mercenaries and workers in plantations, the most successful of these were those of mixed race who could act as middlemen of the lighter skinned Spanish people and the darker skinned indigenous tribes of the area. Better known as Chinacos, these men became distinguished during the independence war, rich plantation owners would often dress themselves and their horses in clothing that portrayed their status in the community.
The poorer riders would dress their horses in clothing made from agave or would border their saddles with chamois skin, a light grey version with silver embroidery served as the uniform of the rurales. In the mid-nineteenth century, Mexican riders faced the Reform War and those riders of Abolengo allied themselves with the foreign prince Maximilian I of Mexico who surrounded himself in their culture in order to appease to the average Mexican. The modern pants of the charro is attributed to his own personal design, on the other hand, the plateados, riders belonging to rich liberal plantation owners, allied themselves with the republic. From this time period, Carlos Rincon Gallardo established himself as the father of charreria and is hailed by modern charros as well as players of polo. In 1861, during the presidency of Benito Juarez, General Ignacio Zaragoza created the first Rural Guard, the Rurales were charged with chasing down highwaymen and rural thieves. During the rule of Porfirio Diaz, they were known for maintaining security and they were experienced riders, uniformed in gray charro clothing and sombreros.
Heavily armed with sabers and pistols, they inspired fear, as well as a still in use today. However, the most notable example of charreria is General Emiliano Zapata who was known before the revolution as an skilled rider, during this time, paintings of charros became popular. The traditional Mexican charro is known for colorful clothing and participating in coleadero y charreada, the charreada is the national sport in Mexico, and is regulated by the Federación Mexicana de Charrería. In Spain, a charro is a native of the province of Salamanca, especially in the area of Alba de Tormes, Ciudad Rodrigo and its likely that the Mexican charro tradition derived from Spanish horsemen who came from Salamanca and settled in Jalisco. The most notable stars were José Alfredo Jiménez, Pedro Infante, Jorge Negrete, Antonio Aguilar. These events are practiced in a Lienzo charro, some decades ago charros in Mexico were permitted to carry guns
Eagle is a common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae, it belongs to several groups of genera that are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the 60 species of eagles are from Eurasia and Africa, outside this area, just 14 species can be found – two in North America, nine in Central and South America, and three in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy heads, most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures. The smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, the largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs. The beak is typically heavier than that of most other birds of prey, Eagles eyes are extremely powerful, having up to 3.6 times human acuity for the martial eagle, which enables them to spot potential prey from a very long distance. This keen eyesight is primarily attributed to their extremely large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light, the female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male.
Eagles normally build their nests, called eyries, in trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick frequently kills its younger sibling once it has hatched, the dominant chick tends to be a female, as they are bigger than the male. The parents take no action to stop the killing, due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world. The type of prey varies by genus, the snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are often the top birds of prey in open habitats, where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich Spizaetus genus, live predominantly in woodlands and these eagles often target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are often unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments.
Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment, most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart. The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle even killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. It has been observed that most birds of prey look back over their shoulders before striking prey, all hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey, only the condors and it is regularly debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in total length, body mass, different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species
Dahlia is a genus of bushy, herbaceous perennial plants native to Mexico. A member of the Asteraceae, dicotyledonous plants, related species include the sunflower, chrysanthemum, there are 42 species of dahlia, with hybrids commonly grown as garden plants. Flower forms are variable, with one head per stem, these can be as small as 5 cm diameter or up to 30 cm and this great variety results from dahlias being octoploids—that is, they have eight sets of homologous chromosomes, whereas most plants have only two. In addition, dahlias contain many pieces that move from place to place upon an allele—which contributes to their manifesting such great diversity. The stems are leafy, ranging in height from as low as 30 cm to more than 1. 8–2.4 m, the majority of species do not produce scented flowers or cultivars. Like most plants that do not attract pollinating insects through scent, they are colored, displaying most hues. The dahlia was declared the national flower of Mexico in 1963, the tubers were grown as a food crop by the Aztecs, but this use largely died out after the Spanish Conquest.
Attempts to introduce the tubers as a crop in Europe were unsuccessful. Dahlias are annual blooming plants, with mostly tuberous roots, while some have herbaceous stems, others have stems which lignify in the absence of secondary tissue and resprout following winter dormancy, allowing further seasons of growth. As a member of the Asteraceae the flower head is actually a composite with both disc florets and surrounding ray florets. Each floret is a flower in its own right, but is incorrectly described as a petal. The modern name Asteraceae refers to the appearance of a star with surrounding rays, in the language of flowers, Dahlias represent dignity and instability, as well as meaning my gratitude exceeds your care. They were used as a source of food by the indigenous peoples, the Aztecs used them to treat epilepsy, and employed the long hollow stem of the for water pipes. The indigenous peoples variously identified the plants as Chichipatl and Acocotle or Cocoxochitl, from Hernandez perception of Aztec, to Spanish, through various other translations, the word is water cane, water pipe, water pipe flower, hollow stem flower and cane flower.
All these refer to the hollowness of the plants stem, Hernandez described two varieties of dahlias as well as other medicinal plants of New Spain. Francisco Dominguez, a Hidalgo gentleman who accompanied Hernandez on part of his seven-year study, three of his drawings showed plants with flowers, two resembled the modern bedding dahlia, and one resembled the species Dahlia merki, all displayed a high degree of doubleness. The original manuscripts were destroyed in a fire in the mid-1600s, in 1789, Vicente Cervantes, Director of the Botanical Garden at Mexico City, sent plant parts to Abbe Antonio José Cavanilles, Director of the Royal Gardens of Madrid. Cavanilles flowered one plant that same year, the one a year later
Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos
Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated by Mexican and Texan faithful. The original image is a focus for pilgrims and is located in the state of Jalisco. The statue is venerated both in Mexico and the United States known by its proxy title Nuestra Señora de San Juan del Valle mainly focused in Texas. Pope Pius X granted the image a Canonical coronation on 15 August 1904 and is known for the jeweled regalia offered by its devotees all throughout Mexico. It is permanently enshrined at the Basilica Minor of San Juan de los Lagos and is one of the most visited shrines in Mexico. The sanctuarys history begins in 1543 when Father Miguel de Bologna, the town was called San Juan Mezquititlan Baptist but its name was changed to San Juan de Los Lagos in 1623. His act included his wife and two daughters and his stunts included swinging from one high point to another by means of ropes, in somewhat the same fashion as trapeze artists of today. To add excitement and an element of danger, the artists had to fly over swords, while performing in the village, the younger daughter, a child of six or seven, fell upon the knives and was mortally wounded.
After preparing the body and wrapping it in burial cloths, the grieving parents brought the body to the chapel of Our Lady of San Juan for burial. Meeting them at the door of the chapel was the 78-year-old Ana Lucia, feeling pity for the grieving family, she exhorted them to have confidence in The Virgin, who could restore the child to them. Taking the statue from its altar in the sacristy where it had been consigned because of its poor condition, in a few moments, they detected a slight movement under the shroud. The parents quickly unwrapped the cloth to discover the child well and this first miracle of Our Lady of San Juan de Los Lagos became known in neighboring villages and towns. Numerous other miracles and favors followed, until now Our Lady is venerated by pilgrims from throughout Mexico, following this miracle, the statue began to be venerated by an increasing number of pilgrims including Indians and mestizos. During this period the statue acquired its own identity as Our Lady of San Juan de los Lagos.
Between the early 17th century and the middle of the 19th century a fair was held each year on November 30 to celebrate the original installation of the statue in the shrine. The present church, begun in 1732, was built in the Mexican baroque style, the statue of the Virgin was installed in 1769 and the bell towers were completed in 1790. In 1972 the church was recognized as a basilica, inside the church, upon a platform with an upturned crescent moon, stands the statue of the Virgin. The face is dark in color, the widely spaced
Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. The form of the coat of arms was most recently revised in 1968, but the design has been used since 1821. Red and green are the colors of the liberation army in Mexico. The central emblem is the Mexican coat of arms, based on the Aztec symbol for Tenochtitlan and it recalls the legend of an eagle sitting on a cactus that signaled to the Aztecs where to found their city, Tenochtitlan. A ribbon in the colors is at the bottom of the coat of arms. Throughout history, the flag has changed several times, as the design of the coat of arms and the length-width ratios of the flag have been modified. The coat of arms is derived from an Aztec legend that their gods told them to build a city where they spot an eagle on a nopal eating a serpent, which is now Mexico City. The current law of symbols, Law on the National Arms and Anthem. The current national flag is used as the Mexican naval ensign by ships registered in Mexico.
Before the adoption of the first national flag, various flags were used during the War of Independence from Spain, the Standard became the initial symbol of the rebel army during the Mexican War of Independence. Various other Standards were used during the war, josé María Morelos used a flag with an image of the Virgin to which was added a blue and white insignia with a crowned eagle on a cactus over a three-arched bridge and the letters V. V. M. The Revolutionary Army used a flag featuring the white, blue. The first use of the modern colors—green and red—was in the flag of the unified Army of the Three Guarantees after independence from Spain was won. While similar to the flag that is used today, the eagle in these arms is not holding a serpent in his talons. Variants of this flag appeared in this period included a naval flag that had the tricolor pattern. The military used a square flag, but the eagle was larger than on the national flag. The national flag was officially decreed by Agustín de Iturbide in November 1821 and this flag was no longer used upon the abolishment of the empire.
The first national flag was established in 1821, the first year of Mexican recognized sovereignty, the imperial government that was set up chose a tricolor flag of green and red and charged with the national coat of arms
Our Lady of Guadalupe
The basilica is the most visited Catholic pilgrimage site in the world, and the worlds third most-visited sacred site. Pope Leo XIII granted the image a Canonical Coronation on 12 October 1895. Official Catholic accounts state that the Virgin Mary appeared four times before Juan Diego and one more before Juan Diegos uncle. Speaking to Juan Diego in his native Nahuatl language, the maiden identified herself as the Virgin Mary, mother of the very true deity and asked for a church to be built at that site in her honor. Based on her words, Juan Diego sought out the archbishop of Mexico City, Fray Juan de Zumárraga, as the bishop did not believe Diego, on the same day, Juan Diego saw the Virgin Mary for a second time, she asked him to keep insisting. On Sunday, December 10, Juan Diego talked to the archbishop for a second time, the latter instructed him to return to Tepeyac Hill, and ask the lady for a miraculous sign to prove her identity. By Monday, December 11, Juan Diegos uncle Juan Bernardino had fallen sick and Juan Diego was obliged to attend to him.
In the words which have become the most famous phrase of the Guadalupe event and are inscribed over the entrance to the Basilica of Guadalupe, she asked. She assured him that Juan Bernardino had now recovered and she told him to gather flowers from the top of Tepeyac Hill, Juan followed her instructions and he found Castilian roses, not native to Mexico, blooming there. The bishop kept Juan Diegos mantle first in his private chapel, on December 26,1531 a procession formed for taking the miraculous image back to Tepeyac where it was installed in a small hastily erected chapel. In great distress, the Indians carried him before the Virgins image, upon the arrow being withdrawn, the victim made a full and immediate recovery. Juan Diegos tilma has become Mexicos most popular religious and cultural symbol, Juan Diego was canonized in 2002, under the name Saint Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin. Following the Conquest in 1519–21, the Spanish destroyed a temple of the mother goddess Tonantzin at Tepeyac outside Mexico City, newly converted natives continued to come from afar to worship there, often addressing the Virgin Mary as Tonantzin.
It contains the glyph of Antonio Valeriano, and finally, scholarly doubts have been cast on the authenticity of the document, however. This document, written in Nahuatl, but in Latin script, tells the story of the apparitions and it was probably composed by a native Aztec man, called Antonio Valeriano, who had been educated by Franciscans. The text of document was incorporated into a printed pamphlet which was widely circulated in 1649. The main promoter of the cult was the Dominican Alonso de Montúfar, in a 1556 sermon Montúfar commended popular devotion to Our Lady of Guadalupe, referring to a painting on cloth in the chapel of the Virgin Mary at Tepeyac, where certain miracles had occurred. Days later, Fray Francisco de Bustamante, local head of the Franciscan order and he expressed concern that the Archbishop was promoting a superstitious regard for an image, The devotion at the chapel
National symbols of Mexico
The national symbols of Mexico are the flag, the coat of arms and the anthem. The flag is a tricolor of green, white. The coat of arms features a golden eagle eating a snake on top of a cactus, the current national flag was adopted on September 16,1968, and was confirmed by law on February 24,1984. The current version is an adaptation of the approved by presidential decree in 1916 by Venustiano Carranza. The current flag is a tricolor of green, white. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the countrys War of Independence. The colors of the flag originated from the banner of the Army of the Three Guarantees, other groups have used the national colors as part of their own logos or symbols. For example, the Institutional Revolutionary Party political party has adopted the colors as part of their logo. Several states, such as Querétaro and Hidalgo have incorporated elements of the national flag, or even the entire flag.
According to the story of Mexico, the national coat of arms was inspired by an Aztec legend regarding the founding of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs, a tribe, were wandering throughout Mexico in search of a divine sign that would indicate the precise spot upon which they were to build their capital. A closer look at the original Aztec codices, paintings, in the text by Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, the eagle is devouring something, but it is not mentioned what it is. Still other versions show the eagle clutching the Aztec symbol of war, the bird featured on the Mexican coat of arms is the golden eagle. This bird is known in Spanish as águila real, in 1960, the Mexican ornithologist Martín del Campo identified the eagle in the pre-Hispanic codex as a northern caracara or quebrantahuesos, a species common in Mexico. Even so, the prickly pear cactus is considered the Mexican plant for official purposes, the National Anthem of Mexico was originally adopted in 1943. In 1854, Jaime Nunó arranged the music which now accompanies Gonzálezs poem, the anthem, consisting of ten stanzas and a chorus, entered into use on September 16,1854.
From 1854 until its adoption, the lyrics underwent several modifications due to political changes in the country. At the same time the lyrics were chosen, a set of music was chosen, the winner was Juan Bottesini, but his entry was disliked due to aesthetics