The Patriarchal cross is a variant of the Christian cross, the religious symbol of Christianity. Similar to the familiar Latin cross, the Patriarchal cross possesses a smaller crossbar placed above the main one, sometimes the patriarchal cross has a short, slanted crosspiece near its foot. This slanted, lower crosspiece often appears in Byzantine Greek and Eastern European iconography, the Byzantine Christianization came to the Morava empire in the year 863, provided at the request of Rastislav sent Byzantine Emperor Michael III. The symbol, often referred to as the cross, appeared in the Byzantine Empire in large numbers in the 10th century. For a long time, it was thought to have given to Saint Stephen by the pope as the symbol of the apostolic Kingdom of Hungary. The two-barred cross is one of the elements in the coats of arms of Hungary since 1190. It appeared during the reign of King Béla III, who was raised in the Byzantine court, Béla was the son of Russian princess Eufrosina Mstislavovna.
The cross appears floating in the coat of arms and on the coins from this era, in medieval Kingdom of Hungary was extended Byzantine Cyril-Methodian and western Latin church was expanded later. The two-barred cross in the Hungarian coat of arms comes from the source of Byzantine Empire in the 12th century. Unlike the ordinary Christian cross, the symbolism and meaning of the cross is not well understood. The top beam represents the plaque bearing the inscription Jesus of Nazareth, a popular view is that the slanted bottom beam is a foot rest, however there is no evidence of foot rests ever being used during crucifixion, and it has a deeper meaning. The bottom beam may represent a balance of justice, many symbolic interpretations of the double cross have been put forth. One of them says that the first horizontal line symbolized the secular power, that the first cross bar represents the death and the second cross the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The Russian cross can be considered a version of the Patriarchal cross.
One suggestion is the lower crossbeam represents the footrest to which the feet of Jesus were nailed, in some earlier representations the crossbar near the bottom is straight, or slanted upwards. In Slavic and other traditions, it came to be depicted as slanted, during 1577–1625 the Russian use of the cross was between the heads of the double-headed eagle in the coat of arms of Russia. One tradition says that this comes from the idea that as Jesus Christ took his last breath, in this manner it reminds the viewer of the Last Judgment. Another form of the cross was used by the Jagiellonian dynasty in Poland and this cross now features on the coat of arms of Lithuania, where it appears on the shield of the knight
Flag of Russia
The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields, white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom. The flag was first used as an ensign for Russian merchant ships and it remained in use until the establishment of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic in 1917. During the Soviet Unions existence, it used the flag with the red field with the hammer and sickle. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the tricolor was re-introduced as the flag of the Russian Federation in 1991 in the 1,2 ratio. The Tsarist tricolor was fully restored in 1993 after the crisis as the current flag. Two accounts of the flags origin connect it to the used by the Dutch Republic. The earliest mention of the flag occurs during the reign of Alexis I, in 1668, and is related to the construction of the first Russian naval ship, the frigate Oryol. A different account traces the origins of the Russian flag to tsar Peter the Greats visits to Arkhangelsk in 1693 and 1694, Peter was keenly interested in shipbuilding in the European style, different from the barges ordinarily used in Russia at the time.
In 1693, Peter had ordered a Dutch-built frigate from Amsterdam, in 1694 when it arrived, the Dutch red-white-and-blue banner flew from its stern. Peter decided to model Russias naval flag after this banner by changing the sequence of colors, the Russian tricolour flag was adopted as a merchant flag at rivers in 1705. Two other Slavic countries and Slovenia, have similar to the Russian one. On 7 May 1883, the Russian flag was authorized to be used on land, and it became an official National flag before the coronation of Tsar Nicholas II in 1896. From that time period, a 1,2 red flag featuring the abbreviated name RSFSR was used, during the Second World War the white-blue-red tricolor has been used by the collaborationist troops of Andrey Vlasov, who was allied with Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union. It was not until the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 that the tricolor was brought back as the flag of the new Russian Federation. The modern era flag underwent a change in 1993 and has been official since 2000.
A variant of the flag was authorized for use by Tsar Nicholas II before World War I. Or was never made the state flag. All of the Soviet Republics flags were created by introducing a small, for Russia, the change was an introduction of the left-hand blue band
In heraldry and vexillology, the double-headed eagle is a charge associated with the concept of Empire. Most modern uses of the symbol are directly or indirectly associated with its use by the Roman/Byzantine Empire, whose use of it represented the Empires dominion over the Near East and the West. But the symbol itself is, in fact, much older, the eagle by itself has long been a symbol of power and dominion. The double-headed eagle motif appears to have its origin in the Ancient Near East. It re-appears in the High Middle Ages, from ca, in a few places, among them the Holy Roman Empire and Russia, the motif was further augmented to create the less prominent triple-headed eagle. Polycephalous mythological beasts are very frequent in the Bronze Age to Iron Age pictorial legacy of the Ancient Near East, especially in the Assyrian sphere, use of the double-headed eagle in Hittite imagery has been interpreted as royal insignia. A monumental Hittite relief of an eagle grasping two hares is found at the eastern pier of the Sphinx Gate at Alaca Hüyük.
After the Bronze Age collapse, there is a gap of more than two millennia before the re-appearance of the double-headed eagle motif, the early Byzantine Empire continued to use the imperial eagle motif. A modern theory, forwarded by Zapheiriou, connected the introduction of the motif to Emperor Isaac I Komnenos, Zapheiriou supposed that the Hittite motif of the double-headed bird, associated with the Paphlagonian city of Gangra might have been brought to Byzantium by the Komnenoi. The double-headed eagle motif was adopted in the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, a royal association of the motif is suggested by its appearance on the keystone of an arch of the citadel built at Ikonion under Kayqubad I. The motif appears on Turkomen coins of this era, notably on coins minted under Artuqid ruler Nasir al-Din Mahmud of Hasankeyf. The oldest preserved depiction of an eagle in Serbia is the one found in the donor portrait of Miroslav of Hum in the Church of St. Peter and Paul in Bijelo Polje. The double-headed eagle in the Serbian royal coat of arms is attested in the 13th and 14th centuries.
An exceptional medieval depiction of a double headed eagle in the west, in Serbia, the Nemanjić dynasty adopted a double-headed eagle by the 14th century. The double-headed eagle was used in coats of arms found in the Illyrian Armorials. The white double-headed eagle on a red shield was used for the Nemanjić dynasty, a Nemanjić eagle was used at the crest of the Hrebeljanović, while a half-white half-red eagle was used at the crest of the Mrnjavčević. Use of the eagle was continued by the modern Karađorđević, Obrenović. The double-headed eagle remained an important motif in the heraldry of the families of Russia
The bear image was, however, on various occasions taken up by Russians themselves. Having the bear cub Misha as the mascot of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games was evidently intended to counter the big and brutal Russian Bear image with a small, cuddly, in Russia associations with the image of the bear have received relatively mixed reactions. On one hand, Russians themselves appreciate the bear for its raw power and cunning, the bear was taken up as the symbol of the United Russia Party, which has dominated political life in Russia since the early 2000s. Coincidentally, the surname of Dmitry Medvedev, the Russian president elected in 2008, is the adjective of медведь. Russian amateur wrestler Aleksandr Karelin has nicknamed the Russian Bear. In Native American Lore, the bear was considered The Guardian of the West, media related to Russian Bear at Wikimedia Commons Rossomakhin, A. Khrustalev, D. Russia as a Bear, origins of the visualization
Flag of the Soviet Union
The flag of the Soviet Union, commonly known as the Soviet flag was the official national flag of the Soviet Union from 1923 to 1991. The flags design and symbolism are derived from the Russian Revolution, the flag is an international symbol of the communist movement as a whole. The nicknames for the flag were The Hammer and Sickle and The Red Banner, the design is a solid field of red adorned with a unique gold emblem in the upper hoist quarter. The red flag was a revolutionary symbol long before 1917. The iconic hammer and sickle design was a modern touch – the union of the hammer, the famous emblem is topped by an inconspicuous red star representing the rule of the Communist Party. The first flag with the red star and sickle was adopted on 13 November 1923, in 1955, a statute on the flag was adopted which resulted in a change of the hammers handle length and the shape of the sickle. A final modification to the flag was adopted in 1980 in which the colour was brightened to a shade of red.
The flag continued to be the national flag until the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Its imagery is now the basis for the flags of many communist parties, the flag of the Soviet Union consisted of a plain red flag with a gold hammer crossed with a gold sickle placed beneath a gold-bordered red star. This symbol is in the upper canton of the red flag. The colour red honours the red flag of the Paris Commune of 1871, the ideology of communism can be seen from the flag. The red star and hammer and sickle are themselves symbols of communism and socialism, the hammer symbolises urban industrial workers while the sickle symbolises agricultural workers —who together, as the Proletarian class, form the state. The reverse of the flag is officially just red, without the symbols, however, in practice, the flag was usually made through and through and thus the symbols usually appeared on the reverse side and in the reverse order. The flags design was legislated in 1955, which gave a way to define. This resulted in a change of the handle length and the shape of the sickle.
The adopted statute stated that, The ratio of width to length of the flag is 1,2, the hammer and sickle are in a square with sides equal to 1⁄4 of the flags height. The sharp tip of the lies in the center of the upper side of the square. The length of the hammer and its handle is 3⁄4 of the square diagonal, the five-pointed star is inscribed into a circle with a diameter of 1⁄8 of the flags height, the circle being tangent to the upper side of the square
A red star, five-pointed and filled, is an important symbol often associated with communist ideology, particularly in combination with hammer and sickle. It has been used in flags, state emblems, ornaments. The five-pointed red star has served since about 1917 as a symbol of communism. One interpretation sees the five points as representing the five fingers of the workers hand, a red star became one of the emblems and signals representing the Soviet Union under the rule of the Communist Party, along with, for example, the hammer and sickle. In Soviet heraldry, the red star symbolized the Red Army and the service, as opposed to the hammer and sickle. It is most often thought that Russian troops fleeing from the Austrian and German fronts found themselves in Moscow in 1917, to distinguish the Moscow troops from the influx of retreating front-liners, officers gave out tin stars to the Moscow garrison soldiers to wear on their hats. When those troops joined the Red Army and the Bolsheviks they painted their tin stars red, another claimed origin for the red star relates to an alleged encounter between Leon Trotsky and Nikolai Krylenko.
Krylenko, an Esperantist, wore a lapel badge, Trotsky enquired as to its meaning. On hearing that, Trotsky specified that soldiers of the Red Army should wear a similar, red and it has been suggested that the use of the red star might be related to the popular novel called Red star from 1908 by Alexander Bogdanov. Following its adoption as an emblem of the Soviet Union, the red star became a symbol for communism in a larger sense, the symbol became one of the most prominent of the Soviet Union, adorning all official buildings and insignia. Sometimes the hammer and sickle appeared depicted inside or below the star and socialist movements sometimes adopted the red star, as on the Estelada flag in the Catalan countries. Titos partisans, often including people with different political views, or even with a religious background, wore the red star as an identification symbol. As the use of the red star spread to communism in East Asia, it was adapted, while some states kept the star as it was, some used a star, particularly on a red field.
The Far Eastern Republic of 1920 to 1922 used a star on its military uniforms. The flag of Vietnam has a star on a red field. In Brazil, the red star remained as it was, the Soviet and Russian Federation military newspaper is called the Red Star. Some sports teams from non-communist countries used it, such as French Red Star from Paris, Swiss club FC Red Star Zürich, English Seaham Red Star F. C. the Brazilian leftist Workers Party uses a red star as its symbol with the party acronym inside. Hugo Chávez and his supporters in Venezuela have used the red star in numerous symbols and logos and it was used throughout 2007 as a symbol of the 5 Engines of the Bolivarian Socialist Revolution
Bread and salt
Bread and salt is a welcome greeting ceremony in many European cultures. It is common in Albania and Armenia, when important, respected, or admired guests arrive, they are presented with a loaf of bread placed on a rushnik. A salt holder or a salt cellar is placed on top of the bread loaf or secured in a hole on the top of the loaf, in modern Russia, on official occasions, the bread and salt is presented by young women dressed in national costumes. When this tradition is observed in spaceflight, appropriately small packages of bread and salt are used. Bread and heart is a traditional way of honoring guests, it dates back from the Kanun of Lekë Dukagjini Chapter 18 - para.608, The Guest shall be welcomed with Bread, salt. Heart in the context is related with hospitality, the concept is based on giving the most expensive thing of that time which was salt to the awaited guest, nowadays it is not commonly practiced during daily life. Bread and salt is a traditional Bulgarian custom expressing hospitality, showing that the guest is welcomed, the bread and salt is commonly presented to guests by a woman.
Bulgarians usually make a type of bread for this occasion called pogacha, which is flat, fancy. Regular bread is not usually used, although it may have been historically, guests are presented with the pogacha, and the guest is supposed to take a small piece, dip into the salt and eat it. This custom is common for official visits regardless of whether the guest is foreign or Bulgarian, one notable example of this custom is when the Russians came to liberate Bulgaria from the Ottomans at the end of the 19th century. A common scene from that period was of a Bulgarian village woman welcoming Russian soldiers with bread and this tradition is still practiced in the Czech Republic and Slovakia for special occasions, for example, when presidents from other countries are visiting. It is not commonly practiced during daily life, the tradition gave rise to the Russian word that expresses a persons hospitality, khlebosolny. Also historically the Russian Empire had a salt tax that made salt a very expensive.
There is a traditional Russian greeting Khleb da sol, the phrase is to be uttered by an arriving guest as an expression of good wish towards the hosts household. It was often used by beggars as a hint to be fed, therefore a mocking rhymed response is known. In the Russian Orthodox Church, it is customary to greet the bishop at the steps of the church when he arrives for a visit to a church or monastery with bread. In Poland, welcoming with bread and salt is often associated with the hospitality of the Polish nobility. A 17th-century Polish poet, Wespazjan Kochowski, wrote in 1674, O good bread, another poet who mentioned the custom was Wacław Potocki
The brown bear is a large bear with the widest distribution of any living ursid. The species is distributed across much of northern Eurasia and North America. It is one of the two largest terrestrial carnivorans alive today, rivaled in size only by its close cousin, the polar bear. There are several recognized subspecies, many of which are quite well-known within their native ranges, the brown bears principal range includes parts of Russia, Central Asia, Canada, the United States and the Carpathian region and Caucasus. The brown bear is recognized as a national and state animal in several European countries, as of 2012, this and the American black bear are the only bear species not classified as threatened by the IUCN. One of the subspecies, the Himalayan brown bear, is critically endangered, occupying only 2% of its former range. The Marsican brown bear, one of several isolated populations of the main Eurasian brown bear race. The brown bear is referred to as the bruin, from Middle English. This name originated in the fable, History of Reynard the Fox, translated by William Caxton, from Middle Dutch bruun or bruyn, in the mid-19th century United States, the brown bear was termed Old Ephraim and sometimes as Moccasin Joe.
The scientific name of the bear, Ursus arctos, comes from the Latin ursus, meaning bear. Brown bears are thought to have evolved from Ursus etruscus in Asia, the brown bear, per Kurten, has been stated as clearly derived from the Asian population of Ursus savini about 800,000 years ago, spread into Europe, to the New World. The oldest fossils positivity identified as from this species occur in China from about 0.5 million years ago, Brown bears entered Europe about 250,000 years ago, and North Africa shortly after. Brown bear remains from the Pleistocene period are common in the British Isles, the species entered Alaska 100,000 years ago, though they did not move south until 13,000 years ago. It is speculated that brown bears were unable to migrate south until the extinction of the much larger Arctodus simus, Brown bear fossils discovered in Ontario, Ohio and Labrador show the species occurred farther east than indicated in historic records. There are many used by scientists to define bear species and subspecies as no one method is always effective.
Brown bear taxonomy and subspecies classification has described as formidable. Genetic testing is now perhaps the most important way to scientifically define brown bear relationships, generally genetic testing uses the word clade rather than species because a genetic test alone cannot define a biological species. Most genetic studies report on how closely related the bears are, there are hundreds of obsolete brown bear subspecies, each with its own name, and this can become confusing, Hall lists 86 different types and even as many as 90 have been proposed
Hammer and sickle
The hammer and sickle or sickle and hammer is a Communist symbol that was conceived during the Russian Revolution. At the time of creation, the hammer stood for industrial laborers, after World War I and the Russian Civil War, the hammer and sickle became more widely used as a symbol for peaceful labor within the Soviet Union and for international proletarian unity. It was taken up by many Communist movements around the world and worker instruments and tools have long been used as symbols for proletarian struggle. A popular ancestor to the hammer and sickle was a hammer on a plough, in Ireland, the symbol of the plough remains in use. The Starry Plough banner was used by the Irish Citizen Army. James Connolly, co-founder of the Irish Citizen Army with Jack White, a sword is forged into the plough to symbolise the end of war with the establishment of a Socialist International. This was unveiled in 1914 and flown by the Irish Citizen Army during the 1916 Easter Rising, in 1917, Vladimir Lenin and Anatoly Lunacharsky held a competition to create a Soviet emblem. ” in six languages.
It originally featured a sword, but Lenin strongly objected, disliking the violent connotations, the winning designer was Yevgeny Ivanovich Kamzolkin. On 6 July 1923 the 2nd session of the Central Executive Committee adopted this emblem, serp i Molot is the name of the Moscow Metallurgical Plant. Serp i Molot is the name of a stop on the railway line from Kurski railway station in Moscow to Gorky, featured in Venedikt Yerofeyevs novel. In the Soviet Union the hammer and sickle came to take on a meaning, with the sickle coming to be associated with women. In addition, the Russian city of Oryol uses the hammer, the former Soviet national airline, continues to use the hammer and sickle in its symbol. The flag can appear without the hammer and sickle in some circumstances, all of these use the yellow-on-red colour scheme. In Laos and Vietnam, the hammer and sickle flags party flags can often be seen flying side-by-side with their national flags. The Communist Party of Sweden, the Portuguese Communist Party and the Mexican Communist Party use the hammer, the hammer and sickle accompanied by the yellow star is used by the Communist Refoundation Party, the main Communist party in Italy.
Many symbols having similar structures and messages to the original have been designed, for example, the Angolan flag shows a segment of a cog, crossed by a machete and crowned with a socialist star, while the flag of Mozambique features an AK-47 crossed by a hoe. In the logo of the Communist Party USA, a circle is formed by a half cog, a hammer is laid directly over the sickles handle with the hammers head at the logos center. The logo of the Communist Party of Turkey consists of half a cog wheel crossed by a hammer, the pickaxe and rifle used in communist Albania, and the hammer and compasses of the emblem of the East German flag