Category:Native American museums in New York (state)
Pages in category "Native American museums in New York (state)"
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. American Museum of Natural History – The American Museum of Natural History, located on the Upper West Side of Manhattan, New York City, is one of the largest museums in the world. The museum has a scientific staff of 225, sponsors over 120 special field expeditions each year. Before construction of the present complex, the museum was housed in the Arsenal building in Central Park. Sherman, A. G. Phelps Dodge, William A. Haines, Charles A. Dana, Joseph H. Choate, Henry G. Stebbins, Henry Parish, the founding of the museum realized the dream of naturalist Dr. Albert S. Bickmore. Bickmore, a student of Harvard zoologist Louis Agassiz, lobbied tirelessly for years for the establishment of a natural history museum in New York. In 1874, the cornerstone was laid for the museums first building, the original Victorian Gothic building, which was opened in 1877, was designed by J. Wrey Mould, both already closely identified with the architecture of Central Park. The original building was eclipsed by the south range of the museum, designed by J. Cleaveland Cady. It extends 700 feet along West 77th Street, with corner towers 150 feet tall and its pink brownstone and granite, similar to that found at Grindstone Island in the St. Lawrence River, came from quarries at Picton Island, New York. The entrance on Central Park West, the New York State Memorial to Theodore Roosevelt and it leads to a vast Roman basilica, where visitors are greeted with a cast of a skeleton of a rearing Barosaurus defending her young from an Allosaurus. The museum is accessible through its 77th street foyer, renamed the Grand Gallery. The hall leads into the oldest extant exhibit in the museum, since 1930, little has been added to the exterior of the original building. The architect Kevin Roche and his firm Roche-Dinkeloo have been responsible for the planning of the museum since the 1990s. Various renovations both interior and exterior have been carried out including improvements to Dinosaur Hall and mural restoration in Roosevelt Memorial Hall, in 1992 the firm designed the new eight story AMNH Library. The museums south façade, spanning 77th Street from Central Park West to Columbus Avenue was cleaned, repaired and re-emerged in 2009, steven Reichl, a spokesman for the museum, said that work would include restoring 650 black-cherry window frames and stone repairs. The museums consultant on the latest renovation is Wiss, Janney, Elstner Associates, Inc. an architectural and engineering firm with headquarters in Northbrook, the museums first two presidents were John David Wolfe and Robert L. Stuart, both among the museums founders. The museum was not put on a sound footing until the appointment of the president, Morris K. Jesup. Jesup was president for over 25 years, overseeing its expansion, the fourth president, Henry Fairfield Osborn, was appointed in 1906 on the death of Jesup. Osborn consolidated the museums expansion, developing it into one of the worlds foremost natural history museums, F. Trubee Davison was president from 1933 to 1951, with A. Perry Osborn as Acting President from 1941 to 1946
2. Fenimore Art Museum – The Fenimore Art Museum is a museum located in Cooperstown, New York. It presents changing and permanent exhibitions of American Folk Art, North American Indian art and artifacts, Hudson River School and 19th-century genre paintings, and American photography. The Museum was moved to its present location — Cooperstown, New York overlooking Lake Otsego — in 1939 due to a gift from Stephen Carlton Clark, much of the American Fine Art Collection was donated by Clark, a generous art connoisseur. The museum also has a deal of material associated with James Fenimore Cooper, Cooperstowns most famous native son. This includes furniture, portraits and paintings, personal effects and books owned by Cooper, as well as manuscripts, the Fenimore Art Museum is closely associated with The Farmers Museum, also in Cooperstown. Fenimore Art Museum, then known as the New York State Historical Association, was founded in 1899 by five New Yorkers interested in promoting a knowledge of the early history of the state. From 1926 until 1939, the Association’s headquarters was in Ticonderoga, in 1939, Stephen Carlton Clark offered the Association a new home in the village of Cooperstown. Clark took an active interest in expanding the holdings and turned over Fenimore House, one of his family’s properties as a new headquarters, the collections and programs continued to expand and a separate library building was constructed in 1968. In 1995, an 18, 000-square-foot wing was added to Fenimore House to hold the Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection, the American paintings in the Fenimore Art Museums collection were largely assembled by Stephen Carlton Clark between 1938 and 1960. Artists represented in the Fenimore Art Museums fine art collection include William Sidney Mount, Thomas Cole, durand, Benjamin West, Gilbert Stuart, and Eastman Johnson. The museum also features a collection of life masks by John Henri Isaac Browere that were cast from the faces of famous Americans, the masks include Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, John Quincy Adams, DeWitt Clinton, and Dolley Madison. The photography collection includes over 120,000 examples with holdings of both professional and amateur photographers from the 19th century, clarks major purchases of private collections such as those of modernist sculptor Elie Nadelman and the pioneering collector and author Jean Lipman form the collections core. Artists include Edward Hicks, William Matthew Prior, Ammi Phillips, Thomas Chambers, John Brewster, Jr. and Eunice Pinney. The museums 20th-century folk art holdings have grown gradually, spurred on by major gifts such as two Grandma Moses landscapes in 1967 and purchases like Ralph Fasanellas Dress Shop in 1983. In recent years, works by 20th-century folk artists Queena Stovall, the American Indian Art Collection contains many artistic objects from American Indian cultures before and after the substantial influx of Europeans to the North American continent. Eugene Thaw, together with his wife Clare, began collecting North American Indian art in 1987 after his retirement as a dealer in Old Master drawings and paintings. The Thaws’ collection initially began with their interest in American flag motifs in Indian art, the Thaws researched their new endeavor thoroughly with visits to American, Canadian, and European collections and built a personal library of books, periodicals, and auction catalogues. Inspired by their personal interest in art, they assembled their Indian Art collection as experienced connoisseurs, from their earliest purchases, the Thaws focused on collecting American Indian material as art, not as cultural, ethnographic, craft, or decorative objects
3. Ganondagan State Historic Site – Ganondagan State Historic Site, also known as Boughton Hill, is a Native American historic site in Ontario County, New York in the United States. Location of the largest Seneca village of the 17th century, the site is in the present-day Town of Victor, the village was also referred to as Gannagaro, Canagora, Gandagora, and Gandagaro. The Fort Hill portion was the location of a granary and consists of 33 acres. The complex is operated by the state of New York, like many indigenous peoples, the Seneca cultivated the Three Sisters, staple crops of corn, beans, and squash. Women bred and cultivated different varieties of staple, experimenting with a range of seeds. These crops were grown near each other, so that beans could climb the cornstalks. Ganondagan was once the largest Seneca town, the Seneca nation was considered to occupy the western gateway of Haudenosaunee territory and this site is at the center of the story of the Peacemaker, who unified the five major peoples and created the Haudenosaunee confederacy. Seneca oral tradition tells of a Huron man who arrived among the Mohawk speaking of the Gayanesshagowa and this prophet is known today as The Great Peacemaker. The Mohawk, Oneida, and Cayuga pledged to join his proposed confederation and, following a dramatic interlude, the discussion about how to bring in the Onondaga took place in the Ganondagan house of Jikonsase, a Seneca woman elder now known as the Mother of Nations. She proposed a solution which eventually brought the Onondaga into the fold and she lived in the vicinity of Ganondagan, and is buried nearby. Because of this tradition, the Seneca refer to Ganondagan as the Town of Peace and they revere and protect the burial site of Jikonsase. The relation to their Great Law of Peace is more important than the attack destroyed the village. Concepts of the confederacy may have influenced early American political thinkers, although they gathered ideas from English. In 1656, Jesuit Father Pierre-Joseph-Marie Chaumonot traveled from the Cayuga nation to the Seneca nation. By the close of 1668, a mission was in progress in each of the five Iroquois nations, the Senecas, the Seneca finally forced the missionaries to leave in 1684, after rising tension with the French. In August 1669, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Father René de Bréhant de Galinée, in 1677, Wentworth Greenhalgh, an English colonial government official, traveled to the Iroquois nations and secured them as allies for the British. Thatt day att Canagorah, there were most cruelly burnt four men, four women, the cruelty lasted aboutt seven hours. When they were almost dead letting them loose to the mercy of ye boys, in 1678, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Father Louis Hennepin traveled to Ganondagan, which Hennepin called Tagorondies
4. George Gustav Heye Center – The George Gustav Heye Center is a branch of the National Museum of the American Indian in Manhattan, New York City. The museum is part of the Smithsonian Institution, the Center features contemporary and historical exhibits of art and artifacts by and about Native Americans. The center is named for George Gustav Heye, who began collecting Native American artifacts in 1903 and that museum closed in 1994 and part of the collection is now housed at the Alexander Hamilton U. S. Custom House on Bowling Green in Lower Manhattan, the Beaux Arts-style building, designed by architect Cass Gilbert, was completed in 1907. It is a designated National Historic Landmark and a New York City landmark, the center’s exhibition and public access areas total about 20,000 square feet. The Heye Center offers a range of exhibitions, film and video screenings, school group programs, the permanent collection of the Heye Center is called Infinity of Nations, and is designed to show the scope of the Smithsonians collection. Organized by geographic regions, the displays over 700 items. Multimedia interactions include audio and video, and feature commentary by historians on specific objects, the rotunda is frequently used as a performance space, and features murals reflecting the history of the building, done by Reginald Marsh. The ground floor of the houses the Diker Pavilion for Native Arts and Culture. Beauty Surrounds Us, the exhibit for Diker Pavilion. A Song for the Horse Nation, addressed the importance of the horse since its introduction to the Western Hemisphere in 1493, hide, Skin as Material and Metaphor, a multifaceted look at race and representation. Grab, A photo exhibit celebrating the Grab Day tradition in Laguna Pueblo, preston Singletary, Echoes, Fire, and Shadows, Tlingit myths and legends represented in glass sculpture. Carl Beam Contemporary culture and colonialism juxtaposed in the work of an Ojibwe master artist, featured The North American Iceberg, which the National Gallery of Canada acquired to begin their collection of contemporary Native art. Identity by Design, Dresses and accessories which highlighted the traditions, andrea Carlson, Narrative story objects which reflected the cultural consumption that museum visitors engage in. Annie Pootoogook,39 drawings from a 2006 Inuit Sobey Art Award winner depicting the Canadian North, ramp it Up, Skateboard Culture in Native America, Celebrated the culture of skateboarding, graphic design, film-making, music, and Native entepeneurship. Listening to Our Ancestors, Over 400 objects representing Native life, norval Morrisseau, Shaman Artist, Overlapping themes of Shamanism and Catholicism were expressed in the contemporary living art of this highly influential Anishnaabe artist. The museum created a tour with the 4 Directions Project, engaging Native American youth with the exhibits Creations Journey and All Roads Are Good. Students selected items from the collection, created 3D panorama QuickTime objects, the Washington DC facility later emulated what was done in New York with students from Weedon Island, creating a virtual tour of objects relevant to their interests and cultural heritage
5. Iroquois Indian Museum – The Iroquois Indian Museum is devoted to the art and history of the Iroquois, a North American confederacy of six Native American tribes based in New York. Located in Howes Cave in Schoharie County, New York, it promotes Iroquois art for teaching the culture and it also features a performance space for traditional and contemporary Iroquois music and dance. The museum opened in 1981 in the homeland of the Mohawk Indians. The Iroquois Indian Museum, which opened in its Howes Cave location in 1992, is built in the form of a traditional longhouse and these were used by extended families for their residences. Some longhouses were reserved for tribal councils and community meetings or ceremonies, once based in New York, most members of the Iroquois tribes now live on First Nations reserves in Quebec and Ontario, Canada, others live in New York, Wisconsin and Oklahoma. The museum was built at a cost of $1.3 million and it holds the largest collection of Iroquois art in the United States, and is designed to teach and interpret the culture of the Six Tribes of the Iroquois. Also located in the museum is the Iroquois Performing Arts Amphitheater, used for music, ancestors were in their territory for 10,000 years. The museums exhibits also embrace modern culture, such as one in 2008 that featured Native American baseball players, the Iroquois Indian Museum has partnered with a number of other museums throughout the United States including, Iroquois Indian Museum, Official website Camp Henderson, nearby Boy Scout facility
6. Letchworth State Park – Letchworth State Park is a 14, 427-acre state park located in Livingston and Wyoming counties, New York. The park is roughly 17 miles long, following the course of the Genesee River as it flows north through a deep gorge, in 1859, industrialist William Pryor Letchworth began purchasing land near the Middle Falls, and started construction of his Glen Iris Estate. In 1906 he bequeathed the 1, 000-acre estate to New York, the park prominently features three large waterfalls — the Upper, Middle, and Lower Falls — on the Genesee River, which flows within a deep gorge that winds through the park. The rock walls of the gorge, which rise up to 550 feet in places, Park entrances are located near Mount Morris, Perry, Castile and Portageville. A paved two- or three-lane road follows the west side of the gorge, activities within the park include hiking, biking, fishing, whitewater rafting and kayaking, geocaching, and hunting. During the winter, the park facilitates snowmobiling, cross-country skiing, snow tubing, hot air ballooning is available at the park, weather permitting. In 2015, Letchworth State Park won USA Todays Readers Choice competition as the best state park in the United States and it has also been named the best state park in New York for landscape photography. The three major waterfalls — called the Upper, Middle, and Lower Falls — are located in Portage Canyon, the only trail bridging the Genesee River in the park crosses a stone bridge just below the Lower Falls. The Middle Falls is the highest, and the Upper Falls has a railroad trestle crossing immediately above it. The park also contains Inspiration Falls, a waterfall that is located on a tributary creek a short distance east of the Inspiration Point Overlook,0.4 miles west of the park visitor center. It has a drop of 350 feet. While impressive in its height, it is seasonal and often appears as only a water stain on the cliff, the falls faces to the south-southwest and has a crest that is one foot wide. The bedrock exposed in the gorge is Devonian in age, mostly shales, the rock was laid down in an ancient inland sea, and it holds many marine fossils. It is open to the public for breakfast, lunch and dinner and she was soon adopted by a family of Seneca people, and eventually lived in western New York on the Genesee River. She had become assimilated and chose to live with the Seneca for the rest of her long life. Her remains were exhumed from the Buffalo Creek Reservation and reinterred on the grounds of a Seneca Council House, relocated to the site by Letchworth, the park also features the William Pryor Letchworth Museum, which was founded with the collections of the parks founder. The Eric Humphrey Nature Center opened in 2016, operated year-round by New York State, the 5, 000-square-foot sustainable building features classrooms and meeting rooms, a research lab, a butterfly garden, and connections to various trails. Found at the end of the park, the construction of the Mount Morris Dam was begun in 1948 by the United States Army Corps of Engineers under the Flood Control Act of 1944
7. Montauk County Park – Montauk County Park, formerly known as Theodore Roosevelt County Park, is located approximately three miles east of Montauk, New York. The park is 1,157 acres in size, running from Montauk Highway north to Block Island Sound and is bordered on the east by Montauk Point State Park. Montauk County Park was created from 1971 to 1986 through a series of acquisitions by Suffolk County with the help of Hilda Lindley. The park includes, Big Reed Pond – a National Natural Landmark and its ecosystem is at the confluence between fresh water and brackish water, as the pond is fresh water but some of the wetlands that border it are brackish. The local sandy soil and high rates of precipitation create a fragile balance between fresh water and saltwater. The maintenance of the County Park as open space helps to maintain this balance, the Montaukett tribe originally occupied this area of Long Island. In the late 17th century Chief Wyandanch gave much of the South Fork of Long Island to Lion Gardiner, the remaining Montauk were still living in the area until the Montauk peninsula was purchased by Arthur Bensen in 1879. The ruins of a lodge and part of the village are still visible. The Pharaoh Museum is located in a cabin near Third House and contains displays of the tools. Stephen Talkhouse, whose round trip walks of 30–50 miles inspired the Paumanok Path, is buried in the cemetery, Deep Hollow Ranch claims to be the birthplace of the American cowboy, as it was founded as a cattle ranch in 1658. It has been operating ever since, in the 21st century it offers horseback riding. From 1990 through 1999, Deep Hollow Ranch was the site of several Back at the Ranch concerts to raise funds for local charities, most of the events were produced with the help of singer–songwriter Paul Simon, who owns a home near the ranch. Running from west to east, First House, Second House and they were built in the 18th century for the cattle keepers who drove horses, sheep, and cattle to graze in Montauk each year from May through November. During the summers, as many as 6,000 cattle, horses and sheep roamed pastures in Montauk, having brought from as far west as Patchogue. First House was located near what is now Hither Hills State Park in Napeague, Second House is located at the west end of Montauk village and is now operated as a museum. Third House is used as the headquarters of Deep Hollow Ranch, in 1879 Arthur Bensen bought virtually all of the land on the eastern end from Napeague to Montauk Point. The purchase was intended to force the Montaukett off the land, benson made Third House his residence, hoping to develop the area as a summer resort following Austin Corbins extension of the Long Island Rail Road to Montauk. Benson failed to realize his plans and he sold much of the land to the federal government for Army, Navy, and eventually Air Force, bases
8. National Museum of the American Indian – It has three facilities, the National Museum of the American Indian on the National Mall in Washington, D. C. Passed as Public Law 101-185, it established the National Museum of the American Indian as a memorial to Native Americans. Since 1989 the Smithsonian has repatriated over 5,000 individual remains – about 1/3 of the estimated human remains in its collection. C. of indigenous people to its time. The creation of the museum brought together the collections of the George Gustav Heye Center in New York City, founded in 1922, the Heye collection became part of the Smithsonian in June 1990, and represents approximately 85% of the holdings of the NMAI. The Heye Collection was formerly displayed in the Audubon Terrace location, the current arrangement represented a political compromise between those who wished to keep the Heye Collection in New York, and those who wanted it to be part of the new NMAI in Washington, DC. The NMAI was initially housed in lower Manhattan at the Alexander Hamilton U. S, custom House, which was refurbished for this purpose and remains an exhibition site, its building on the Mall in Washington, DC opened in 2005. The site on the National Mall opened in September 2004, fifteen years in the making, it is the first national museum in the country dedicated exclusively to Native Americans. The five-story,250, 000-square-foot, curvilinear building is clad in a golden-colored Kasota limestone designed to evoke natural rock formations shaped by wind, the museum is set in a 4.25 acres -site and is surrounded by simulated wetlands. The museum’s east-facing entrance, its window and its 120-foot high space for contemporary Native performances are direct results of extensive consultations with Native peoples. The museum’s architect and project designer is the Canadian Douglas Cardinal, its design architects are GBQC Architects of Philadelphia, disagreements during construction led to Cardinals being removed from the project, but the building retains his original design intent. His continued input enabled its completion, the structural engineering firm chosen for this project was Severud Associates. The landscape architects are Jones & Jones Architects and Landscape Architects Ltd. of Seattle and EDAW, donna E. House, the Navajo and Oneida botanist who supervised the landscaping, has said, The landscape flows into the building, and the environment is who we are. We are the trees, we are the rocks, we are the water, and that had to be part of the museum. This theme of organic flow is reflected by the interior of the museum, whose walls are mostly curving surfaces, George Gustav Heye traveled throughout North and South America collecting native objects. His collection was assembled over 54 years, beginning in 1903 and he started the Museum of the American Indian and his Heye Foundation in 1916. The Heye Foundations Museum of the American Indian opened to the public on Audubon Terrace in New York City in 1922. The museum at Audubon Terrace closed in 1994 and part of the collection is now housed at The Museum’s George Gustav Heye Center, the Beaux Arts-style building, designed by architect Cass Gilbert, was completed in 1907. It is a designated National Historic Landmark and a New York City landmark, the center’s exhibition and public access areas total about 20,000 square feet
9. New York State Museum – The New York State Museum is a research-backed institution in Albany, New York, United States. It is located on Madison Avenue, attached to the side of the Empire State Plaza, facing onto the plaza. The museum houses art, artifacts, and ecofacts that reflect New York’s cultural, natural, operated by the New York State Education Departments Office of Cultural Education, it is the nations oldest and largest state museum. The New York State Museum was founded in 1836 as the New York State Geological and Natural History Survey, in 1870, it was reorganized as the New York State Museum of Natural History under the trusteeship of the regents of the State University. The museum was located in the State Education Building from 1912 until 1976, the current location opened on July 4,1976, and 15,000 people took part in the ceremony. With Don Mclean performing at the opening ceremony, in June 2015, the museum announced the largest renovation in its history. Over three to four years,35,000 square feet of space will be modernized. Several galleries and halls on the first floor house various art exhibitions, as well as temporary scientific. Presentations and lectures are held in the Museum Theater, located near the West Gallery, a student visitors center is located behind the museum’s main lobby. The Museum Store, located adjacent to the lobby, offers souvenirs, high-quality mineral specimens, and selected New York State publications on science, history. The second floor, generally not accessible by the public, contains education, the museum’s staff, including the Division of Research and Collections and the Exhibits Division, is located on the third floor, also not accessible to the public. The windowed walls surrounding this floor afford visitors a view of the Empire State Plaza and other areas of downtown Albany, hence the gallerys name, the following is a list of several of these programs. BRI hosts a scientific conference at the New York State Museum. Cultural Resource Survey Program – A cultural resources management program that conducts historical and archaeological research for the State of New York. This specifically refers to Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, in doing so, CRSP works closely with New York States Historic Preservation Officer and the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. The Laboratory for Conservation and Evolutionary Genetics – The LCEG is a molecular phylogenetics laboratory designed for use by researchers studying animal, the facility provides technology that allows Museum researchers to analyze genetic variability among organisms by DNA nucleotide sequencing. The laboratory also houses the Museum’s Genome Bank, a tissue collection that complements the traditional dried-specimen collections by preserving plant. The collections of the New York State Museum include geological samples, paleontology specimens, historic materials and their anthropological collections are extensive, and include the collections of several early and well-known anthropologists, including Lewis H. Morgan and Arthur C
10. Sainte Marie among the Iroquois – Sainte Marie among the Iroquois was a 17th-century French Jesuit mission located in the middle of the Onondaga nation of the Haudenosaunee/Iroquois. It was located on Onondaga Lake near modern-day Syracuse, New York, the original mission was in use only from 1656 to 1658. A modern replica is in operation as a museum and interpretive center and it is open between May and October as a living history project, with costumed interpreters on weekends during the Summer. Sainte Marie among the Iroquois is a history museum and part of the Onondaga County parks system. The site, while county owned, is operated by volunteers who provide all of the programming, the site is currently being renovated and the interior of the fort is closed. The interpretive center/museum is a two story building houses some of Onondaga County Parks collection of artifacts. Inside visitors can see exhibits and is able to schedule tours for all age groups, a gift shop is also inside on the first floor. The Mission itself is located behind the museum and accessed by using the second floor doors, there is a small encampment between the museum and mission site where reed huts stand. The Haudenosaunee and French used encampments like this as camp sites when traveling and they were located in between traveling paths, roughly a days hike from each other. The Mission itself is surrounded by a palisade and contains a chapel, refectory, dormitory, workshops. Outside the palisade are gardens and a baking oven, the Jesuits built the mission at the invitation of the Onondaga nation of the Iroquois Confederation. Due to ongoing warfare between the Mohawks and French in Quebec, the Onondagas were anxious to broker peace between the two parties, the French built a stockade and a few buildings overlooking Onondaga Lake. In addition to the Jesuit missionaries and their Doneé servants/tradesmen, a contingent of French Coureur des bois were sent to defend the mission, after two years, the Mohawks threatened to attack the mission, and a new French Governor lost interest in the project. The entire group fled safely in 1658, no further missions in Iroquois territory were attempted by the French. In the 1930s, a replica of Sainte Marie de Ganentaa was built on a bluff overlooking Onondaga Lake as part of the Works Progress Administration/WPA program, however, a wild west style fort was built instead of a more historically accurate French mission. It is believed this is due to a reference to a French fort that a French war expedition. It should be noted though that this fort was just an encampment of tents with a palisade around it and was only occupied for about two weeks. The site that the new French fort was built upon was close to the location since the original was covered by the parking lot of LeMoyne Manor
11. Bear Mountain State Park – Bear Mountain State Park is a 5, 205-acre state park located on the west side of the Hudson River in Rockland County, New York. The park offers biking, hiking, boating, picnicking, swimming, cross-country skiing, cross-country running, sledding and ice skating. It also includes facilities such as the Perkins Memorial Tower, the Trailside Museum and Zoo, the Bear Mountain Inn, a merry-go-round, pool. It is managed by the Palisades Interstate Park Commission, the park includes Bear Mountain as well as Dunderberg Mountain and West Mountain. Fort Montgomery is adjacent to the edge of the park while Iona Island Bird Sanctuary is on the eastern edge in the Hudson River. The park is an entity from the adjacent Harriman State Park which runs along the western edge of the park. It lies within the Northeastern coastal forests ecoregion, in 1777 British troops routed Patriots at Fort Montgomery. Anthony Waynes attack of the British fort at Stony Point moved colonial troops to the west of Bear Mountain, in 1908 the State of New York announced plans to relocate Sing Sing Prison to Bear Mountain. Work was begun in the area near Highland Lake and in January 1909, conservationists inspired by the work of the Palisades Interstate Park Commission lobbied successfully for the creation of the Highlands of the Hudson Forest Preserve. However, the project was continued. George W. Perkins, with whom she had been working, raised another $1.5 million from a dozen wealthy contributors including John D. Rockefeller and J. Pierpont Morgan. New York State appropriated a matching $2.5 million and the state of New Jersey appropriated $500,000 to build the Henry Hudson Drive, in 1912, a replica of Henry Hudsons ship, the Half Moon was built and moored at the dock. Major William A. Welch was hired as Chief Engineer, whose work for the park would win him recognition as the father of the park movement. The park opened in June 1913, steamboats alone brought more than 22,000 passengers to the park that year. Camping at Hessian Lake was immensely popular, the stay was eight days and was a favorite for Boy Scouts. By 1914 it was estimated more than a million people a year were coming to the park. In the 1930s the federal government under Franklin D, pump houses, reservoirs, sewer systems, vacation lodges, bathrooms, homes for park staff, storage buildings and an administration building were all created through these programs. The park continued to grow after its creation, the Palisades Interstate Park Commission began purchasing nearby Doodletown in the 1920s and completed the acquisition with eminent domain in the 1960s