See also Category:Navarrese infantas
Pages in category "Navarrese infantes"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
See also Category:Navarrese infantas
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Charles II of Navarre – Charles II, called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. Thus, in Northern France, Charles possessed Évreux, Mortain, parts of Vexin, and he was a major player at a critical juncture in the Hundred Years War between France and England, repeatedly switching sides in order to further his own agenda. His horrific death by burning was widely considered Gods justice upon him, Charles was raised in France during childhood and up to the moment he was declared king at 17, so he probably had no command of the Romance language of Navarre at the moment of his coronation. In October 1349, he assumed the crown of Navarre, in order to take his coronation oath and be anointed, Charles II visited his kingdom in summer 1350. For the first time, the oath was taken in a other than Latin or Occitan as it was customary. He hoped for a time for recognition of his claim to the crown of France. However, he was unable to wrest the throne from his Valois cousins, Charles II served as Royal Lieutenant in Languedoc in 1351 and commanded the army which captured Port-Sainte-Marie on the Garonne in 1352. The same year he married Joan of Valois, the daughter of King John II of France and he soon became jealous of the Constable of France, Charles de La Cerda, who was to be a beneficiary of the fiefdoms of Champagne, Brie, and Angoulême. Once again Charles changed sides, the threat of a renewed English invasion forced John II to make a new agreement of reconciliation with him and this agreement, too, did not last. John amended matters by making his son Duke of Normandy, four of his principal supporters were beheaded and their bodies suspended from chains. Charles was taken to Paris and then moved from prison to prison for greater security, Charles remained in prison after John II was defeated and captured by the English at the Battle of Poitiers. They continually pressed the Dauphin to release him, meanwhile his brother Philip of Navarre threw in his lot with the invading English army of the Duke of Lancaster and made war on the Dauphins forces throughout Normandy. Eventually on 9 November 1357 Charles was sprung from his prison in the castle of Arleux by a band of 30 men from Amiens led by Jean de Picquigny. Greeted as a hero when he entered Amiens, he was invited to enter Paris by the Estates General and he addressed the populace on 30 November listing his grievances against those who had imprisoned him. Étienne Marcel led a demand for justice for the King of Navarre which the Dauphin was unable to resist and he also demanded the Dauphins own Duchy of Normandy and the county of Champagne, which would have made him effectively ruler of northern France. The Dauphin was virtually powerless, but he and Charles were still in negotiations when news reached them that Edward III and John II had reached a peace agreement at Windsor. Knowing this could only be to his disadvantage, Charles had all the prisons in Paris opened to create anarchy, meanwhile Paris was in the throes of revolution. The Dauphin was forced to agree to many of Charless territorial demands, etienne Marcel implored Charles to intercede with the Dauphin but he achieved nothing and the land around Paris began to be plundered both by Charless forces and by the Dauphins
2. Charles III of Navarre – Charles III, called the Noble, was King of Navarre from 1387 to his death and Count of Évreux from 1387 to 1404, when he exchanged it for the title Duke of Nemours. He spent his reign improving the infrastructure of his kingdom, restoring Navarres pride after the reign of his father, Charles the Bad. Charles III was born at Mantes-la-Jolie and he married Eleanor, daughter of Henry II of Castile, in 1375, putting an end to the conflict between Castile and Navarre. As king, his politics were peace with France, Castile, Aragon, and England, support for the Avignon Papacy and he collaborated with Castile in a war on the Kingdom of Granada. By the Treaty of Paris, he abandoned his claims to Champagne and Brie, in 1413, he created the Cort, a sort of supreme court. He created the title Prince of Viana for the heir to the throne and he was a patron of the arts and he finished construction on the great Gothic Cathedral of Pamplona. When it comes to Navarres home policy, he decreed the unification of Pamplonas boroughs in 1423. He also built the palace at Tafalla and the Royal Palace of Olite. His sister Joanna married Henry IV of England
3. Henry I of Navarre – Henry the Fat was King of Navarre and Count of Champagne and Brie from 1270 until his death. Henry was the youngest son of Theobald I of Navarre and Margaret of Bourbon, during the reign of his childless older brother Theobald II he held the regency during many of Theobalds numerous absences. In 1269, Henry married Blanche of Artois, daughter of the then-reigning King Louis IX of Frances brother Count Robert I of Artois and he was thus in the Angevin circle in international politics. Recognized as heir presumptive during his brothers reign, Henry succeeded to the thrones of the Kingdom of Navarre, Henry Is proclamation at Pamplona, however, did not take place till the following year,1 March 1271, and his coronation was delayed until May 1273. His first act was the swear to uphold the Fueros of Navarre, Henry came to the throne at the height of an economic boom in Navarre that was not happening elsewhere in Iberia at as great a rate. But by the Treaty of Paris, the English had been ceded rights in Gascony that effectively cut off Navarrese access to the ocean, Henry allowed the Pamplonese burg of Navarrería to disentangle itself from the union of San Cernin and San Nicolás, effected in 1266. He also granted privileges to the towns of Estella, Los Arcos and his relations with the nobility were, on the whole, friendly, though he was prepared to maintain the peace of his realm at nearly any cost. Henry initially sought to recover territory lost to Castile by assisting the revolt of King Alfonso X of Castiles brother Philip in 1270 and he eventually declined, preferring to establish an alliance with Castile through the marriage of his son Theobald to Alfonso Xs daughter Violant in September 1272. This failed with the death of the young Theobald after he fell from a battlement at the castle of Estella in 1273, Henry did not long outlive his son. He was suffocated, according to the generally received accounts, by his own fat and his only legitimate child, a one-year-old daughter named Joan, succeeded him under the regency of her mother Blanche. Joans 1284 marriage to Philip the Fair, the future King of France, in the same year united the crown of Navarre to that of France and saw Champagne devolve to the French royal domain. In the Divine Comedy, Dante Alighieri, a contemporary, sees Henrys spirit outside the gates of Purgatory. Henry is not named directly, but is referred to as the kindly-faced, medieval Lands Project, Henry I, King of Navarre
4. Henry II of Navarre – Henry succeeded his mother, Queen Catherine, upon her death. His father was her husband and co-ruler, King John III, after the latest failed reconquest attempt of Navarre in 1516, John III died, followed by Catherine Is demise in her independent dependencies of Béarn. Heir apparent Henry was proclaimed King of Navarre, and was crowned in Lescar. After ineffectual conferences at Noyon in 1516 and at Montpellier in 1518, a French and Navarrese expedition made another attempt at reconquering occupied Navarre, but were ultimately repelled by Charles after the Battle of Noain. In 1525, Henry was taken prisoner at the Battle of Pavia, by her, he was the father of Joan III of Navarre, and was consequently the grandfather of Henry IV of France. In 1530, after the Treaty of Cambrai between Castile and France, Charles V evacuated the northernmost county of Navarre, Lower Navarre, the Pyrenean border between Lower and Upper Navarre now constitutes the Franco-Spanish border in this sector. Henry had some sympathy with the Huguenots, and was fluent in both French and Spanish, according to the seigneur de Brantôme. He died at Hagetmau on 25 May 1555
5. Henry IV of France – Henry IV, also known by the epithet Good King Henry, was King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610 and King of France from 1589 to 1610. He was the first French monarch of the House of Bourbon, baptised as a Catholic but raised in the Protestant faith by his mother Jeanne dAlbret, Queen of Navarre, he inherited the throne of Navarre in 1572 on the death of his mother. As a Huguenot, Henry was involved in the French Wars of Religion, barely escaping assassination in the St. Bartholomews Day massacre, and later led Protestant forces against the royal army. Henry, as Head of the House of Bourbon, was a direct descendant of Louis IX of France. Upon the death of his brother-in-law and distant cousin Henry III of France in 1589 and he initially kept the Protestant faith and had to fight against the Catholic League, which denied that he could wear Frances crown as a Protestant. To obtain mastery over his kingdom, after four years of stalemate, as a pragmatic politician, he displayed an unusual religious tolerance for the era. Notably, he promulgated the Edict of Nantes, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants and he was assassinated in 1610 by François Ravaillac, a fanatical Catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII. Considered a usurper by some Catholics and a traitor by some Protestants, an unpopular king immediately after his accession, Henrys popularity greatly improved after his death, in light of repeated victories over his enemies and his conversion to Catholicism. The Good King Henry was remembered for his geniality and his concern about the welfare of his subjects. He was celebrated in the popular song Vive le roi Henri, Henry was born in Pau, the capital of the joint Kingdom of Navarre with the sovereign principality of Béarn. His parents were Queen Joan III of Navarre and her consort, Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother, who had declared Calvinism the religion of Navarre. As a teenager, Henry joined the Huguenot forces in the French Wars of Religion, on 9 June 1572, upon his mothers death, he became King of Navarre. At Queen Joans death, it was arranged for Henry to marry Margaret of Valois, daughter of Henry II, the wedding took place in Paris on 18 August 1572 on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral. On 24 August, the Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre began in Paris, several thousand Protestants who had come to Paris for Henrys wedding were killed, as well as thousands more throughout the country in the days that followed. Henry narrowly escaped death thanks to the help of his wife and he was made to live at the court of France, but he escaped in early 1576. On 5 February of that year, he formally abjured Catholicism at Tours and he named his 16-year-old sister, Catherine de Bourbon, regent of Béarn. Catherine held the regency for nearly thirty years, Henry became heir presumptive to the French throne in 1584 upon the death of Francis, Duke of Anjou, brother and heir to the Catholic Henry III, who had succeeded Charles IX in 1574. Because Henry of Navarre was the senior agnatic descendant of King Louis IX, King Henry III had no choice
6. Henry, Count of Montescaglioso – The chief primary source for Henrys life is the Sicilian court chronicler known as Hugo Falcandus. He is an extremely unfriendly source to Henry and he reports the rumour that Henry was never acknowledged as a son by the Navarrese king and was considered a bastard, the product of one the queens affairs. This is contradicted by the actions of his sister, who treated him as a full brother of royal blood. Henrys birth name, also, is evidence of legitimacy, for he was named after King Garcías illustrious grandfather, Rodrigo Díaz de Vivar. Falcandus sums up Henrys appearance and character thus, This Henry was low in stature, had a thin beard and a disagreeably dark complexion. He was rash and maladroit in conversation, a man interested only by dice and gambling, upon his arrival in Sicily Margaret made him change his name from Rodrigo, which sounded strange to the local nobility, to the more palatable Henry. Henry arrived in the kingdom of Sicily between May and September 1166 and his sister had been, since the death of her husband, William I of Sicily, regent in the name of her young son, William II. In May or a time after, perhaps before his arrival, he was married to an illegitimate daughter of Roger II. On this occasion he was invested with Montescaglioso on the mainland, Henry first paid a visit to Palermo, the capital and the location of his nephews court. There too he gambled and fell in with criminals, so that the queen was forced to order him to leave the island, in the summer of 1167, Henry returned to Palermo in order to obtain a part in the government of the whole kingdom. By the summer Stephen du Perche, his and Margarets cousin, had replaced Richard, Stephen quickly befriended Henry, but some Spanish knights, Henrys entourage who had travelled with him from Navarre, accused the chancellor of having an affair with the queen. Stephen and Henry appear to have been the leaders, willingly or unwillingly, eventually the rumours of incest convinced the count of Montescaglioso to act. He initially accused the chancellor before the king, his nephew, soon a conspiracy against the detested Stephen had drawn him in. Then, Gilbert, Count of Gravina, another cousin of Henry and Margaret, rose in council, denounced the count, the charge was easily established, as Henry had admitted the conspiracy to a judge of Messina a short time before. He was promptly arrested and interned in Reggio di Calabria, while the Spanish knights who had accompanied him were given a day to leave Sicily, which they did. After Henrys imprisonment, Margaret offered him 1,000 gold ducats if he would return to Navarre and promise never to set foot in Sicily again. She assigned a certain French priest, Odo Quarrel, a canon of Chartres Cathedral who had come to Sicily in the following of Stephen du Perche, to escort Henry back to Navarre. He was in Messina, preparing seven galleys for the departure when, on 31 March, Easter Sunday, the Messinans, Odo was captured and the galleys were commandeered across the strait to Reggio, where Henry was released upon their demand
7. Jacques de Foix, Count of Montfort – Jacques de Foix, was a Count of Montfort and Captal Buch, and the so-called “Infante of Navarre”. Born about 1470 he was the son of Gaston IV, Count of Foix and Bigorre, Viscount of Béarn. He was Governor of Béarn and Lieutenant-General of Lower Navarre for the king, Married in 1485 and divorced in 1494 to Ana de Peralta, daughter of Pedro de Peralta, 1st Count de Santisteban y Lerín and his second wife Isabelle de Grailly, but divorced her in 1494. He Married a second time in 1495 to Catherine de Beaumont, daughter of Louis de Beaumont, 2nd Count de Lerín, Jacques and his second wife had one child, Jean de Foix, abbot of Saint-Volusien-de-Foix. Jacques also had two children by unknown mistresses, Frederic de Foix, Lord dAlmenèches, and Jacques de Foix, Bishop of Oloron. Jacques de Foix, Inft of Navarre died in 1500A. D
8. Louis, Duke of Durazzo – Louis of Évreux was the youngest son of Philip III of Navarre and Joan II of Navarre. He inherited the county of Beaumont-le-Roger from his father and became Duke of Durazzo in right of his wife, Joanna. Louiss first marriage was to Maria de Lizarazu in 1358 and he took part on behalf of his brother Charles II of Navarre in the war against the Dauphin Charles. His second marriage to Joanna, Duchess of Durazzo brought him the rights to Durazzo and the Kingdom of Albania and he received assistance from both his brother and the king of France in this undertaking, for Durazzo was in the hands of Charles Thopia. In 1372, he brought over the Navarrese Company of mercenaries and their ranks swelled considerably in 1375 with new recruits directly from Navarre. Many documents survive telling us of the nature of the military planning and engineering which was undertaken to ensure success. This they attained, taking the city in midsummer 1376, a History of the Crusades, Volume III — The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison,1975
9. Francis Phoebus of Navarre – Francis Phoebus was king of Navarre, Viscount of Bearn, and Count of Foix. He was the son of Gaston, Prince of Viana, and grandson of Queen Eleanor and she recommended him to ally with France. During his brief reign, he was under the protection of his mother and he died young while playing the pipe, arguably poisoned. La Basse-Navarre dans la guerre de Navarre, récit historique, d’après Navarra, retrieved 22 April 2016 – via Tipirena. net
10. Sancho VI of Navarre – Sancho VI Garcés, called the Wise, was king of Navarre from 1150 until his death in 1194. Son of García Ramírez and Margaret of LAigle, Sancho was the first to use the title King of Navarre as the designation of his kingdom. His reign was full of clashes with Castile and Aragon and he was a monastic founder and many architectural accomplishments date to his reign. He is also responsible for bringing his kingdom into the orbit of Europe. He tried to repair his kingdoms borders which had reduced by the Treaties of Tudején and Carrión. By the Accord of Soria, Castile was eventually confirmed in its possession of conquered territories and he was hostile to Count Raymond Berengar IV of Barcelona, but Raymonds son King Alfonso II of Aragon divided the lands taken from Murcia with him by treaty of Sangüesa in 1168. In 1190, the two neighbours again signed a pact in Borja of mutual protection against Castilian expansion and he died on 27 June 1194, in Pamplona, where he is interred. In 1157, Sancho married Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII of Castile
11. Sancho VII of Navarre – Sancho VII Sánchez, called the Strong or the Prudent, was the King of Navarre from 1194 to his death. His retirement at the end of his life has given rise to the nickname el Encerrado or the Retired. The historian and forensic anthropologist, Luis del Campo, who studied his mortal remains and he was probably the eldest child of Sancho VI and Sancha, daughter of Alfonso VII of León, born soon after their marriage, probably in Tudela, their usual residence. He was the brother of Berengaria, who was married to Richard the Lionheart. Sancho and Richard were reputed to have good friends and close allies. The French took advantage of Richards captivity in Germany and captured certain key fortresses of the Angevin dominions including Loches, when Richard returned to his continental lands in 1194, the knights of Sancho were besieging the castle for him. As soon as Richard arrived though, Sancho was forced to return to Navarre at the news of the death of his father and he was crowned in Pamplona on 15 August. He arrived late at the Battle of Alarcos in 1195 and thus ruined good relations with the Castilian sovereign Alfonso VIII, the ensuing confrontation resulted in Sancho devastating Soria and Almazán and Alfonso accepted the Peace of Tarazona. Sancho made expeditions against Murcia and Andalusia, and, between 1198 and 1200, he campaigned in Africa, probably in the service of the Almohads, whose help he wanted against Castile. Taking advantage of his absence, Alfonso VIII of Castile and Peter II of Aragon invaded Navarre, which lost the provinces of Álava, Guipúzcoa and these conquests were subsequently confirmed by the Treaty of Guadalajara. His leadership was decisive in the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa in the year 1212, in that engagement, the Christian forces of Sancho, Alfonso, Afonso II of Portugal, and Peter II of Aragón allied to defeat the forces of the Almohad Caliph Muhammad an-Nasir. Sanchos troops cut the chains guarding the tent and Slavic guards ring of the Miramamolín, for this, it is believed the chains became the symbol of Navarre and replaced the sable eagle on a golden field with a golden chain on a gules field in the Navarrese coat-of-arms. His relations with the north of the Pyrenees were notably better than his Castilian ones. Several Pyreneean counties declared themselves his vassals and he concluded treaties with John, King of England, and the various Aragonese kings of his time, the aforementioned Peter II and James I. With the latter he signed at Tudela, in 1231, which was never finished, Sancho continued the construction of a new cathedral in Pamplona, as begun by his father and to be finished by his successor. The construction of a certain Gothic bridge over the Ebro has also attributed to him. His eldest sister, Berengaria, Queen of England, died in 1232, when he died in his castle at Tudela, probably of complications related to the varicose ulcer in his leg, Blancas son Theobald was recognized as the next monarch of Navarre on the 7th of April. According to Alberic de Trois-Fontaines, Sancho left a library of 1.7 million books and he was originally interred in the church of San Nicolás, but was later moved to Roncesvalles after much resistance from the local Clergy
12. Theobald II of Navarre – Theobald II, called the Young, was Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre from 1253 until his death. Theobald was the eldest son of Theobald I of Navarre and his third wife and he succeeded to his fathers titles on his death at only fourteen years of age. His mother acted as regent with James I of Aragon until 1256, on 27 November, he affirmed the Fueros of Navarre, which limited his power by putting him under the counsel of a tutor from among the aristocracy. He could not make judgements without a council of twelve of noblemen, Theobald was not content, however, to be so restricted in royal prerogative before his twenty-first birthday. In order to counter the tendency to decentralisation, diminish the power of the nobility and he exacted extraordinary taxes and imposts from them, but they supported him nevertheless because he granted them rights, prestige, and political clout. He extended the fueros of Pamplona to Lantz and Estella to Tiebas—nowadays in ruins, Theobald continued the power struggle with the bishop of Pamplona started during his fathers reign. The former stood by his native Basque parishioners of the Navarreria borough, while Theobald championed the Saint Nicolas borough of Pamplona, in other affairs, Theobald continued the policies of his father. He improved the administration, of incomes and expenditures. The count of 1266 indicated a population of 150,000 inhabitants in Navarre, approximately 6. 75% of royal revenues were spent on a bureaucracy,33. 84% on the military, and 59. 6% to the maintenance of the monarch and his household and duties. Theobald found support in Louis IX of France, who supported his fellow kings against their vassals with consistency, Theobald married Isabella, Louiss daughter, on 6 April 1255. Theobald acted as an advisor of Louis and Louis as an arbiter in Navarres internal problems. When Alfonso X of Castiles daughter Berengaria was betrothed to Louis IX of Frances son Louis, Castile ceded the use of the ports of Fuenterrabía, in July 1270, Theobald embarked with his father-in-law on the Eighth Crusade to Tunis. Louis died of dysentery at the siege, Theobald died childless at Trapani in Sicily while returning that same year. He was succeeded by his brother, Henry I. His widow Isabella returned home to France, where she died a few months later, ciampolo, a soul found by Dante in the Inferno who defrauded Theobald
13. Charles, Prince of Viana – Charles, Prince of Viana, sometimes called Charles IV of Navarre, was the son of King John II of Aragon and Queen Blanche I of Navarre. His mother was the daughter and heiress of Charles III, King of Navarre, agnes died, childless, on 6 April 1448, eight years after her marriage to Charles, aged only about twenty-six. After her death, the took a mistress, Brianda de Vaca. A match was agreed between Charles and the Infanta Catherine of Portugal, daughter of King Edward I, but the marriage was delayed and had not taken place when Charles died in 1461. When Joanna began to interfere in the affairs of Navarre, a civil war broke out. Released upon promising not to take the title until after his fathers death. In 1458 Alfonso died and John became king of Aragon, while Charles was offered the crowns of Naples and he declined these proposals, and having been reconciled with his father returned to Navarre in 1459. Aspiring to marry Isabella of Castile, he was thrown into prison by his father. This insurrection soon became general and John was obliged to yield and he released his son, and recognized him as perpetual governor of Catalonia, and heir to the kingdom. Soon afterwards, however, on 23 September 1461, the prince died at Barcelona, not without a suspicion that he had been poisoned by his stepmother, Charles was a cultured and amiable prince, fond of music and literature. He translated Aristotles Ethics into Aragonese, a work first published at Zaragoza in 1509, and wrote a chronicle of the kings of Navarre, Cronica de los reyes de Navarra