Category:Nevada Test Site nuclear explosive tests
Pages in category "Nevada Test Site nuclear explosive tests"
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 52 pages are in this category, out of 52 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Operation Crosstie – Operation Crosstie was a series of 48 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1967–1968 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Latchkey series and preceded the Operation Bowline series, the blast designated Gasbuggy involved an underground detonation, intended to stimulate production of natural gas by cracking the rock in the underground formation of its deposit. The test proceeded as expected, but not only did the production not increase as much as expected, buggy was a Plowshare test designed to excavate a channel. It was a detonation of 5 devices, placed 150 feet apart and 150 feet below the surface that resulted in a channel 300 feet wide,900 feet long. Or 65 feet deep and 254 feet wide, according to Declassified U. S. film, the USSR conducted a similar salvo-test to investigate the use of nuclear explosions in the construction of the Pechora–Kama Canal project. On March 23,1971, three simultaneously detonated 15 kiloton underground nuclear charges were exploded in the Taiga test. The Faultless test was a calibration test conducted in a mine cavity 3,200 feet beneath the Hot Creek Valley near Tonopah, Nevada and this test was conducted to see if the land was fit for testing a 5 megaton thermonuclear warhead for the Spartan missile. The test failed because of the degree of faulting that resulted in the area around the test. It was decided that the land was unfit for multi-megaton nuclear tests, so a similar calibration test was conducted at Amchitka Island, Alaska, the United Statess Crosstie nuclear test series was a group of 48 nuclear tests conducted in 1967-1968. These tests followed the Operation Latchkey series and preceded the Operation Bowline series
2. Little Feller (nuclear tests) – Little Feller II and Little Feller I were code names for a set of nuclear tests undertaken by the United States at the Nevada Test Site on July 7 and July 17,1962 as part of Operation Sunbeam. They were both tests of stockpiled W54 warheads, the smallest nuclear warheads ever produced by the United States, in Little Feller II, the warhead was suspended only three feet above the ground and had a yield equivalent to only 22 tons of TNT. Little Feller I has the distinction of being the last near-ground atmospheric nuclear detonation conducted by the United States of America. All further tests were conducted under ground, in accordance with the Partial Test Ban Treaty, an additional footnote is Operation Roller Coaster. The Davy Crockett from the Brookings Institution Video of the M-388 Davy Crockett Nuclear Test Operation Ivy Flats government film
3. Operation Plumbbob – Operation Plumbbob was a series of nuclear tests conducted between May 28 and October 7,1957, at the Nevada Test Site, following Project 57, and preceding Project 58/58A. It was the biggest, longest, and most controversial test series in the continental United States, the operation consisted of 29 explosions, of which only two did not produce any nuclear yield. Twenty-one laboratories and government agencies were involved and they included forty-three military effects tests on civil and military structures, radiation and bio-medical studies, and aircraft structural tests. Operation Plumbbob had the tallest tower tests to date in the U. S. nuclear testing program as well as high-altitude balloon tests, one nuclear test involved the largest troop maneuver ever associated with U. S. nuclear testing. Approximately 18,000 members of the U. S. Air Force, Army, Navy, the military was interested in knowing how the average foot-soldier would stand up, physically and psychologically, to the rigors of the tactical nuclear battlefield. Almost 1,200 pigs were subjected to experiments and blast-effects studies during Operation Plumbbob. On shot Priscilla,719 pigs were used in experiments on Frenchman Flat. Some pigs were placed in elevated cages and provided with suits made of different materials, as shown and reported in the PBS documentary Dark Circle, the pigs survived, but with third-degree burns to 80% of their bodies. Other pigs were placed in pens behind large sheets of glass at measured distances from the hypocenter to test the effects of flying debris on living targets, nuclear weapons safety experiments were conducted to study the possibility of a nuclear weapon detonation during an accident. On July 26,1957, a safety experiment, Pascal-A, was detonated in a hole at NTS. The knowledge gained here would provide data to prevent nuclear yields in case of accidental detonations–for example, the John shot on July 19,1957 was the only test of the Air Forces AIR-2 Genie missile with a nuclear warhead. It was fired from an F-89 Scorpion fighter over Yucca Flats at the NNSS, in 2012 the photographer and the last survivor of the five met in a restaurant in Dallas to reminisce. The five officers were, Colonel Sidney C, bruce, later professor of Electrical Engineering at Colorado University, died in 2005, Lieutenant Colonel Frank P. Ball, died in 2003, Major John w. Hughes II, died in 1990, Major Norman B. Bodinger, died February 2,1997, Major Donald A. Luttrell, the photographer, Akira George Yoshitake, died in October 2013. The Rainier shot, conducted September 19,1957, was the first fully contained underground nuclear test and this test of 1.7 kt could be detected around the world by seismologists using ordinary seismic instruments. The Rainier test became the prototype for larger and more powerful underground tests, some images from Upshot-Knothole Grable were accidentally relabeled as belonging to the Priscilla shot from Operation Plumbbob in 1957. As a consequence many publications including official government documents have the photo mislabeled, Plumbbob released 58,300 kilocuries of radioiodine into the atmosphere. This produced total civilian radiation exposures amounting to 120 million person-rads of thyroid tissue exposure
4. Project 58/58A – Operation Project 58/58A was a series of 4 nuclear tests conducted by the United States in 1957-1958 at the Nevada Test Site. These tests followed the Operation Plumbbob series and preceded the Operation Hardtack I series, all the tests in Project 58 were one-point safety tests. They were intended to freeze device designs prior to full-scale tests at Operation Hardtack I, no significant yield was expected from either, but the second, Coulomb-C, a surface test conducted on December 9, produced an unanticipated yield of 500 tons. Eventually, the reached the Los Angeles area where very low readings briefly caused some public concern. This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Energy
5. Operation Ranger – Operation Ranger was the fourth American nuclear test series. It was conducted in 1951 and was the first series to be carried out at the Nevada Test Site, all the bombs were dropped by B-50D bombers and exploded in the open air over Frenchman Flat. These tests centered on the practicality of developing a generation of nuclear weapons using smaller amounts of valuable nuclear materials. They were planned under the name Operation Faust, the exact locations of the tests are unknown, as they were all air drops. However, the ground zero was set at 36°49′32″N 115°57′54″W for all except the Fox shot. The short film Nuclear Test Film - Operation Ranger, Operation Buster/Jangle is available for download at the Internet Archive
6. Sedan (nuclear test) – The radioactive fallout from the test contaminated more US residents than any other nuclear test. The Sedan Crater is the largest man-made crater in the United States, Sedan was a thermonuclear device with a fission yield less than 30% and a fusion yield about 70%. The device had a diameter of 43 cm, length of 96.5 cm, the explosive device was lowered into a shaft drilled into the desert alluvium 194 m deep. The resulting crater is 100 m deep with a diameter of about 390 m, a circular area of the desert floor five miles across was obscured by fast-expanding dust clouds moving out horizontally from the base surge, akin to pyroclastic surge. The blast caused seismic waves equivalent to an earthquake of 4.75 on the Richter scale, the radiation level on the crater lip at 1 hour after burst was 500 R per hour, but it dropped to 500 mR per hour after 27 days. Within 7 months of the excavation, the bottom of the crater could be walked upon with no protective clothing. The Sedan shot resulted in a cloud that separated into two plumes, rising to 3.0 km and 4.9 km. The two plumes headed northeast and then east in parallel paths towards the Atlantic Ocean. Nuclear fallout was dropped along the way, narrowly dispersed in a small number of United States counties. Detected radioactivity was especially high in eight counties in Iowa and one county each in Nebraska, South Dakota and these four counties measured maximum levels higher than 6,000 microcuries per square meter. Of all the tests conducted in the USA, Sedan ranked highest in overall activity of radionuclides in fallout. The test released 880,000 curies of radioactive iodine-131, an agent of thyroid disease, Sedan ranked first in percentages of these particular radionuclides detected in fallout, 198Au, 199Au, 7Be, 99Mo, 147Nd, 203Pb, 181W, 185W and 188W. Sedan ranked second in these radionuclides in fallout, 57Co, 60Co, Sedan ranked third in the detected amount of 24Na in fallout. In countrywide deposition of radionuclides, Sedan was highest in the amount of 7Be, 54Mn, 106Ru and 242Cm, and second highest in the amount of deposited 127mTe. Although not detected in fallout, in part because the explosion was contained, gold was used in the W71 warhead. Sedans fallout contamination contributed a little under 7% to the amount of radiation which fell on the U. S. population during all of the nuclear tests at NTS. Sedans effects were similar to shot George of Operation Tumbler-Snapper, detonated on June 1,1952, if this test was conducted in 1965+, when improvements in device design were realized, a 100-fold reduction in radiation release was considered feasible. The Plowshare project developed the Sedan test in order to determine the feasibility of using nuclear detonations to quickly and economically excavate large amounts of earth and rock
7. Operation Teapot – Operation Teapot was a series of fourteen nuclear test explosions conducted at the Nevada Test Site in the first half of 1955. It was preceded by Operation Castle, and followed by Operation Wigwam, Wigwam was, administratively, a part of Teapot, but it is usually treated as a class of its own. The aims of the operation were to establish military tactics for ground forces on a nuclear battlefield, the United States test series summary table is here, United States nuclear testing series. An augmented test unit from the United States Marine Corps participated in shot Bee during the March 1955 exercises and it produced a yield of 22kt, but significantly less than the expected amount. Since it was an effects test, the DoD specified that the device should have a calibrated yield within 10% of ratings. However, weapon designers at Los Alamos substituted the experimental core without notifying the DoD, the unexpected lower yield, 33% less than the DoD expected, ruined many of the militarys tests. The Civil Defense Apple-2 shot on 5 May 1955 was intended to test various building types in a nuclear blast. An assortment of buildings, including houses and electrical substations, were constructed at the site nicknamed Survival Town. The buildings were populated with mannequins, and stocked with different types of canned and packaged foods, not all of the buildings were destroyed in the blast, and some of them still stand at Area 1, Nevada Test Site. A short film about the blast, referred to as Operation Cue, was distributed by the Federal Civil Defense Administration. The houses are still standing at 37. 04476°N116. 07416°W /37.04476, -116.07416 and they are stops on the Nevada National Security Site tour. From Declassified documents, dated February to May 1956, The Apple-2 shot, as part of Operation Teapot Project 35
8. Upshot-Knothole Annie – Upshot–Knothole Annie was a nuclear weapons test conducted by the United States as part of Operation Upshot–Knothole. It took place at the Nevada Test Site on 17 March 1953, the live TV coverage was recorded on a kinescope, so it is a rare record of the sound an actual atomic bomb makes. Operation Doorstep was a civil defense study conducted by the Federal Civil Defense Administration in conjunction with Annie and it studied the effect of the nuclear blast on two wooden frame houses, fifty automobiles and eight bomb shelters designed for residential use. Both homes performed as expected under the conditions of their construction
9. Upshot-Knothole Encore – Upshot–Knothole Encore was a nuclear weapons test conducted by the United States as part of Operation Upshot–Knothole. It took place on May 8,1953 in Yucca Flat, in the Nevada Test Site. The test device, codenamed Encore, was detonated at 8,30 local time by performing an airdrop of a Mk-6D bomb from 19,000 feet with a B-50 Superfortress over Area 5 at the Nevada Test Site. At 2,423 feet, the bomb detonated, although it was fifteen feet west and nine hundred, the estimated yield of the weapon was 30-36 kilotons, although it yielded twenty-seven kilotons. In the codename Encore, the letter E was a reference to the effects of weapons testing, as Encore was an effects test, multiple objects were subjected to the blast, including trees. Since the Nevada Test Site sits in a desert and does not contain trees, the trees were then placed in holes at Frenchman Flat, and cemented into the ground,6,500 feet from ground zero. The initial release of thermal radiation ignited many of the trees, soldiers were brought in to view the blast as part of the Desert Rock exercises. 3,500 soldiers from all over the country participated in the exercises, and were formed into Combat Battalion teams
10. Upshot-Knothole Grable – Upshot–Knothole Grable was a nuclear weapons test conducted by the United States as part of Operation Upshot–Knothole. Detonation of the nuclear weapon occurred 19 seconds after its deployment at 8, 30am PDT on May 25,1953. The codename Grable was chosen because the letter Grable is phonetic for G, as in gun, as a shell, or artillery-fired atomic projectile, the device was the first of its kind. The test remains the only nuclear artillery shell ever fired in the U. S. nuclear weapons test program. Grable was the second of only four gun-type warheads ever detonated, the shell, designated a Mark 9 nuclear weapon, had a diameter of 280 mm, was 1380 mm long and weighed 364 kg. The M65 Atomic Cannon from which it was fired had a velocity of 625 m/s, for a nominal range of 32 km. The detonation of Grable occurred 19 seconds after its firing and it detonated over 11,000 yards away from the gun it was fired from, over a part of the Nevada Test Site known as Frenchman Flat. The explosion was an air burst of 160 m above the ground,26 m west and 41 m south of its target and its yield was estimated at 15 kilotons, around the same level as Little Boy. An anomalous feature of the blast was the formation of a precursor and this precursor was formed when the shock wave reflected off the ground and surpassed the incident wave and Mach stem due to a heated ground air layer and the low burst height. It resulted in a lower overpressure, but higher overall dynamic pressure and this led strategists to rethink the importance of low air bursts in tactical nuclear warfare. Some images from Upshot–Knothole Grable were accidentally relabeled as belonging to the Priscilla shot from Operation Plumbbob in 1957, as a consequence many publications including official government documents have the photo mislabeled. Admiral Arthur W. Radford, at the time the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, video clip of Grable nuclear artillery experiment The Atomic Cannon from AtomCentral. com, including video
11. Upshot-Knothole Harry – Upshot–Knothole Harry was a nuclear weapons test conducted by the United States as part of Operation Upshot–Knothole. It took place at the time of 04,05 hours, on the May the 19th,1953 in Yucca Flat. The sponsor of the test was the National Laboratory of the United States of America located at Los Alamos, the test device, codenamed Hamlet, was detonated atop a 300-foot tower, the device produced a yield of 32 kilotonnes. The device had a diameter of 56 inches and a length of 66 inches, the design utilized a new hollow core concept. The device was detonated in Area 3 of the test site, the deposition pattern was most similar to test name CLIMAX. Monitoring personnel including United States of America Atomic Energy Commission personnel monitored the resultant radioactive fallout in areas including St. George, fallout from the test fell on 3046 counties of the United States. Due to a miscalculation and change in wind-direction, this Upshot–Knothole test released a large amount of fallout, much of which later accumulated in the vicinity of St. George. Because of this, the shot would become known as Dirty Harry in the press when details were released publicly and it would be among the most controversial of the U. S. nuclear weapon tests. Two years after the blast, Howard Hughes filmed the motion picture The Conqueror near St. George, the cast and crew totaled 220 people. By the end of 1980, as ascertained by People magazine,91 of them had developed some form of cancer and 46 had died of the disease, Hicks evaluated the gamma-exposure rates and levels of radionuclides. Within the report by Hicks he was required to omit data of U-233, U-235, U-238 & Pu-239, downwinders video of the explosion Published on the 9th of November 2015 Quinn, V. E. Kennedy, N. C - radiological and mteorological data published by International Atomic Energy Agency