Bouteloua dactyloides, commonly known as buffalograss or buffalo grass, is a North American prairie grass native to Canada and the United States. It is a shortgrass found mainly on the plains and is co-dominant with blue grama over most of the shortgrass prairie. Buffalo grass in North America is not the species of grass commonly known as buffalo in Australia. It should not be confused with Stenotaphrum secundatum varieties such as Sir Walter or Palmetto, Buffalograss is a warm-season perennial shortgrass. It is drought-, heat-, and cold-resistant, foliage is usually 5–13 cm high, though in the southern Great Plains foliage may reach 30 cm. Plants are occasionally monoecious, sometimes perfect flowers. Flower stalks are 10–20 cm tall, the male inflorescence is a panicle, the female inflorescence consists of short spikelets borne in burlike clusters, usually with two to four spikelets per bur. Buffalograss sends out numerous, branching stolons, occasionally it produces rhizomes, roots are numerous and thoroughly occupy the soil.
The numerous stolons and roots form a dense sod, Buffalograss roots are finer than those of most plains grasses, being less than 1 mm in diameter. In Australia Bouteloua dactyloides is not called buffalo but referred to as prairie grass, Bouteloua dactyloides was initially placed by Thomas Nuttall in the genus Sesleria. It was moved to the monotypic genus Buchloe, in 1999, James Travis Columbus moved Buffalograss to Bouteloua, which contains the grama grasses. Buffalograss is used as a drought-tolerant turfgrass in North America and is grown for forage. Turfgrass cultivars include 609, Prairie and Density, while Comanche, settlers used its dense sod to build sod houses. Buffalograss false smut is a disease caused by Porocercospora seminalis. Infection by the fungus prevents normal caryopsis development, resulting in loss of yield and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
Jatropha curcas is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family, that is native to the American tropics, most likely Mexico and Central America. It is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions around the world, the specific epithet, was first used by Portuguese doctor Garcia de Orta more than 400 years ago and is of uncertain origin. Common names include Barbados nut, purging nut, physic nut, J. curcas is a poisonous, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree, reaching a height of 6 m. It is resistant to a degree of aridity, allowing it to be grown in deserts. The seeds contain 27-40% oil that can be processed to produce a high-quality biodiesel fuel, the seeds are a source of the highly poisonous toxalbumin curcin or jatrophin. Leaves, The leaves have significant variability in their morphology, in general, the leaves are green to pale green, alternate to subopposite, and three- to five-lobed with a spiral phyllotaxis. Flowers and female flowers are produced on the inflorescence, averaging 20 male flowers to each female flower.
The inflorescence can be formed in the leaf axil, fruits are produced in winter, or there may be several crops during the year if soil moisture is good and temperatures are sufficiently high. Most fruit production is concentrated from midsummer to fall with variations in production peaks where some plants have two or three harvests and some produce continuously through the season. Seeds, the seeds are mature when the changes from green to yellow. The seeds contain around 20% saturated fatty acids and 80% unsaturated fatty acids, in addition, the seeds contain other chemical compounds, such as saccharose, stachyose, fructose and protein. The oil is made up of oleic and linoleic acids. Furthermore, the plant contains curcasin, myristic, genome, the whole genome was sequenced by Kazusa DNA Research Institute, Chiba Japan in October 2010. Jatropha curcas grows in tropical and subtropical regions, the plant can grow in wastelands and grows on almost any terrain, even on gravelly and saline soils.
It can thrive in poor and stony soils, although new research suggests that the ability to adapt to these poor soils is not as extensive as had been previously stated. Complete germination is achieved within 9 days, adding manure during the germination has negative effects during that phase, but is favorable if applied after germination is achieved. It can be propagated by cuttings, which yields faster results than multiplication by seeds, the flowers only develop terminally, so a good ramification produces the greatest amount of fruits. Another productivity factor is the ratio between female and male flowers within an inflorescence, more female flowers mean more fruits
It belongs to the tribe Gossypieae, in the mallow family, native to the tropical and subtropical regions from both the Old and New World. The genus Gossypium comprises around 50 species, making it the largest in number in the tribe Gossypieae. New species continue to be discovered, the name of the genus is derived from the Arabic word goz, which refers to a soft substance. Cotton is the natural fibre used by modern humans. Cultivated cotton is a major oilseed crop, as well as a protein source for animal feed. Consequently, the genus Gossypium has long attracted the attention of scientists, the origin of the genus Gossypium is dated to around 5-10 million years ago. Gossypium species are distributed in arid to semiarid regions of the tropics and subtropics, cultivated cottons are perennial shrubs most often grown as annuals. Plants are 1–2 m high in modern cropping systems, sometimes higher in traditional, multiannual cropping systems, the leaves are broad and lobed, with three to five lobes. The seeds are contained in a called a boll, each seed surrounded by fibres of two types.
These fibres are the more interesting part of the plant. At the first ginning, the fibres, called staples, are removed. At the second ginning, the fibres, called linters, are removed. Commercial species of plant are G. hirsutum, G. barbadense, G. arboreum. Many varieties of cotton have been developed by breeding and hybridization of these species. Experiments are ongoing to cross-breed various desirable traits of wild cotton species into the commercial species, such as resistance to insects and diseases. Cotton fibres occur naturally in colours of white, green, most wild cottons are diploid, but a group of five species from America and Pacific islands are tetraploid, apparently due to a single hybridization event around 1.5 to 2 million years ago. The tetraploid species are G. hirsutum, G. tomentosum, G. mustelinum, G. barbadense, Subgenus Gossypium Gossypium arboreum L. – tree cotton Gossypium herbaceum L. – Levant cotton Subgenus Houzingenia Gossypium raimondii Ulbr. – one of the progenitor species of tetraploid cotton, alongside G.
arboreum Gossypium thurberi Tod
Coir, or coconut fibre, is a natural fibre extracted from the husk of coconut and used in products such as floor mats, doormats and mattresses. Coir is the material found between the hard, internal shell and the outer coat of a coconut. Other uses of brown coir are in upholstery padding, white coir, harvested from unripe coconuts, is used for making finer brushes, string and fishing nets. The English word coir comes from the Malayalam and Tamil word kayar and cordage have been made from coconut fibre since ancient times. Indian navigators who sailed the seas to Malaya, China, arab writers of the 11th century AD referred to the extensive use of coir for ship ropes and rigging. A coir industry in the UK was recorded before the half of the 19th century. Coir fibres are found between the hard, internal shell and the coat of a coconut. The individual fibre cells are narrow and hollow, with walls made of cellulose. They are pale when immature, but become hardened and yellowed as a layer of lignin is deposited on their walls, each cell is about 1 mm long and 10 to 20 µm in diameter.
Fibres are typically 10 to 30 centimetres long, the two varieties of coir are brown and white. Brown coir harvested from fully ripened coconuts is thick and has high abrasion resistance and it is typically used in mats and sacking. Mature brown coir fibres contain more lignin and less cellulose than fibres such as flax and cotton, so are stronger, white coir fibres harvested from coconuts before they are ripe are white or light brown in color and are smoother and finer, but weaker. They are generally spun to make yarn used in mats or rope, the coir fibre is relatively waterproof, and is one of the few natural fibres resistant to damage by saltwater. Fresh water is used to process brown coir, while seawater and it must not be confused with coir pith, or formerly cocopeat, which is the powdery material resulting from the processing of the coir fibre. Coir fibre is locally named coprah in some countries, adding to the confusion, green coconuts, harvested after about six to 12 months on the palm, contain pliable white fibres.
Brown fibre is obtained by harvesting fully mature coconuts when the nutritious layer surrounding the seed is ready to be processed into copra, the fibrous layer of the fruit is separated from the hard shell by driving the fruit down onto a spike to split it. A well-seasoned husker can manually separate 2,000 coconuts per day, machines are now available which crush the whole fruit to give the loose fibres. These machines can process up to 2,000 coconuts per hour, the fibrous husks are soaked in pits or in nets in a slow-moving body of water to swell and soften the fibres
Poppy straw is derived from opium poppies that is harvested when fully mature and dried by mechanical means, minus the ripe poppy seeds. Opium poppy straw today can be one of different things. It is what remains after the poppy seed harvest, that is, the dried leaves and stalk harvested after the seed pod have been used for traditional opium extraction. The straw was originally considered an agricultural by-product of the poppy seed harvest. This changed in 1927 when János Kabay developed a process to extract morphine from the crushed capsule. Concentrated poppy straw consisting mainly of the crushed capsule without the seeds soon became a source of morphine. The 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs defines poppy straw as all parts of the opium poppy, the seeds used for this market are especially chosen for the size and shape of the mature poppy seed pod/head not alkaloid content. Many varieties and cultivars of Papaver somniferum are in existence, harvesting of poppy straw is an alternative, largely mechanized method.
The plants are allowed to mature fully, a machine is used to harvest the entire field, the ripe poppy seeds are separated out by threshing and winnowing, and the remainder is poppy straw. Poppy straw usually consists of only the ground parts of the plant. Some producers mow the plants high, so that the harvest consists almost entirely of the fruits, omitting the stalks, poppy straw is processed in a manner similar to opium to extract opiates and other alkaloids. Avoiding the labor-intensive harvesting of opium by hand was the topic of research for almost 100 years and this research was of notable interest in those countries where opium poppy was an important oilseed crop but due to high labor costs the harvesting of opium was not economic. What was needed was a process that enabled commercial extraction of opiates from opium poppies directly rather than from opium. By the 1940s, commercial production of morphine from poppy straw had spread from Hungary to Poland, by 1950, about 10% of the poppy seed harvest of those countries was yielding morphine.
Based on average yields and the production of poppy seed in 9 European countries. However, in 1950 the actual production of morphine from poppy straw was reported to be 11,663 kilograms. As of 1950, the annual yield per hectare was estimated to be 675 kilograms poppy seed and 450 kilograms poppy straw. The first commercial process by which opiates are extracted from poppy straw was invented in Hungary by János Kabay and this process, known as the poppy straw method, remains in use today
It is native to Europe and to Central Asian areas. This plant is cultivated as oilseed crop mainly in Europe and in North America, C. sativa has been traditionally cultivated as an oilseed crop to produce vegetable oil and animal feed. Ample archeological evidence shows it has grown in Europe for at least 3,000 years. The earliest findsites include the Neolithic levels at Auvernier, the Chalcolithic level at Pefkakia in Greece, during the Bronze age and Iron age, it was an important agricultural crop in northern Greece beyond the current range of the olive. It apparently continued to be grown at the time of the Roman Empire, although its Greek and Latin names are not known. As early as 600 BC, it was being sown as a monoculture around the Rhine River Valley, and was thought to have spread mainly by coexisting as a weed with flax monocultures. Until the 1940s, camelina was an important oil crop in eastern and central Europe, Camelina oil was used in oil lamps and as an edible false flax oil. It was possibly brought to North America unintentionally as a weed with flaxseed, the breeding potential is unexplored compared to other oilseeds commercially grown around the world.
Today, camelina is found, wild or cultivated, in almost all regions of Europe and North America, but in South America, Camelina seems to be particularly adapted to cold semiarid climate zone. As a summer or winter annual plant, camelina grows to heights of 30–120 cm, the leaves are alternate on the stem, lanceolate with a length from 2–8 cm and a width of 2–10 mm. Leaves and stems may be partially hairy and its abundant, four-petaled flowers are pale yellow in colour. Seeds, which mature in seed pods, have an orange colour. The 1, 000-seed weight ranges from 0. 8–2.0 g, the crop is now being researched due to its exceptionally high level of omega-3 fatty acids, which is uncommon in vegetable sources. Seeds contain 38 to 43% oil and 27 to 32% protein, over 50% of the fatty acids in cold-pressed camelina oil are polyunsaturated. The oil is very rich in natural antioxidants, such as tocopherols, making this highly stable oil very resistant to oxidation. The vitamin E content of oil is approximately 110 mg/100 g.
It is well suited for use as a cooking oil and it has an almond-like flavor and aroma. Because of its apparent health benefits and its stability, camelina oil is being added to the growing list of foods considered as functional foods
Hemp or industrial hemp, typically found in the northern hemisphere, is a variety of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products. It is one of the fastest growing plants and was one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 10,000 years ago. It can be refined into a variety of items including paper, clothing, biodegradable plastics, insulation, food. Hemp has lower concentrations of THC and higher concentrations of cannabidiol, the legality of industrial hemp varies widely between countries. Some governments regulate the concentration of THC and permit only hemp that is bred with an especially low THC content, it appears to have been borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic and from there into Baltic and Germanic languages. Following Grimms law, the k would have changed to h with the first Germanic sound shift, after which it may have been adapted into the Old English form, hænep. Another possible source of origin is Assyrian qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, cognates of hemp in other Germanic languages, include Dutch hennep and Norwegian, German and Swedish, hampa.
Hemp is used to make a variety of commercial and industrial products including rope, food, textiles, insulation, the inner two fibers of the plant are more woody and typically have industrial applications, such as mulch, animal bedding and litter. When oxidized, hemp oil from the seeds becomes solid and can be used in the manufacture of oil-based paints, in creams as an agent, for cooking. Hemp seeds have been used in bird feed mix as well, a survey in 2003 showed that more than 95% of hemp seed sold in the European Union was used in animal and bird feed. Hemp seeds can be raw, ground into a meal, sprouted. The leaves of the plant can be consumed raw in salads. Hemp can be made into a liquid and used for baking or for such as hemp milk, hemp juice. Hempseed oil is cold-pressed from the seed and is high in unsaturated fatty acids. In 2011, the U. S. imported $11.5 million worth of products, mostly driven by growth in demand for hemp seed. In the U. S. imported hemp can be used legally in food products,100 grams of hulled hemp seeds supply 586 calories.
They are 5% water, 5% carbohydrates, 49% total fat, Hemp seeds are notable in providing 64% of the Daily Value of protein per 100 gram serving. Hempseed amino acid profile is comparable to other sources of such as meat, eggs
Sansevieria is a genus of about 70 species of flowering plants, native to Africa and southern Asia. Common names include mother-in-laws tongue, devils tongue, jinns tongue, bow string hemp, snake plant and it is often included in the genus Dracaena, in the APG III classification system, both genera are placed in the family Asparagaceae, subfamily Nolinoideae. It has placed in the former family Dracaenaceae. Spellings Sanseveria and Sanseviera are commonly seen as well, the confusion deriving from alternate spellings of the Italian place name, there is great variation within the genus, and species range from succulent desert plants such as Sansevieria pinguicula to thinner leafed tropical plants such as Sansevieria trifasciata. Plants often form dense clumps from a rhizome or stolons. The leaves of Sansevieria are typically arranged in a rosette around the growing point, there is great variation in foliage form within the genus. All species can be divided one of two basic categories based on their leaves, hard leaved and soft leaved species.
Typically, hard leaved Sansevieria originate from arid climates, while the soft leaved species originate from tropical and subtropical regions, hard leaved Sansevieria have a number of adaptations for surviving dry regions. These include thick, succulent leaves for storing water and thick leaf cuticles for reducing moisture loss and these leaves may be cylindrical to reduce surface area and are generally shorter than those of their soft leafed tropical counterparts, which are wide and strap-like. The flowers are usually greenish-white, lilac-red, the fruit is a red or orange berry. In nature, Sansevieria flowers are pollinated by moths, but both flowering and fruiting is erratic and few seeds are produced, the raceme of Sansevieria is derived from the apical meristem and a flowered shoot will no longer produce new leaves. Unlike plants such as agave which die after flowering, a bloomed Sansevieria shoot will simply cease to produce new leaves, the flowered shoot continues to grow by producing plantlets via its rhizomes or stolons.
Sansevieria can be propagated by seed, leaf cutting, and division, seeds are rarely used, as plants can normally be grown much faster from cuttings or divisions. As many cultivars are periclinal chimeras they dont propagate true to type from leaf cuttings, several species are popular houseplants in temperate regions, with Sansevieria trifasciata the most widely sold, numerous cultivars are available. In China, the plant is usually potted in a pot often ornamented with dragons. Growth is comparatively slow and the plant will last for many years, the tall-growing plants have stiff, lance-shaped leaves while the dwarf plants grow in rosettes. As houseplants, Sansevieria thrive on warmth and bright light, and they can rot from over-watering, so it is important that they are potted in well-drained soil, and not over-watered. They need to be re-potted or split at the root from time to time because they sometimes grow so large that they break the pot they are growing in
Sisal, with the botanical name Agave sisalana, is a species of Agave native to southern Mexico but widely cultivated and naturalized in many other countries. It yields a fibre used in making various products. The term sisal may refer either to the common name or the fibre. It is sometimes referred to as sisal hemp, because for centuries hemp was a source for fibre. The sisal fibre is used for rope and twine, and has many other uses, including paper, footwear, bags, carpets. The native origin of Agave sisalana is uncertain, traditionally it was deemed to be a native of the Yucatán Peninsula, but there are no records of botanical collections from there. They were originally shipped from the Spanish colonial port of Sisal in Yucatán, the Yucatán plantations now cultivate henequen. Gentry hypothesized a Chiapas origin, on the strength of local usage. Evidence of a cottage industry there suggests it as the original habitat location, possibly as a cross of Agave angustifolia. Sisal plants, Agave sisalana, consist of a rosette of sword-shaped leaves about 1. 5–2 metres tall, young leaves may have a few minute teeth along their margins, but lose them as they mature.
The sisal plant has a 7–10 year life-span and typically produces 200–250 commercially usable leaves, each leaf contains an average of around 1000 fibres. The fibres account for only about 4% of the plant by weight, Sisal is considered a plant of the tropics and subtropics, since production benefits from temperatures above 25 degrees Celsius and sunshine. Sisal was used by the Aztecs and the Mayans to make crude fabrics, in the 19th century, sisal cultivation spread to Florida, the Caribbean islands, and Brazil, as well as to countries in Africa, notably Tanzania and Kenya, and Asia. The first commercial plantings in Brazil were made in the late 1930s and it was not until the 1960s that Brazilian production accelerated and the first of many spinning mills was established. Today Brazil is the major producer of sisal. There are both positive and negative impacts from sisal growing. These methods offer no potential for genetic improvement, in vitro multiplication of selected genetic material using meristematic tissue culture offers considerable potential for the development of improved genetic material.
Fibre is extracted by a known as decortication, where leaves are crushed, beaten
NNFCC is a consultancy company specialising in bioenergy and bio-based products. The company is based in the BioCentre on the York Science Park and was opened in November 2003 by Larry Whitty, the current Chief Executive Officer is Dr Jeremy Tomkinson and the chair of the Board of Directors is Professor Michael Roberts, CBE. NNFCC specialises in providing information and knowledge on the supply of biomass, its use in industrial applications, NNFCC receive funding and is a delivery partner for the UK Governments Department for Energy and Climate Change. In addition to the consultancy offered by NNFCC, the company have paid membership for businesses and individuals
Flax, Linum usitatissimum, is a member of the genus Linum in the family Linaceae. It is a food and fiber crop cultivated in regions of the world. The textiles made from flax are known in the Western countries as linen, and traditionally used for bed sheets, the oil is known as linseed oil. In addition to referring to the plant itself, the word flax may refer to the fibers of the flax plant. The plant species is only as a cultivated plant, and appears to have been domesticated just once from the wild species Linum bienne. Several other species in the genus Linum are similar in appearance to L. usitatissimum, cultivated flax, including some that have similar blue flowers, some of these are perennial plants, unlike L. usitatissimum, which is an annual plant. Cultivated flax plants grow to 1.2 m tall, with slender stems, the leaves are glaucous green, slender lanceolate, 20–40 mm long, and 3 mm broad. The flowers are pale blue, 15–25 mm in diameter. The fruit is a round, dry capsule 5–9 mm in diameter, containing several brown seeds shaped like an apple pip.
Flax was first domesticated in the Fertile Crescent region, evidence exists of a domesticated oilseed flax with increased seed size by 9,000 years ago from Tell Ramad in Syria. Use of the crop steadily spread, reaching as far as Switzerland, in China and India, domesticated flax was cultivated by at least 5,000 years ago. Flax was extensively cultivated in ancient Egypt, where the walls had paintings of flowering flax. Egyptian priests only wore linen, as flax was considered a symbol of purity, phoenicians traded Egyptian linen throughout the Mediterranean, and the Romans used it for their sails. Eventually, Flanders became the center of the linen industry in the European Middle Ages. Since then, flax has lost its importance as a commercial crop, Flax is grown for its oil, used as a nutritional supplement, and as an ingredient in many wood-finishing products. Flax is grown as a plant in gardens. Flax fibers are used to make linen, the Latin species name usitatissimum means most useful. Flax fibers are taken from the stem of the plant, and are two to three times as strong as those of cotton, flax fibers are naturally smooth and straight