El Molino Viejo
The old mill has been designated as a California Historical Landmark. Though there are varying accounts of the date, San Gabriel Mission records indicate it was built in 1816. The mill was built on land owned by the San Gabriel Mission and it was built by Tongvan Mission Indian laborers under the watchful eye of Father Zalvidea. The mill was built like a fortress and its lower walls are nearly five feet thick at the base, and are made of brick and volcanic tuff. Some have written that the thick walls were intended to allow the padres to barricade themselves in the event of a disturbance among their somewhat uncertain converts. The upper walls are made of sun-dried adobe slabs, and the surface is covered with a lime mortar made from burnt sea shells. The pine and sycamore beams are tied with leather thongs, water was brought to the mill in an open ditch from Los Robles and Kewen Canyons, and stored in a large cistern. For the mill itself, Father Zalvidea designed an unusual horizontal, there were three vaulted water chambers on the ground floor and a single horizontal water wheel.
The water wheel was attached to a shaft that went up to the second level where the grinding stones were located. One of the stones was attached to the shaft. A second stone was placed above the stone, with corn. The upper-most room, used now as an art gallery, was used for storage of the final product, after the water flowed out of the mill, it was channeled into a lake down hill from the mill. The lake has dried up and is now the site of San Marinos Lacy Park. It was the first water-powered grist mill in Southern California, the mill was operational for only seven years, during which time it provided food for the missionaries and Indian neophytes, there were 1,644 Tongva-Gabrieleños in 1816 in the mission community. In 1823, a New England-style mill with a waterwheel was built adjacent to the mission. The new mill resulted in a product, and the old mill ceased operation. After the new mill was opened in 1823, the Old Mill reportedly sat idle for 30 years, during time it was victimized by vandals.
In 1846, Pío Pico – last Mexican governor of Alta California – sold 16,000 acres, including the mill, to Julian Workman, after the Mexican Cession of California to the U. S. in 1848, John C
Western Pacific Railroad Museum
The museums mission is to preserve the history of the Western Pacific Railroad and is operated by the Feather River Rail Society, founded in 1983. It is located at a former Western Pacific locomotive facility, adjacent to the Union Pacifics former Western Pacific mainline through the Feather River Canyon. The museum holds in its collection thirty-three diesel locomotives, one locomotive, one steam locomotive, eighteen passenger cars, numerous freight and maintenance cars. They offer excursions and a Run A Locomotive program during the summer, the WPRM has one of the larger collections of early diesel era locomotives and freight cars in North America. The museum is considered to have one of the most complete and historic collections of equipment. The WPRM is a museum that allows visitors to board and explore locomotives. Also located at the site are the Portola Diesel Shop built in 1953 and an interlocking tower from Oakland, currently stored unrebuilt. The Western Pacific Hospital, built in 1911 and one of the few remaining railroad hospitals in the country, was part of the museum until it was destroyed in a fire on September 7,2011.
These sites are west and east of the Museum, plumas-Eureka State Park is located nearby, as is the Lassen Volcanic National Park. Lake Davis and Frenchman Lake are popular fishing locations within easy driving of the museum, graeagle, a town to the west of Portola, is home to vacation cabins and several golf courses. One aspect of the Western Pacific Railroad Museum is its nationally known Run A Locomotive program, except for winter and certain weekends when special events are in progress, the museum provides visitors a chance to be an engineer for an hour. Participants are given on-the-ground instruction, they get to operate a locomotive of their choice for an hour. A qualified engineer joins them in the locomotive for oversight and further instruction and this is one of the first programs of its type in the United States. More information can be found at WPLives. org, the program is so popular that it is often reserved months in advance. The Zephyr Project is a program of the Feather River Rail Society to acquire and restore cars, personal stories and artifacts relating to the California Zephyr passenger train.
Currently, the Projects collection of equipment includes Western Pacific FP7 locomotive 805-A, dome lounge car Silver Hostel, dome-coach Silver Lodge, in addition, the dome-coach Silver Rifle is on long term loan from the Golden Gate Railroad Museum. Official Western Pacific Railroad Museum website The WP165 Restoration Blog Updates on the restoration of Western Pacific 0-6-0 #165 steam locomotive, railPictures. Net, WPRM – Photographs from the Western Pacific Railroad Museum. RailPictures. Net, PRM – More Western Pacific Railroad Museum photographs
The park is home to the countrys largest collection of outdoor murals, as well as various sculptures, and an architectural piece dedicated to the cultural heritage of the community. The park was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2013 owing to its association with the Chicano civil rights movement, Chicano Park, like Berkeleys Peoples Park, was the result of a militant peoples land takeover. Every year on April 22, the community celebrates the anniversary of the parks takeover with a celebration called Chicano Park Day, the area was originally known as the East End, but was renamed Logan Heights in 1905. The first Mexican settlers there arrived in the 1890s, followed soon after by refugees fleeing the violence of the Mexican Revolution, so many Mexican immigrants and Mexican-Americans settled there that the southern portion of Logan Heights eventually became known as Barrio Logan. The original neighborhood reached all the way to San Diego Bay and this access was denied beginning with World War II, when Naval installations blocked local access to the beach.
The denial of beachfront access was the source of the communitys resentment of the government. This resentment grew in the 1950s, when the area was rezoned as mixed residential and industrial, junk dealers and repair shops moved into the barrio, creating air pollution, loud noise, and aesthetic conditions unsuitable for a residential area. Resentment continued to grow as the barrio was cleaved in two by Interstate 5 in 1963 and was divided in 1969 by the elevated onramps of the San Diego-Coronado Bridge. At this time, Mexicans were accustomed to not being included in discussions concerning their communities and to not being represented by their officials, so no formal complaint was lodged. This attitude began to change in the turbulent decade that brought the demands of African Americans, women, as the various campaigns coalesced under the banner of the Chicano Movement so too did the political awareness and sense of empowerment grow in Barrio Logan. Community residents had long been demanding a park, in June 1969, the park was officially approved and a site was designated, but no action was taken to implement the decision.
The final straw came on April 22,1970, on his way to school, a community member, San Diego City College student, and Brown Beret member named Mario Solis noticed bulldozers next to the area designated for the park. Solis went door-to-door to spread the news of the construction, at school, he alerted the students of Professor Gil Robledos Chicano studies class, who printed fliers to bring more attention to the affair. At noon that day, Mexican-American high school students walked out of their classes to other neighbors who had already congregated at the site. Some protesters formed human chains around the bulldozers, while others planted trees, Solis is reported to have commandeered a bulldozer to flatten the land for planting. Also, the flag of Aztlán was raised on an old telephone pole, there were many young people and families at the protest. When the crowd grew to 250, construction was called off, the occupation of Chicano Park lasted for twelve days while community members and city officials held meetings to negotiate the creation of a park.
During that time, groups of people came from Los Angeles and Santa Barbara to join the occupation and they maintained that the park would be re-occupied if negotiations failed
Presidio of San Francisco
It had been a fortified location since September 17,1776, when New Spain established it to gain a foothold on Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848. As part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment, on October 1,1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the parks lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013, the park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay and the Pacific Ocean. It was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962, battery Chamberlin, seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904.
Fort Point,1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge, the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, and a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center, This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, the building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion, opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge and it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Crissy Field Center is an environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps. The Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, the facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore. The landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves, the project restored a naturally functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were previously not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a number of Presidio residents. 1776, Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers, women,1794, Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today, 1776–1821, The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It often was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains, in 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, and farming, support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was very limited
The Watts Towers, Towers of Simon Rodia, or Nuestro Pueblo are a collection of 17 interconnected sculptural structures within the Simon Rodia State Historic Park in the Watts community of Los Angeles. The tallest of the towers reaches a height of over 99 feet, the towers and walls were designed and built by Sabato Rodia, an Italian immigrant construction worker and tile mason, over a period of 33 years, from 1921 to 1954. The work is an example of art and Italian-American naïve art. The Watts Towers are located near the 103rd Street/Watts Towers Los Angeles Metro station of the Los Angeles County Metro Rail Blue Line and they were designated a National Historic Landmark and a California Historical Landmark in 1990. They are a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, and on the National Register of Historic Places in Los Angeles, the sculptures armatures are constructed from steel rebar and Rodias own concoction of a type of concrete, wrapped with wire mesh. The main supports are embedded with pieces of porcelain and they are decorated with found objects, including bottles, ceramic tiles, figurines and much more.
Rodia called the Towers Nuestro Pueblo and he built them with no special equipment or predetermined design, working alone with hand tools. Neighborhood children brought pieces of pottery to Rodia, and he used damaged pieces from the Malibu Pottery. Rodia bent much of the Towers framework from scrap rebar, using nearby railroad tracks as a makeshift vise, other items came from alongside the Pacific Electric Railway right-of-way between Watts and Wilmington. Rodia often walked the right-of-way all the way to Wilmington in search of material and he moved to Martinez, California to be with his sister and never returned. Rodias bungalow inside the enclosure was burned down as a result of an accident on the Fourth of July, and the City of Los Angeles condemned the structure and ordered it all to be destroyed. Actor Nicholas King and a film editor William Cartwright visited the site in 1959, the Citys decision to pursue expediting the demolition was still in force. The towers had become famous and there was opposition from around the world.
King, architects, enthusiasts, the Committee negotiated with the city to allow for an engineering test to establish the safety of the structures and avoid demolition of the structures. The test took place on October 10,1959, for the test, steel cable was attached to each Tower and a crane was used to exert lateral force, all connected to a load-force meter. The crane was unable to topple or even shift the Towers with the applied. Bud Goldstone and Edward Farrell were the engineer and architect leading the team, the stress test registered 10,000 lbs. The Towers are anchored less than 2 feet in the ground, and have highlighted in architectural textbooks
Huntington Desert Garden
The Huntington Desert Garden is part of The Huntington Library, Art Collections and Botanical Gardens in San Marino, California. The Desert Garden is one of the worlds largest and oldest collections of cacti and other desert plants, collected from throughout the world. It contains plants from extreme environments, many of which were acquired by Henry E. Huntington and William Hertrich in trips taken to several countries in North and South America. One of the Huntington’s most botanically important gardens, the Desert Garden brought together a group of largely unknown. Containing a broad category of xerophytes, the Desert Garden grew to preeminence and remains today among the world’s finest, Mr. Huntington was not initially interested in establishing a Desert Garden. He did not like cacti at all, due to some unfortunate prickly pear encounters during railroad construction work. But Hertrich was persistent, once won over, Mr. Huntington built a spur to his garden, to bring in rock, soil. As Gary Lyons, a curator, its very convenient to have a rail spur, and deep pockets.
A trip to Arizona in 1908 filled three railroad cars for the back to the garden. Famed Brazilian landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx called the Huntington Desert Garden the most extraordinary garden in the world, the Desert Garden agave and yucca collections, along with the cacti, are among the Huntington’s most significant research collections. Huntington boasts the largest Yucca filifera in the world, the Huntingtons Beaucarnea, Ponytail Palms, members of the agave family, are some of the oldest specimens in cultivation, and among the earliest plantings in the Desert Garden. Aloes constitute one of the largest collections outside Africa, aloe arborescens has an unrivalled winter display of fiery red flower stalks. About 200 of the world’s 300 species of aloes reside in the upper garden, aloe bainesii, which can grow fifty feet high, is the tallest. Puyas are terrestrial bromeliads that put on a floral display in April. Most desert columnar plants belong to the genus Cereus and they form the structure of much of the Desert Garden landscape, producing flowers in late summer and colorful fruit in September and October.
Cereus xanthocarpus, at twenty tons, is the gardens most massive plant and this tree-like cactus was already a mature specimen when planted in 1905. It is approximately 125 years old, the most spectacular cactus displays are the 500 bright yellow-spined Golden Barrel Cactus, the largest being more than 85 years old. They flower in the Spring, and are native to central Mexico and this is probably the best display of Golden Barrels in the world
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park
Old Town San Diego State Historic Park, located in the Old Town neighborhood of San Diego, California, is a state protected historical park in San Diego. It commemorates the early days of the town of San Diego, the park was established in 1968. In 2005 and 2006, California State Parks listed Old Town San Diego as the most visited park in California. In 1969, the site was registered as California Historical Landmark #830, on September 3,1971, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places as Old Town San Diego Historic District. The first European settlement on the West Coast of the present-day United States was the San Diego Presidio, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was founded by Father Junípero Serra the same year. After five years the Mission moved to a several miles upriver at the present site of Mission San Diego de Alcalá. Presidio Hill remained the settlement for several decades because it was defensible against attack by European enemies or hostile Indians. As the need for defense decreased, settlers preferred to live at the base of the hill because of greater convenience, in the 1820s the town of San Diego grew up at the base of the bluff, at the site commemorated by Old Town San Diego State Historic Park.
The Presidio was abandoned and fell into disrepair, during the pueblo period following Mexican independence, the Old Town area was the commercial and governmental hub of the region, even though its population was never more than a few hundred. San Diego during this period is described by Richard Henry Dana. In 1834 the Mexican government granted San Diego the status of a pueblo or chartered town, one problem limiting the towns growth was its location far from navigable water. All imports and exports had to be brought ashore in Point Loma, when California was admitted to the United States in 1850, San Diego was made the county seat of San Diego County, even though the towns population was only 650. Residents and businesses quickly abandoned Old Town for Hortons New Town because of New Towns proximity to shipping, in 1871 government records were moved from Old Town to a new county courthouse in New Town, and Downtown permanently eclipsed Old Town as the focal point of San Diego. The Old Town area is a popular tourist destination, known especially for its Mexican restaurants, the state park itself hosts several eating establishments, and other restaurants and gift shops are found in the surrounding neighborhood.
Five original adobes are part of the complex, which includes shops, other historic buildings include a schoolhouse, a blacksmith shop, San Diegos first newspaper office, a cigar and pipe store and gardens, and a stable with a carriage collection. There are stores, with local artisans demonstrating their craft, there is no charge to enter the state park or any of its museums. Living history demonstrations and free tours are regularly scheduled, Historical interpretation is primarily carried out by park employees and volunteers, and the Mexican Commercial corner is host to several locally based small businesses and artists. Adjacent to the park is Heritage County Park, run by San Diego County
California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park
The San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park is located in San Francisco, United States. The park includes a fleet of vessels, a visitor center, a maritime museum. The park is referred to as the San Francisco Maritime Museum. Todays San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park was authorized in 1988, the park incorporates the Aquatic Park Historic District, bounded by Van Ness Avenue, Polk Street, and Hyde Street. The historic fleet of the San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park is moored at the parks Hyde Street Pier, the fleet consists of the following major vessels, Balclutha, an 1886 built square rigged sailing ship. Eureka, an 1890 built steam ferryboat, alma, an 1891 built scow schooner. Hercules, a 1907 built steam tug, eppleton Hall, a 1914 built paddlewheel tug. The fleet includes one hundred small craft. The Visitor Center is housed in the parks 1909 waterfront warehouse, located at the corner of Hyde, the City of San Francisco declared the four-story brick structure an historic landmark in 1974, and the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975.
Inside, exhibits tell the story of San Francisco’s colorful and diverse maritime heritage, the visitor center contains a theater and a ranger-staffed information desk. The building was built by the WPA as a public bathhouse. The architects were William Mooser Jr. and William Mooser III, the third-floor gallery is used for visiting exhibitions and in 2005 exhibited Sparks, an exhibition of shipboard radio and radioteletype technology. The Maritime Museum has re-opened after a series of renovations, the Maritime Research Center is the premier resource for San Francisco and Pacific Coast maritime history. Originating in 1939, the collections have become the largest maritime collection on the West Coast, one of these is the San Francisco Maritime National Park Association. The Visitors Center, Hyde Street Pier and Maritime Museum are all situated adjacent to the foot of Hyde Street, the park headquarters and Maritime Research Center are located in Fort Mason, some 10 minutes walk to the west of the other sites.
Opening times and fees for the sites can be found on the parks website. Aquatic Park is a place for open water swimming, both for recreation and training. The South End Rowing Club and Dolphin Club are located in Aquatic Park, WPA murals and sculpture at Aquatic Park — The New Deal Art Registry
Laws is an unincorporated community in Inyo County, California. Laws is located 4 miles northeast of Bishop on U. S. Route 6, Laws has been noted for its unusual place name. The U. S. Geological Survey shows official coordinates for the town as 37°24′03″N 118°20′44″W, the town is in ZIP code 93514 and area code 760. The official elevation is 4,117 feet AMSL, the town is bordered by the White Mountains to the east and the Sierra Nevada Mountains, the Eastern Sierras, to the west. It is located near the Owens River in upper Owens Valley, the settlement of Station was formed in 1883 as a depot on the Carson and Colorado Railroad. The name was changed to Laws in honor of R. J, a post office operated at Laws from 1887 to 1963. The town of Laws was a station along a 3 ft narrow gauge railway portion of the Southern Pacific Railroad. Today the town of Laws exists as a museum of Owens Valley and it is registered as California Historical Landmark #953. In 2015, the travel website Atlas Obscura designated this museum as one of 160 international gems, there are operating locomotives that run on the narrow gauge track on the museums grounds.
The museums display explains that the railroad was relied on by many Eastern Sierra communities before modern roads were built during the 1950s and 1960s, a station agents home is located south of the railroad station. Docents portray the station agent on most days, helping understand the period culture. The Museum includes several historic buildings moved to the site from downtown Bishop. There is a church and school house, there is a wooden Western Electric 11-type telephone booth. A vehicle on display was a 1949 ambulance, which was painted black, stripped of emergency lighting. Medical implements from a local doctors office are on display. Owens Valley history, including construction and impact of the Los Angeles Aqueduct project, land on all sides of the museum is property of the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power, of the City of Los Angeles. A tour docent, sharing a vintage black-and-white photograph, explained This is a picture of my moms apple orchard, the museum houses an extensive collection of old and reconstructed mining equipment.
An arrastra is a basic mine milling machine used to pulverize rock, a sweep arm – the elm log – is rotated and drags heavy stones over pieces of ore-rich rock to be pulverized
Travel Town Museum
Travel Town Museum is a transport museum dedicated on December 14,1952, and located in the northwest corner of Los Angeles, Californias Griffith Park. The railroad museum portion contains 43 full-scale railroad engines and their collection of 17 locomotives includes, AT&SF No. 664, an 1899 Baldwin 2-8-0 Consolidation steam locomotive,33, a 1955 Baldwin RS-12 Diesel locomotive. 2, a 1922 Lima three-truck 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge Shay locomotive,1, a 1925 American 0-6-0 switcher steam locomotive. 31, a 1921 Davenport 0-4-0T switcher steam locomotive,32, a 1914 ALCO 0-4-0T switcher steam locomotive. Pacific Electric No.1544 Electra, a 1902 North Shore B-B electric locomotive,2, a 1918 Heisler Locomotive Works three truck narrow gauge Heisler steam locomotive. 1000, a 1920 American 2-8-2 Mikado steam locomotive, sharp & Fellows Railroad Contractors No. 7, a 1902 American 2-6-2 Prairie steam locomotive,20, an 1880 Baldwin 0-4-0 switcher steam locomotive, currently undergoing refurbishment to operation as Southern Pacific No.219.
1273, a 1921 SP built 0-6-0 switcher steam locomotive,3025, a 1904 American 4-4-2 Atlantic steam locomotive. 1, an 1864 Norris-Lancaster 4-4-0 American steam locomotive, Travel Town No.1 The Charley Atkins, Ex US Navy No. 56-00323, a 1941 EMD Model 40,300 horsepower, Diesel locomotive,4439, a 1918 UP built 0-6-0 switcher steam locomotive. 26, a 1909 American 2-8-0 Consolidation steam locomotive,999110, a 1926 American Car & Foundry caboose. 1, a 1900 OR&L built caboose,1, a circa 1890 wooden boxcar, in the Main Exhibit Hall. 12, a circa 1890 Carter Brothers baggage and Mail car,163, a circa 1890 stock car, in the Main Exhibit Hall. 4049, a 1961 Pacific Car & Foundry bay window caboose,30036, a circa 1930 wood sided boxcar. 754, a 1910 Haskell and Barker caboose,3355, a 1928 Pullman Company Snack Car. 1, a circa 1900 OR&L built passenger coach,36, a 1900 OR&L built Passenger/Mail combination car. 4418, a circa 1925 Pennsylvania Railroad built Dining car,2513, a 1919 Pullman Company chair car
Bodie is a ghost town in the Bodie Hills east of the Sierra Nevada mountain range in Mono County, United States, about 75 miles southeast of Lake Tahoe. It is located 12 mi east-southeast of Bridgeport, at an elevation of 8379 feet, as Bodie Historic District, the U. S. Department of the Interior recognizes it as a National Historic Landmark. Also registered as a California Historical Landmark, the ghost town officially became Bodie State Historic Park in 1962, since 2012, Bodie has been administered by the Bodie Foundation, which uses the tagline Protecting Bodies Future by Preserving Its Past. Bodie began as a camp of little note following the discovery of gold in 1859 by a group of prospectors. Bodey perished in a blizzard the following November while making a trip to Monoville. Gold discovered at Bodie coincided with the discovery of silver at nearby Aurora, but while these two towns boomed, interest in Bodie remained lackluster. By 1868 only two companies had built stamp mills at Bodie, and both had failed, rich discoveries in the adjacent Bodie Mine during 1878 attracted even more hopeful people.
By 1879, Bodie had a population of approximately 5, 000–7,000 people, one idea maintains that in 1880, Bodie was Californias second or third largest city, but the U. S. Census of that year disproves the popular tale. Over the years, Bodies mines produced gold valued at nearly US$34 million, Bodie boomed from late 1877 through mid– to late 1880. The first newspaper, The Standard Pioneer Journal of Mono County and it started out as a weekly, but soon became a thrice-weekly paper. It was during this time that a line was built which connected Bodie with Bridgeport and Genoa. California and Nevada newspapers predicted Bodie would become the next Comstock Lode, men from both states were lured to Bodie by the prospect of another bonanza. Gold bullion from the towns nine stamp mills was shipped to Carson City, Nevada, by way of Aurora, most shipments were accompanied by armed guards. After the bullion reached Carson City, it was delivered to the mint there, at its peak,65 saloons lined Main Street, which was a mile long.
Murders, barroom brawls, and stagecoach holdups were regular occurrences, as with other remote mining towns, Bodie had a popular, though clandestine, red light district on the north end of town. She is credited with giving life-saving care to many, but was buried outside the cemetery fence. Bodie had a Chinatown, the street of which ran at a right angle to Bodies Main Street, with several hundred Chinese residents at one point. Opium dens were plentiful in this area, the cemetery includes a Miners Union section, and includes a cenotaph to President James A. Garfield