Category:Order of Arts and Letters of Spain recipients
Pages in category "Order of Arts and Letters of Spain recipients"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Order of Arts and Letters of Spain – The Order of Arts and Letters of Spain is a Civil Order of Merit of Spain. Before granting the order to a recipient the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is consulted. The order is presented by the head of the Ministry for culture and this order has a single category and is purely honorary and carries no monetary reward with its presentation. The order is regulated by Royal Decree 1320/2008, and was initiated by César Antonio Molina, who was then serving as the Minister of Culture
2. Joan Baez – Joan Chandos Baez is an American folk singer, songwriter, musician, and activist whose contemporary folk music often includes songs of protest or social justice. Baez has performed publicly for over 55 years, releasing over 30 albums, fluent in Spanish and English, she has recorded songs in at least six other languages. She is regarded as a singer, although her music has diversified since the counterculture days of the 1960s and now encompasses everything from folk rock and pop to country. In recent years, she has found success interpreting songs of modern songwriters such as Ryan Adams, Josh Ritter, Steve Earle and her recordings include many topical songs and material dealing with social issues. She began her career in 1960 and achieved immediate success. Her first three albums, Joan Baez, Joan Baez, Vol.2, and Joan Baez in Concert all achieved gold status and stayed on the Billboard. Songs of acclaim include Diamonds & Rust and covers of Phil Ochss There but for Fortune and she is also known for Farewell, Angelina, Love Is Just a Four-Letter Word, Forever Young, Joe Hill, Sweet Sir Galahad and We Shall Overcome. Baez will be inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on April 7,2017, Baez was born on Staten Island, New York, on January 9,1941. Joans grandfather, the Reverend Alberto Baez, left Catholicism to become a Methodist minister and her father, Albert Baez, was born in Puebla, Mexico and grew up in Brooklyn, New York, where his father preached to—and advocated for—a Spanish-speaking congregation. Albert first considered becoming a minister but instead he turned to the study of mathematics and physics, Albert was later credited as a co-inventor of the x-ray microscope. Baez, is a mathematical physicist, whom Albert interested in physics as a child, born in April 1913, she died on April 20,2013, days after her one hundredth birthday. Baez had two sisters — the elder, Pauline Thalia Baez Bryan, and the younger, Mimi Fariña, Mimi, also a musician and activist, died of cancer in California in 2001. The Baez family converted to Quakerism during Joans early childhood, and she has continued to identify with the tradition, particularly in her commitment to pacifism, while growing up, Baez was subjected to racial slurs and discrimination due to her Mexican heritage. Consequently, she became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career and she declined to play in any venues that were segregated, which meant that when she toured the Southern states she would play only at black colleges. Joan graduated from Palo Alto High School in 1958, Joan Baez became involved with a variety of social causes early in her career, including civil rights and non-violence. Social justice, she stated in the PBS series American Masters, is the core of her life. The opening line of Baezs memoir And a Voice to Sing With is I was born gifted, a friend of Joans father gave her a ukulele. She learned four chords, which enabled her to play rhythm and blues and her parents, however, were fearful that the music would lead her into a life of drug addiction
3. Hans Magnus Enzensberger – Hans Magnus Enzensberger is a German author, poet, translator and editor. He has also written under the pseudonym Andreas Thalmayr, Enzensberger was born in 1929 in a small town in Bavaria and is the eldest of four boys. He is part of the last generation of intellectuals whose writing was shaped by experience of the Third Reich. The Enzensberger family moved to Nuremberg, the birthplace of National Socialism. Julius Streicher, the founder and publisher of Der Stürmer, was their next-door neighbour, Hans Magnus joined the Hitler Youth in his teens, but was expelled soon afterwards. I have always been incapable of being a good comrade and it may be a defect, but I cant help it. Until 1957 he worked as an editor in Stuttgart. He participated in gatherings of Group 47. Between 1965 and 1975 he edited the magazine Das Kursbuch, since 1985 he has been the editor of the prestigious book series Die Andere Bibliothek, published in Frankfurt, and now containing almost 250 titles. Together with Gaston Salvatore, Enzensberger was the founder of the monthly TransAtlantik and his own work has been translated into more than 40 languages. Enzensberger is the brother of the author Christian Enzensberger. Enzensberger has a sarcastic, ironic tone in many of his poems, for example, the poem Middle Class Blues consists of various typicalities of middle class life, with the phrase we cant complain repeated several times, and concludes with what are we waiting for. Many of his poems also feature themes of civil unrest over economic, though primarily a poet and essayist, he also makes excursions into theater, film, opera, radio drama, reportage, translation. He has written novels and several books for children and is co-author of a book for German as a foreign language and he also invented and collaborated in the construction of a machine which automatically composes poems. It was used during the 2006 Football World Cup to commentate on games, with Irene Dische he wrote the libretto for Aulis Sallinens fifth opera The Palace. In 2009, Enzensberger received a special Lifetime Recognition Award given by the trustees of the Griffin Trust for Excellence in Poetry, buenaventura Durrutis Leben und Tod, Prose,1972 Gespräche mit Marx und Engels,1970 Palaver. 37 Balladen aus der Geschichte des Fortschritts, Poems,1975 Polit, martin Fritsche, Hans Magnus Enzensbergers produktionsorientierte Moral. Konstanten in der Ästhetik eines Widersachers der Gleichheit, dissertation, Technische Universität Berlin, Peter Lang, Bern u. a
4. Hubert de Givenchy – Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy is a French fashion designer who founded The House of Givenchy in 1952. He is famous for having designed much of the personal and professional wardrobe of Audrey Hepburn and he was named to the International Best Dressed List Hall of Fame in 1970. Hubert James Taffin de Givenchy was born on 21 February 1927 in Beauvais and he was the younger son of Lucien Taffin de Givenchy, marquis of Givenchy, and his wife, the former Béatrice Badin. The Taffin de Givenchy family, which traces its roots to Venice, Italy, was ennobled in 1713 and he had an elder brother, Jean-Claude de Givenchy, who inherited the familys marquessate and eventually became the president of Parfums Givenchy. Artistic professions ran in the extended Badin family, Givenchys maternal great-grandfather, Jules Dieterle, was a set designer who also created designs for the Beauvais factory, including a set of 13 designs for the Elysée Palace. One of his great-great-grandfathers also designed sets for the Paris Opera and he moved to Paris at the age of seventeen, where he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts. His first designs were done for Jacques Fath in 1945, later he did designs for Robert Piguet and Lucien Lelong – working alongside the still-unknown Pierre Balmain and Christian Dior. From 1947 to 1951 he worked for the avantgarde designer Elsa Schiaparelli, in 1952, he opened his own design house at the Plaine Monceau in Paris. Later, he named his first collection Bettina Graziani for Pariss top model at the time and his style was marked by innovation, contrary to the more conservative designs by Dior. At 25, he was the youngest designer of the progressive Paris fashion scene and his first collections were characterized by the use of rather cheap fabrics for financial reasons, but they always piqued curiosity through their design. Audrey Hepburn, later the most prominent proponent of Givenchys fashion and he went on to design the black dress she wore in Breakfast at Tiffanys. He also developed his first perfume collection for her, Audrey Hepburn was the face of that fragrance. For the very first time a star was the face of an advertising campaign and probably the last time that it was done for free. At that time, Givenchy also met his idol, Cristóbal Balenciaga, although a renowned designer, Givenchy not only sought inspiration from the lofty settings of haute couture but also in such avant-garde environments as Limbo, the store in Manhattans East Village. In 1954, Givenchys prêt-à-porter collection debuted, Hubert de Givenchy created the iconic Balloon coat and the Baby Doll dress in 1958. In 1969, a line was also launched. In 1988, he organized a retrospective of his work at the Beverly Wilshire Hotel in Beverly Hills, the House of Givenchy was split in 1981, with the perfume line going to Veuve Clicquot, while the fashion branch was acquired by LVMH in 1989. As of today, LVMH owns Parfums Givenchy as well, Hubert de Givenchy retired from fashion design in 1995
5. Zahi Hawass – Zahi Hawass is an Egyptian archaeologist, an Egyptologist, and former Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs. He has also worked at sites in the Nile Delta, the Western Desert. Hawass was born in a village near Damietta, Egypt. Although he originally dreamed of becoming an attorney, he obtained a bachelor of degree in Greek and Roman Archaeology from Alexandria University in Alexandria. In 1979, Hawass earned a diploma in Egyptology from Cairo University, Hawass then worked at the Great Pyramids as an inspector—a combination of administrator and archaeologist. After 1988, Hawass taught Egyptian archaeology, history and culture at the American University in Cairo, Hawass was appointed to the position of Chief Inspector of the Giza Pyramid Plateau, but left the position in 1993—according to Hawass, a resignation. Hawass was reinstated as Chief Inspector in early 1994, in 1998, Hawass was appointed as director of the Giza Plateau, and in 2002 as Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities. At Giza, he uncovered the satellite pyramid of Khufu. His team is continuing to CT scan mummies, both royal and private, and hopes to some of the mysteries surrounding the lives and deaths of such important figures as Hatshepsut. When U. S. President Barack Obama was in Cairo in June 2009, at the end of 2009, he was promoted by President Hosni Mubarak to the post of Vice Minister of Culture. According to Andrew Lawler, reporting for Science, Hawass faxed a colleague in Italy that 13 cases were destroyed and my heart is broken and my blood is boiling, the… archaeologist lamented. He was appointed Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, a newly created cabinet post, regarding the Egyptian Museum looting, he said that The museum was dark and the nine robbers did not recognise the value of what was in the vitrines. They opened thirteen cases, threw the seventy objects on the ground and broke them, including one Tutankhamun case, however, the broken objects can all be restored, and we will begin the restoration process this week. Hawass rejected comparisons with the looting of antiquities in Iraq and Afghanistan, Egyptian state television reported that Hawass called upon Egyptians not to believe the “lies and fabrications” of the Al Jazeera and Al Arabiya satellite television channels. Hawass later said “They should give us the opportunity to change things, but you can’t bring in a new president now, in this time. We need Mubarak to stay and make the transition. ”On March 3,2011 he resigned after a list was posted on his website of dozens of sites across Egypt that were looted during the 2011 protests. Hawass was reappointed Minister of Antiquities by then-Prime Minister Essam Sharaf, but resigned on July 17,2011, after Sharaf informed him he would not be continuing in the position. According to opinion report from an Egyptian commentator in The Guardian, Hawass has since begun working as a lecturer in Egypt and around the world, and promoting Egypt’s tourism globally in cooperation with the countrys Ministry of Tourism
6. Louvre – The Louvre or the Louvre Museum is the worlds largest museum and a historic monument in Paris, France. A central landmark of the city, it is located on the Right Bank of the Seine in the citys 1st arrondissement, approximately 38,000 objects from prehistory to the 21st century are exhibited over an area of 72,735 square metres. The Louvre is the second most visited museum after the Palace Museum in China. The museum is housed in the Louvre Palace, originally built as a fortress in the late 12th century under Philip II, remnants of the fortress are visible in the basement of the museum. Due to the expansion of the city, the fortress eventually lost its defensive function and. The building was extended many times to form the present Louvre Palace, in 1692, the building was occupied by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres and the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture, which in 1699 held the first of a series of salons. The Académie remained at the Louvre for 100 years, during the French Revolution, the National Assembly decreed that the Louvre should be used as a museum to display the nations masterpieces. The museum opened on 10 August 1793 with an exhibition of 537 paintings, because of structural problems with the building, the museum was closed in 1796 until 1801. The collection was increased under Napoleon and the museum renamed Musée Napoléon, the collection was further increased during the reigns of Louis XVIII and Charles X, and during the Second French Empire the museum gained 20,000 pieces. Holdings have grown steadily through donations and bequests since the Third Republic, whether this was the first building on that spot is not known, it is possible that Philip modified an existing tower. According to the authoritative Grand Larousse encyclopédique, the name derives from an association with wolf hunting den, in the 7th century, St. Fare, an abbess in Meaux, left part of her Villa called Luvra situated in the region of Paris to a monastery. This territory probably did not correspond exactly to the modern site, the Louvre Palace was altered frequently throughout the Middle Ages. In the 14th century, Charles V converted the building into a residence and in 1546, Francis acquired what would become the nucleus of the Louvres holdings, his acquisitions including Leonardo da Vincis Mona Lisa. After Louis XIV chose Versailles as his residence in 1682, constructions slowed, however, on 14 October 1750, Louis XV agreed and sanctioned a display of 96 pieces from the royal collection, mounted in the Galerie royale de peinture of the Luxembourg Palace. Under Louis XVI, the museum idea became policy. The comte dAngiviller broadened the collection and in 1776 proposed conversion of the Grande Galerie of the Louvre – which contained maps – into the French Museum, many proposals were offered for the Louvres renovation into a museum, however, none was agreed on. Hence the museum remained incomplete until the French Revolution, during the French Revolution the Louvre was transformed into a public museum. In May 1791, the Assembly declared that the Louvre would be a place for bringing together monuments of all the sciences, on 10 August 1792, Louis XVI was imprisoned and the royal collection in the Louvre became national property
7. Claudio Magris – Claudio Magris is an Italian scholar, translator and writer. Magris graduated from the University of Turin, where he studied German studies and he is an essayist and columnist for the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera and for other European journals and newspapers. His numerous studies have helped to promote an awareness in Italy of Central European culture, Magris is a member of several European academies and served as senator in the Italian Senate from 1994 to 1996. His first book on the Habsburg myth in modern Austrian literature rediscovered central European literature and his journalistic writings have been collected in Dietro le parole and Itaca e oltre. He has written essays on E. T. A, hoffmann, Henrik Ibsen, Italo Svevo, Robert Musil, Hermann Hesse and Jorge Luis Borges. His novels and theatre productions, many translated into several languages, include Illazioni su una sciabola, Danubio, Stadelmann, Un altro mare and his breakthrough was Danubio, which is a magnum opus. In this book, Magris tracks the course of the Danube from its sources to the sea, the whole trip evolves into a colorful, rich canvas of the multicultural European history. Claudio Magris, écrivain de frontière contre lindifférence Nicoletta Pireddu, The Works of Claudio Magris, Temporary Homes, Mobile Identities, European Borders Nicoletta Pireddu, _The Works of Claudio Magris, Temporary Homes, Mobile Identities, European Borders_. ISBN 978-1-137-49262-3 Nicoletta Pireddu, On the Threshold, Always Homeward Bound, the Journal of European Studies 42,2012, 333-41
8. Metropolitan Museum of Art – The Metropolitan Museum of Art, colloquially the Met, is located in New York City and is the largest art museum in the United States, and is among the most visited art museums in the world. Its permanent collection contains two million works, divided among seventeen curatorial departments. The main building, on the edge of Central Park along Manhattans Museum Mile, is by area one of the worlds largest art galleries. A much smaller second location, The Cloisters at Fort Tryon Park in Upper Manhattan, contains a collection of art, architecture. On March 18,2016, the museum opened the Met Breuer museum at Madison Avenue in the Upper East Side, it extends the museums modern, the Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, Indian, and Islamic art. The museum is home to collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, as well as antique weapons. Several notable interiors, ranging from first-century Rome through modern American design, are installed in its galleries, the Metropolitan Museum of Art was founded in 1870. The founders included businessmen and financiers, as well as leading artists and thinkers of the day and it opened on February 20,1872, and was originally located at 681 Fifth Avenue. The Met maintains extensive holdings of African, Asian, Oceanian, Byzantine, the museum is also home to encyclopedic collections of musical instruments, costumes and accessories, and antique weapons and armor from around the world. A number of interiors, ranging from 1st century Rome through modern American design, are permanently installed in the Mets galleries. In addition to its permanent exhibitions, the Met organizes and hosts traveling shows throughout the year. The director of the museum is Thomas P. Campbell, a long-time curator and it was announced on February 28th,2017 that Campbell will be stepping down as the Mets director and CEO, effective June. On March 1st,2017 the BBC reported that Daniel Weiss shall be the acting CEO until a replacement is found, Beginning in the late 19th century, the Met started to acquire ancient art and artifacts from the Near East. From a few tablets and seals, the Mets collection of Near Eastern art has grown to more than 7,000 pieces. The highlights of the include a set of monumental stone lamassu, or guardian figures. The Mets Department of Arms and Armor is one of the museums most popular collections. Among the collections 14,000 objects are many pieces made for and used by kings and princes, including armor belonging to Henry VIII of England, Henry II of France, Rockefeller donated his more than 3, 000-piece collection to the museum. The Mets Asian department holds a collection of Asian art, of more than 35,000 pieces, the collection dates back almost to the founding of the museum, many of the philanthropists who made the earliest gifts to the museum included Asian art in their collections
9. Haruki Murakami – Haruki Murakami is a Japanese writer. His books and stories have been bestsellers in Japan as well as internationally, with his work being translated into 50 languages and selling millions of copies outside his native country. The critical acclaim for his fiction and non-fiction has led to awards, in Japan and internationally, including the World Fantasy Award. His oeuvre received, for example, the Franz Kafka Prize, Murakamis most notable works include A Wild Sheep Chase, Norwegian Wood, The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle, Kafka on the Shore, and 1Q84. He has also translated into Japanese English works by writers ranging from Raymond Carver to J. D. Salinger and his fiction, still criticized by Japans literary establishment as un-Japanese, was influenced by Western writers from Chandler to Vonnegut by way of Brautigan. It is frequently surrealistic and melancholic or fatalistic, marked by a Kafkaesque rendition of the recurrent themes of alienation and he is also considered an important figure in postmodern literature. Steven Poole of The Guardian praised Murakami as among the worlds greatest living novelists for his works, Murakami was born in Kyoto, Japan, during the post–World War II baby boom and raised in Shukugawa, Ashiya and Kobe. His father was the son of a Buddhist priest, and his mother the daughter of an Osaka merchant, since childhood, Murakami similarly to Kōbō Abe has been heavily influenced by Western culture, particularly Western as well as Russian music and literature. These Western influences distinguish Murakami from the majority of other Japanese writers, Murakami studied drama at Waseda University in Tokyo, where he met his wife, Yoko. His first job was at a store, much like Toru Watanabe. Shortly before finishing his studies, Murakami opened a house and jazz bar, the Peter Cat, in Kokubunji, Tokyo. Murakami is a marathon runner and triathlon enthusiast, though he did not start running until he was 33 years old. On 23 June 1996, he completed his first ultramarathon, a 100 km race around Lake Saroma in Hokkaido and he discusses his relationship with running in his 2008 memoir What I Talk About When I Talk About Running. Murakami began to write fiction when he was 29, before that, he said, I didnt write anything. I was just one of ordinary people. I was running a club, and I didnt create anything at all. He was inspired to write his first novel, Hear the Wind Sing, in 1978, Murakami was in Jingu Stadium watching a game between the Yakult Swallows and the Hiroshima Carp when Dave Hilton, an American, came to bat. According to a story, in the instant that Hilton hit a double
10. National Gallery – The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838. Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, however, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814. The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found
11. Oscar Niemeyer – Oscar Ribeiro de Almeida Niemeyer Soares Filho —known as Oscar Niemeyer —was a Brazilian architect considered to be one of the key figures in the development of modern architecture. His exploration of the possibilities of reinforced concrete was highly influential in the late 20th. Both lauded and criticized for being a sculptor of monuments, Niemeyer was hailed as a great artist and he said his architecture was strongly influenced by Le Corbusier, but in an interview, assured that this didnt prevent architecture from going in a different direction. Niemeyer was most famous for his use of forms and curves and wrote in his memoirs, I am not attracted to straight angles or to the straight line, hard and inflexible. I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves, the curves that I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in the waves of the ocean, and on the body of the beloved woman. Curves make up the entire Universe, the curved Universe of Einstein, in the 1930s, he interned with Lúcio Costa, with the pair collaborating on the design for the Palácio Gustavo Capanema in Rio de Janeiro. Niemeyers first major project was a series of buildings for Pampulha and his work, especially on the Church of Saint Francis of Assisi, received critical acclaim and drew international attention. Throughout the 1940s and 1950s, Niemeyer became one of Brazils most prolific architects and this work led to his appointment as inaugural head of architecture at the University of Brasília, as well as honorary membership of the American Institute of Architects. Due to his largely leftist ideology, and involvement with the Brazilian Communist Party, Niemeyer left the country after the 1964 military coup and he returned to Brazil in 1985, and was awarded the prestigious Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1988. A socialist and atheist from an age, Niemeyer had spent time in both Cuba and the Soviet Union during his exile, and on his return served as the PCBs president from 1992 to 1996. Niemeyer continued working at the end of the 20th and early 21st century, notably designing the Niterói Contemporary Art Museum, over a career of 78 years he designed approximately 600 projects. Niemeyer died in Rio de Janeiro on December 5,2012, at the age of 104, Niemeyer was born in the city of Rio de Janeiro on December 15,1907. The great grandfather of Oscar Niemeyer was a Portuguese immigrant who and he spent his youth as a typical young Carioca of the time, bohemian and relatively unconcerned with his future. In 1928, at age 21, Niemeyer left school and married Annita Baldo and he pursued his passion at the National School of Fine Arts in Rio de Janeiro and graduated with a BA in architecture in 1934. After graduating, he worked in his fathers typography house, even though he was not financially stable, he insisted on working in the architecture studio of Lucio Costa, Gregori Warchavchik and Carlos Leão, even though they could not pay him. Niemeyer joined them as a draftsman, an art that he mastered, the contact with Costa would be extremely important to Niemeyers maturation. Costa, after a flirtation with the Neocolonial movement, realized that the advances of the international style in Europe were the way forward for architecture. In 1936, at 29, Lucio Costa was appointed by Education Minister Gustavo Capanema to design the new headquarters of the Ministry of Education, Costa himself, although open to change, was unsure of how to proceed
12. Rijksmuseum – The Rijksmuseum is a Dutch national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. The museum is located at the Museum Square in the borough Amsterdam South, close to the Van Gogh Museum, the Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, and the Concertgebouw. The Rijksmuseum was founded in The Hague in 1800 and moved to Amsterdam in 1808, the current main building was designed by Pierre Cuypers and first opened its doors in 1885. On 13 April 2013, after a renovation which cost €375 million. In 2013 and 2014, it was the most visited museum in the Netherlands with record numbers of 2.2 million and 2.47 million visitors and it is also the largest art museum in the country. The museum also has a small Asian collection, which is on display in the Asian pavilion, in 1795, the Batavian Republic was proclaimed. The Minister of Finance Isaac Gogel argued that a museum, following the French example of The Louvre. On 19 November 1798, the government decided to found the museum, on 31 May 1800, the National Art Gallery, precursor of the Rijksmuseum, opened its doors in Huis ten Bosch in The Hague. The museum exhibited around 200 paintings and historic objects from the collections of the Dutch stadtholders, in 1805, the National Art Gallery moved within The Hague to the Buitenhof. In 1806, the Kingdom of Holland was established by Napoleon Bonaparte, on the orders of king Louis Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon, the museum moved to Amsterdam in 1808. The paintings owned by city, such as The Night Watch by Rembrandt. In 1809, the museum opened its doors in the Royal Palace in Amsterdam, in 1817, the museum moved to the Trippenhuis. The Trippenhuis turned out to be unsuitable as a museum, in 1820, the historical objects were moved to the Mauritshuis in The Hague, and in 1838 the 19th-century paintings were moved to Paviljoen Welgelegen in Haarlem. In 1863, there was a design contest for a new building for the Rijksmuseum, Pierre Cuypers also participated in the contest and his submission reached the second place. In 1876 a new contest was held and this time Pierre Cuypers won, the design was a combination of gothic and renaissance elements. The construction began on 1 October 1876, on both the inside and the outside, the building was richly decorated with references to Dutch art history. Another contest was held for these decorations, the winners were B. van Hove and J. F. Vermeylen for the sculptures, G. Sturm for the tile tableaus and painting and W. F. Dixon for the stained glass. The museum was opened at its new location on 13 July 1885, in 1890 a new building was added a short distance to the south-west of the Rijksmuseum
13. Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium – The Royal Museums of Fine Arts of Belgium are a group of art museums in Brussels, Belgium. In 1845 it is decided by royal Decree that a museum is to be founded with works of art of deceswed and this is accorded by Minister Sylvain van de Weyer a national Commission is founded to select important works of art. This commission is presided by the First president Count de Beaufort, other members are, Gustaf Wappers, President of the Royal Museum of Antwerpen. François-Joseph Navez, President of the Académie royale des beaux-arts de Bruxelles, guillaume Geefs Eugène Simonis Tilman-François Suys, professor at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts. Much of the members were active in the Royal Academy of Science, Letters and Fine Arts of Belgium. The museums are situated in the capital Brussels in the area on the Coudenberg. There are six museums connected with the Royal Museum, and two of them, are in the main building, the Royal Museum contains over 20,000 drawings, sculptures, and paintings, which date from the early 15th century to the present. The museum has a collection of Flemish painting, among them paintings by Bruegel and Rogier van der Weyden, Robert Campin, Anthony van Dyck. The museum is also proud of its Rubens Room, which more than 20 paintings by the artist. The painting Landscape with the Fall of Icarus, long-attributed to Brueghel, is located here and forms the subject of W. H. Audens famous poem Musée des Beaux Arts, named after the museum. The chief curators of the museum have been or are, from 1961 till 1984, balat was the kings principal architect, and this was one part of the kings vast building program for Belgium. The building was completed in 1887, and stands as an example of the Beaux-Arts architecture use of themed statuary to assert the identity, the finial, gilded Genius of Art was also designed by de Groot. The two bas-relief panels are Music by Thomas Vincotte and Industrial Arts by Charles Brunin, the two bronze groups on pedestals represent The Crowning of Art by Paul de Vigne, and The Teaching of Art by Charles van der Stappen. On the side of the building, a memorial commemorates five members of the Mouvement National Royaliste, a resistance group, killed during the liberation of Brussels on 3–4 September 1944
14. Richard Serra – Richard Serra is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large-scale assemblies of sheet metal. Serra was involved in the Process Art Movement and he lives and works in Tribeca, New York, and on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia. Serra was born on November 2,1938, in San Francisco as the second of three sons and his father, Tony, was a Spanish native of Mallorca who worked as candy factory foreman. His mother, Gladys Feinberg, was a Los Angeles-born Russian Jewish immigrant from Odessa. He went on to study English literature at the University of California, Berkeley in 1957 before transferring to the University of California, Santa Barbara, while at Santa Barbara, he studied art with Howard Warshaw and Rico Lebrun. On the West Coast, he helped himself by working in steel mills. Serra discussed his life and influences in an interview in 1993. ”Serra studied painting in the M. F. A. program at the Yale University School of Art. Fellow Yale Art and Architecture alumni of the 1960s include the painters, photographers and he claims to have taken most of his inspiration from the artists who taught there, most notably Philip Guston and the experimental composer Morton Feldman, as well as designer Josef Albers. With Albers, he worked on his book Interaction of Color and he continued his training abroad, spending a year each in Florence and Paris. In 1964, he was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship for Rome, since then, he has lived in New York, where he first used rubber in 1966 and began applying his characteristic work material lead in 1968. In New York, his circle of friends included Carl Andre, Walter De Maria, Eva Hesse, Sol LeWitt, and Robert Smithson. At one point, to fund his art, Serra started a business, Low-Rate Movers, and employed Chuck Close, Philip Glass, Spalding Gray. In 1966, Serra made his first sculptures out of materials such as fiberglass. Serras earliest work was abstract and process-based made from molten lead hurled in large splashes against the wall of a studio or exhibition space. He began in 1969 to be concerned with the cutting, propping or stacking of lead sheets, rough timber, etc. to create structures, some very large. His “Prop” pieces from the late 1960s are arranged so that weight and gravity balance lead rolls, cutting Device, Base Plate Measure consists of an assemblage of heterogeneous materials into which two parallel cuts have been made and the results strewn around in a chance configuration. In Malmo Role, a steel plate, one and a half inches thick. Still, he is known for his minimalist constructions from large rolls
15. Tate – Tate is an institution that houses the United Kingdoms national collection of British art, and international modern and contemporary art. It is a network of four art museums, Tate Britain, London, Tate Liverpool, Tate St Ives, Cornwall and Tate Modern, London, Tate is not a government institution, but its main sponsor is the UK Department for Culture, Media and Sport. The name Tate is used also as the name for the corporate body. The gallery was founded in 1897, as the National Gallery of British Art, the Tate Gallery was housed in the current building occupied by Tate Britain, which is situated in Millbank, London. Tate Liverpool has the purpose as Tate Modern but on a smaller scale. All four museums share the Tate Collection, one of the Tates most publicised art events is the awarding of the annual Turner Prize, which takes place at Tate Britain. The original Tate was called the National Gallery of British Art, situated on Millbank, Pimlico, the idea of a National Gallery of British Art was first proposed in the 1820s by Sir John Leicester, Baron de Tabley. It took a step nearer when Robert Vernon gave his collection to the National Gallery in 1847, a decade later John Sheepshanks gave his collection to the South Kensington Museum, known for years as the National Gallery of Art. Henry Tate also donated his own collection to the gallery and it was initially a collection solely of modern British art, concentrating on the works of modern—that is Victorian era—painters. It was controlled by the National Gallery until 1954, in 1926 and 1937, the art dealer and patron Joseph Duveen paid for two major expansions of the gallery building. His father had paid for an extension to house the major part of the Turner Bequest. Henry Courtauld also endowed Tate with a purchase fund, by the mid 20th century, it was fulfilling a dual function of showing the history of British art as well as international modern art. In 1954, the Tate Gallery was finally separated from the National Gallery, later, the Tate began organising its own temporary exhibition programme. In 1979 with funding from a Japanese bank a large extension was opened that would also house larger income generating exhibitions. In 1987, the Clore Wing opened to house the major part of the Turner bequest, in 1988, an outpost in north west England opened as Tate Liverpool. This shows various works of art from the Tate collection as well as mounting its own temporary exhibitions. In 2007, Tate Liverpool hosted the Turner Prize, the first time this has been held outside London and this was an overture to Liverpools being the European Capital of Culture 2008. In 1993, another offshoot opened, Tate St Ives and it exhibits work by modern British artists, particularly those of the St Ives School
16. Wallace Collection – The collection opened to permanent public view in 1900 in Hertford House, and remains there to this day. A condition of the bequest was that no object should ever leave the collection, the Wallace Collection is a non-departmental public body. The Collection numbers nearly 5,500 objects and is best known for its quality and breadth of eighteenth-century French paintings, Sèvres porcelain and French furniture. His father Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, brother of Queen Jane Seymour, had started building the palatial Somerset House on the Strand as his townhouse, the present House in Manchester Square was the townhouse of a later branch of the family. The Wallace Restaurant is now run by Peyton and Byrne as a French-style brasserie, the Wallace Collections Old Master paintings represent some of the finest works of art in the world, executed by most of the leading artists of their period. The paintings include important works from all periods between the fourteenth to the mid-nineteenth century, strengths of the collection include examples by Rembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck, Canaletto, Gainsborough, François Boucher, Fragonard, Murillo, Titian, Poussin and Velázquez. The inventory of pictures, watercolours and drawings comprises all the major European schools. M. W, the Wallace Collection contains the richest and most distinguished museum collections of eighteenth-century Sèvres porcelain in the world. It includes 137 vases,80 tea wares,67 useful wares,3 biscuit figures and 130 plaques, one highlight of the collection is the major collection of furniture attributed to André-Charles Boulle, perhaps the best-known cabinet-maker ever to have lived. Joseph Baumhauer –1 item, Bas darmoire, c, 1765–1770, André-Charles Boulle –22 items, Armoire, c. 1700–10, Cabinet avec son pied, c,1667, Cartonnier et pendule, c.1715, Commode, c. 1710, Paire de grande table, c,1713, Paire de coffre de toilette, c. 1720–25, Table à mettre dans un trumeau, c,1705, Martin Carlin –4 items, Paire de Encoignures, c. 1783, Adrien Delorme –2 items, Paire de bibliothèque basse Étienne Doirat –1 item, Commode,1720, Étienne Levasseur –5 items, Grande Bibliothèque, c. 1775, Paire de bibliothèque basse, c.1775 Paire de meubles à hauteur deappui, c.1775 Alexandre-Jean Oppenord –3 items, Bureau plat,1710, Commode, c. 1710, Jean Henri Riesener –10 items, Commode, delivered to Marie-Antoinettes cabinet intérieur de la reine at Versailles,1780, Commode, delivered to Marie-Antoinette for Chateau de Marly, c. 1782, Encoignure, delivered to Marie-Antoinettes cabinet intérieur at Versailles,1783, Secrétaire à abattant, delivered to Marie-Antoinettes cabinet intérieur at Versailles, c. 1783, Secrétaire à abattant, delivered to Marie-Antoinettes Petit Triannon at Versailles,1783, Secrétaire à abattant, delivered to Marie-Antoinettes cabinet intérieur at Versailles, c. 1780, Bureau à cylindre, delivered to the comte dOrsay for the Hôtel dOrsay, 1785–90 Media related to Wallace Collection at Wikimedia Commons Official website