Category:Painters who committed suicide
Pages in category "Painters who committed suicide"
The following 45 pages are in this category, out of 45 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 45 pages are in this category, out of 45 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. George Ault – George Copeland Ault was an American painter. He was loosely grouped with the Precisionist movement and, though influenced by Cubism and Surrealism, his most lasting work is of a realist nature. Ault was born in Cleveland, Ohio, USA, into a family and spent his youth in London, England. Returning to the United States in 1911, he spent the rest of his life in New York and his personal life henceforth was troubled. He became alcoholic during the 1920s, after the death of his mother in a mental institution, each of his three brothers committed suicide, two after the loss of the family fortune in the 1929 stock market crash. Although he had exhibited his works with some success, by the early 1930s his neurotic behavior, in 1937, Ault moved to Woodstock, New York with Louise Jonas, who would become his second wife, and tried to put his difficulties in the past. In Woodstock the couple lived an existence in a small rented cottage that had no electricity or indoor plumbing. Depending on Louise for income, Ault created some of his finest paintings during this time, in 1948, Ault was discovered dead five days after drowning in the Sawkill Brook on December 30, when he had taken a solitary walk in stormy and dark weather. The death was deemed a suicide by the coroner, in his lifetime, his works were displayed at the Whitney Museum of American Art and the Addison Gallery of American Art, among others. Ault worked in oil, watercolor and pencil and he is often grouped with Precisionist painters such as Charles Sheeler and Ralston Crawford because of his unadorned representations of architecture and urban landscapes. Ault painted what he saw him, simplifying detail slightly into flat shapes and planes. In his wifes words, painting for him was a means of creating order out of chaos, an analytical painter and ultimately a realist, Ault is noted for his realistic portrayal of light—especially the light of darkness—for he commonly painted nighttime scenes. Artist in Woodstock, George Ault, the Independent Years, Art and the Crisis of Marriage, Edward Hopper and Georgia OKeeffe. New York, Whitney Museum of American Art, to Make a World, George Ault and 1940s America. ISBN 0-300-17239-7 Whats New in Art, New York Times, December 16,1973. Review/Art, George Aults Sad, Everyday Beauty in Stillness, New York Times, April 29,1988. Works by or about George Ault at Internet Archive Short Biography and works at the Smithsonian American Art Museum George Ault papers, 1892-1980 from the Smithsonian Archives of American ArtGeorge Ault – Bright Light at Russell's Corners (1946)
2. Oscar Florianus Bluemner – Oscar Bluemner, born Friedrich Julius Oskar Blümner and after 1933 known as Oscar Florianus Bluemner, was a German-born American Modernist painter. Bluemner was born as Friedrich Julius Oskar Blümner in Prenzlau, Germany and he studied painting and architecture at the Royal Academy of Design in Berlin. Bluemner moved to Chicago in 1893 where he freelanced as a draftsman at the Worlds Columbian Exposition, after the exposition, he attempted to find work in Chicago. In 1901, he relocated to New York City where he also was unable to find steady employment, in 1903, he created the winning design for the Bronx Borough Courthouse in New York, although it is credited to Michael J. Garvin. The scandal that arose around this took down borough president Louis Haffen for corruption, in 1908 Bluemner met Alfred Stieglitz, who introduced him to the artistic innovations of the European and American avant-garde. By 1910, Bluemner had decided to pursue painting full-time rather than architecture and he exhibited in the 1913 Armory Show. Then in 1915 Stieglitz gave him an exhibition at his gallery,291. Despite participating in exhibitions, including solo shows, for the next ten years Bluemner failed to sell many paintings. He created paintings for the Federal Arts Project in the 1930s, after his wifes death in 1926, Bluemner moved to South Braintree, Massachusetts. From there in 1932 he contributed a letter to a debate in the New York Times on the question What is American Art. Thus also, the French export their paintings and birth-control, today, for quality, nationalism, as a race-attribute, means nothing, chemistry, astronomy, or engineering admit, nowhere, of any national flavoring, nor do higher things like religion or philosophy. Let us, here, make progressive and best painting, each one as he is fit to do, and merely ask, What and when is painting, in a critical sense. How can the people agree on what is American style, if the painters themselves, and there is, and always was, nothing more contemptible, ridiculous and, to art, disastrous, than patrioteering, which thinly veils profiteering. Ideally, art, pure, is of a sphere and of no country, el Greco, an immigrant. defied the Spanish professors. We, now, call his work more truly Spanish than that of his local contemporaries and he had a successful one-man show in 1935 at the Marie Harriman Gallery in New York City. In the New York Times, Edward Alden Jewell called it Bluemners apotheosis and he wrote, He is very mush alive and has been working of late. with robustious results. These twenty-eight canvases bear the title, New Landscape Paintings. That is because Mr. Blkuemner feels that some degree of representation is essential if abstract ideas are to be put over with entire success, however, the artist more fully and more exactly classifies them as compositions for color themesOscar Florianus Bluemner – 1903 self-portrait
3. James E. Brewton – James Edward Brewton was an American painter and printmaker who synthesized expressionism, graffiti and Pataphysics. He was born November 4,1930, in Toledo, Ohio, at the time of his death, Brewton was beginning to distinguish himself as one of Philadelphias premier painters and printmakers. While in his teens, Brewton studied drawing at the Toledo Museum of Art, at 21, Brewton joined the Marines and served in the Korean War. He did surprisingly well, climbing to the rank of sergeant, combat changed him, however, He became a pacifist, protesting the Vietnam War and painting antiwar works. Brewtons health was wrecked, and he was plagued by debilitating spine problems. Although Brewtons style became expressionistic and inspired by graffiti, his training was traditional, bill, he studied at the Ruskin School at Oxford in 1954-55 and the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts from 1955 through 1958. At PAFA, Brewton was a protégé of Franklin C. Watkins, marcel Duchamp was a guest lecturer at PAFA, and Brewton riffed off of Duchamps work throughout his life. At The Print Club, where Brewton worked on weekends, he first saw the work of Asger Jorn and was impressed by the wildly expressive. Brewton later befriended Jorn, living in Denmark for months at a time, other strong influences were André Breton and Alfred Jarry. These European, avant-garde inspirations were unusual for a Philadelphia-based artist in the 1950s, Brewtons work won awards and prizes, and he was championed by critics in Philadelphia and New York while still a student. Mr. Brewtons career was launched dramatically, ran his obituary in The Philadelphia Inquirer in 1967, from his base in Philadelphia, Brewton traveled whenever he could, to Spain, France, England and Denmark. He and his then-partner, writer Barbara Holland, lived in Denmark during much of 1962, in early 1964, Brewton lent several works he owned to the Philadelphia Museum of Arts Asger Jorn exhibition. In the last years of his life, Brewton was represented by Harry Kulkowitzs Kenmore Galleries and his prints were selling well, and the Philadelphia Museum of Art holds several in its permanent collection. From his colorful, CoBrA-inspired phase, Brewton had progressed to muted, by 1965, the works had evolved into a synthesis of graffiti and Alfred Jarrys philosophy of Pataphysics. Brewton called these works Graffiti Pataphysic and also continued to paint portraits, by the time he died in 1967, Brewton had had several one-man shows, and museum curators were beginning to exhibit interest, as Nessa Forman wrote in The Philadelphia Inquirer. There was an artist, Forman continued, who was ahead of his time, who was brilliant, sensitive and nonviolent, in pain and facing partial paralysis even if spine surgery were successful, Brewton shot himself at around 3 p. m. on May 11,1967. Four days after his death, Brewtons work was shown at the Socrates Perakis gallery in Philadelphia, along with that of Jim McWilliams, Thomas Chimes, artists Suicide Gives Tragic Overtone to Exhibit, ran the headline of Dorothy Graflys review. A year later, a show was held at the Peale Galleries at PAFAJames E. Brewton – Jim Brewton arriving home from Korea
4. Herman Brood – Hermanus Herman Brood was a Dutch musician and painter. As a musician he achieved artistic and commercial success in the 1970s and 1980s, later in life he started a successful career as a painter. His suicide, according to a poll organized to celebrate fifty years of Dutch popular music, was the most significant event in its history, Herman Brood was born in Zwolle, and started playing the piano at age 12. He founded beat band The Moans in 1964, which would later become Long Tall Ernie, Brood was asked to play with Cuby and the Blizzards, but was removed by management when the record company discovered he used drugs. For a number of years Brood was in jail, or abroad, in 1976, Brood started his own group, Herman Brood & His Wild Romance, initially with Ferdi Karmelk, Gerrit Veen, Peter Walrecht, and Ellen Piebes and Ria Ruiters. They played the club and bar circuit, first in Groningen, In 1977 the band released their first album, the band now played all over the Netherlands, playing as many gigs as possible. They are still best known for their album, Shpritsz—a play on the German word Spritze for syringe—from 1978. This album contained Brood anthems like Dope Sucks, Rock & Roll Junkie, the band went through many personnel changes over the years, the best-known formation was Freddy Cavalli, Dany Lademacher, and Cees Ani Meerman. A frequent contributor was Bertus Borgers, Broods outspoken statements in the press about sex and drug use brought him into the Dutch public arena even more than his music. He was romantically involved with the German singer Nina Hagen, with whom he appeared in the 1979 film Cha-Cha and he is reputed to be the subject of her song Herrmann Hiess Er from the 1979 Unbehagen album, a song about a drug addict. Brood relished the attention and became the most famous hard drug user in the Netherlands. It is quite common for an artist to use drugs, I admit that it scared me that my popularity could make people start using drugs, he once said in an interview. In the summer of 1979, Brood tried to enter the American market, with support from Ariolas US division, a re-recorded version of Saturday Night peaked at number 35 in the Billboard Hot 100, but the big break Brood hoped for didnt happen. When he returned to the Netherlands in October 1979, his band had begun to fall apart, the 1980 album Wait a Minute. was a minor success, but the follow-up albums Modern Times Revive and Frisz & Sympatisz failed to make the Dutch album charts. At the end of the 80s he made a comeback of sorts, Yada Yada, produced by George Kooymans, was well-received, and he toured Germany with a renewed Wild Romance. In 1990, he won the BV Popprijs, one of the highest Dutch awards for popular music, a live best of album, Saturday Night Live, appeared in 1992. His 50th birthday, in 1996, was celebrated with a show in Paradiso, Amsterdam, after his career in music, Brood turned to painting and became a well-known character in Amsterdam art circles. He continued to remain in the eye, by appearing in the mediaHerman Brood – Herman Brood in 1987
5. Patrick Henry Bruce – Patrick Henry Bruce was an American cubist painter. A descendant of Patrick Henry, Bruce was born in Campbell County, Virginia and his family had once owned a huge plantation, Berry Hill, worked by over 3,000 slaves. Berry Hill Estate originally was part of a 105, 000-acre tract granted by the English Crown in 1728 to William Byrd II, the Civil War left the Bruces wealth greatly diminished. Bruce began taking evening classes at the Art Club of Richmond in 1898 and his earliest known extant painting dates from 1900. In 1902 he moved to New York, where he studied with William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri, by February 1904 he was in Paris, where he would live until 1933. Although his evolution toward a modernist style was gradual, his works of 1908 reveal the influence of Renoir and Cézanne, Bruce exhibited regularly in the Salon dAutomne, and met many of the leading artists of the early twentieth century avant garde. During a period of friendship with Sonia and Robert Delaunay in 1912–14 his paintings were influenced by Orphism. The style of his work anticipated the Purism developed by Léger. In his paintings of 1918 and later, hard-edged geometric forms are arranged as on a tabletop and rendered in evenly applied and his work was admired by Marcel Duchamp and may have influenced the style adopted by his former teacher, Matisse, in his mural La Danse. Intensely self-critical, Bruce destroyed a great many of his paintings and he committed suicide with the drug Veronal in New York City on November 12,1936. Rose, Barbara,1979, Patrick Henry Bruce, American Modernist, Houston, Museum of Fine ArtsPatrick Henry Bruce – Painting, oil on canvas, 23 3 ⁄ 4 × 36 3 ⁄ 8 " (60.3 × 92.4 cm)c. 1929–1930
6. William Henry Coffin – William Henry Haskell Coffin was a painter and commercial artist who flourished in the early decades of the twentieth century. His work appeared on the cover of leading magazines in the United States, Coffin was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on October 21,1878, the son of Julia and George Mathewes Coffin. When he was young, his family moved to Washington, DC, after a brief stint back in Charleston, where he painted portraits of society ladies, he went to France in 1902 to complete his training as an artist. He was one of the most highly paid illustrators of his era and his second wife was actress Frances Starr, they eventually divorced. Coffin was being treated for depression in an institution in St. Petersburg, Florida when he leapt from an upper-story window, the date was May 12,1941William Henry Coffin – References 
7. Willis E. Davis (painter) – He made a career as a contractor in electrical engineering before he started painting, and he was also interested in commerce, serving as director of several firms. Daviss mother was a widow whose first husband died while on an engineering assignment in Hawaii. She married Isaac E. Davis in the early 1850s, the couple had four children, Willis, Gertrude, Ethel, and Horace who died in childhood. Daviss father was respected for his leadership and citizenship, having been a member of the San Francisco Committee of Vigilance, Davis traveled east to get his education at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A member of the class of 1877, he graduated early in 1876 with a degree in science and literature, returning to California after college, Davis settled in San Francisco, taking residence among other well-to-do citizens in Pacific Heights at 2501 Scott Street. He established a business in electrical engineering at 211 Drumm Street in downtown San Francisco near the docks, once a year at the end of May he administered entrance examinations to local MIT candidates. His electrical contracting business was successful, and his father hired him to help in the administration of the lime business which was then operating as Davis & Cowell in Santa Cruz. He also served on the board of directors of the San Francisco Savings and Loan Society, retiring from the field of engineering, Davis began to paint landscapes for his own pleasure, caring little for the opinions of others. Davis joined the Bohemian Club on June 30,1892, by 1904 he was the clubs treasurer. In 1900 Davis exhibited at the 4th Annual Bohemian Club Exhibition held at the clubhouse, in 1902 Davis spent a few weeks sketching scenery in the Sierras with his painter friend John Marshall Gamble. In December 1903 Davis brought four canvases to this annual event, in 1910, Daviss paintings were said by art writer Sophia P. Comstock to have brought record-breaking prices. Davis served on the board of the San Francisco Art Association from 1900 and he was serving as president when the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art was destroyed by the catastrophic fire following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake. All of the Institutes records and many of its works of art were lost, Davis quickly established a temporary office in Lower Pacific Heights near his own home, and he began the process of rallying support to finance the rebuilding of the Institute. Davis spent the summer of 1906 resting at the Tahoe Tavern hotel, with his wife Elsie, Davis produced three children, daughters Edna and Sydney, and son Willis Elphinstone Davis Jr. In February 1909 the San Francisco Call reported that Daviss daughter Edna had surprised everyone and eloped with a man of excellent family. Sydney Davis told the newspaper that her sister and Moore had been longtime friends, Davis and his wife gave their blessing to the union when they were informed of it over the phone. Edna divorced him in September 1919, then in 1920 Moore was ejected from the Pacific-Union Club after he was sued by a chambermaid for sexual assault. Daviss wife, Elise Elsie Kohler Davis, died suddenly of stroke in Boston on October 4,1909, Davis and his wife had been preparing to travel Europe for his health, to be joined at some point by their daughter SydneyWillis E. Davis (painter) – Davis painted this Lake Tahoe scenery beginning in mid-1906.
8. Edward Dayes – Edward Dayes was an English watercolour painter and engraver in mezzotint. He studied under William Pether, and began to exhibit at the Royal Academy in 1786, in the three following years he exhibited both miniatures and landscapes. He continued to exhibit at the Academy regularly until the year of his death and he also was an exhibitor at the Society of Artists. Dayes drew from nature in various parts of England, including the Lake District, much of his topographical work depicted ruins, painted in a palette dominated by blues and greens, which had an influence on the early work of J. M. W. He laid out detailed rules for the method of laying down the colours in landscape in his Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes. The art historian Graham Reynolds sees Dayes work as mark the transition from the eighteenth to the nineteenth century. In 1798 Dayes began to show scriptural subjects, such as The Fall of the Angels, John preaching in the Wilderness, the Triumph of Beauty and he was draughtsman to the Duke of York and Albany. Dayes engraved at least four mezzotints, one after George Morland, another after John Raphael Smith and he wrote an Excursion through Derbyshire and Yorkshire, Essays on Painting, Instructions for Drawing and Colouring Landscapes, and Professional Sketches of Modern Artists. He committed suicide at the end of May 1804, after his death his works were collected and edited by E. W. Bradley, and published for the benefit of his widow in 1805. His wife painted miniatures and exhibited four works at the Royal Academy between 1797 and 1800 and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Stephen, Leslie, ed. Dayes, EdwardEdward Dayes – Edward Dayes, self-portrait from 1801.
9. Thomas Foster (painter) – Thomas Foster was an Irish portrait painter. He came to England early, and entered the schools of the Royal Academy and he died by his own hand in 1826. Amongst his portraits are, Miss TreeThomas Foster (painter) – v
10. Richard Gerstl – Richard Gerstl was born in a prosperous civil family, Emil Gerstl, a Jewish merchant, and Maria Pfeiffer, non-Jewish woman. He visited the Viennese Piaristengymnasium, but he had to leave because of difficulties of discipline, early in his life, Gerstl decided to become an artist, much to the dismay of his father. In 1898, at the age of fifteen, Gerstl was accepted into the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, Gerstl began to reject the style of the Vienna Secession and what he felt was pretentious art. This eventually prompted his vocal professor to proclaim, The way you paint, frustrated with the lack of acceptance of his non-secessionist painting style, Gerstl continued to paint without any formal guidance for two years. For the summers of 1900 and 1901, Gerstl studied under the guidance of Simon Hollósy in Nagybánya, inspired by the more liberal leanings of Heinrich Lefler, Gerstl once again attempted formal education. Unfortunately, his refusal to participate in a procession in honor of Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria further ostracized him, Gerstl felt that taking part in such an event was unworthy of an artist. His final exit from Leflers studio took place in 1908, in 1904 and 1905, Gerstl shared a studio with his former academy classmate and friend, Viktor Hammer. Regardless of their feelings, by 1906, Gerstl had acquired his own studio. Although Gerstl did not associate with other artists, he did feel drawn to the musically inclined, around 1907, he began to associate with composers Arnold Schoenberg and Alexander von Zemlinsky, who lived in the same building at the time. Gerstl and Schoenberg developed a mutual admiration based upon their individual talents, Gerstl apparently instructed Schoenberg in art. During this time, Gerstl moved into a flat in the house and painted several portraits of Schoenberg, his family. These portraits also included paintings of Schoenbergs wife Mathilde, Alban Berg and his highly stylized heads anticipated German expressionism and used pastels as in the works by Oskar Kokoschka. Gerstl and Mathilde became extremely close and, in the summer of 1908, she left her husband, Schoenberg was in the midst of composing his Second String Quartet, which he dedicated to her. Mathilde rejoined her husband in October, although many paintings survived the fire, it is believed that a great deal of his artwork as well as personal papers and letters were destroyed. Other than his paintings, only eight drawings are known to have survived unscathed, following the burning of his papers, Gerstl hanged himself in front of the studio mirror and somehow managed to stab himself as well. The incident had a significant impact on Arnold Schoenberg and his drama with music Die Glückliche Hand is based on these events, although Gerstl had never managed to exhibit a show during his lifetime, Kallir organized an exhibition at his Neue Galerie. Shortly afterward, the Nazi presence in Austria hindered the further acclaim of the artist, sixty-six paintings and eight drawings attributed to Gerstl are known, although it is possible he destroyed many more or that others could have been lost over the yearsRichard Gerstl – Self-portrait, 1904–1905
11. John William Godward – John William Godward was an English painter from the end of the Neo-Classicist era. He was a protégé of Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, but his style of painting out of favour with the arrival of painters such as Picasso. He committed suicide at the age of 61 and is said to have written in his note that the world is not big enough for myself. His already estranged family, who had disapproved of his becoming an artist, were ashamed of his suicide, no photographs of Godward are known to survive. Godward was born in 1861 and lived in Wilton Grove, Wimbledon and he was born to Sarah Eboral and John Godward. He was the eldest of five children and he was named after his father John and grandfather William. He was christened at St. Marys Church in Battersea on 17 October 271861, the overbearing attitude of his parents made him reclusive and shy later in adulthood. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1887, when he moved to Italy with one of his models in 1912, his family broke off all contact with him and even cut his image from family pictures. Godward returned to England in 1921, died in 1922 and is buried in Brompton Cemetery, one of his best known paintings is Dolce far Niente, which was purchased for the collection of Andrew Lloyd Webber in 1995. As in the case of other paintings, Godward painted more than one version. Godward was a Victorian Neo-classicist, and therefore, a follower in theory of Frederic Leighton, the vast majority of Godwards extant images feature women in Classical dress, posed against these landscape features, although there are some semi-nude and fully nude figures included in his oeuvre. In addition, Godward painstakingly and meticulously rendered other important features in his paintings, animal skins, Godwards penchant for creating works of art set in the classical period probably came from the time period in which he was born. The last full-scale classical revival in western painting bloomed in England in the 1860s and flowered there for the next three decades. the-athenaeum. orgJohn William Godward – Nerissa (1906) by John William Godward
12. Arshile Gorky – Arshile Gorky was an Armenian-American painter, who had a seminal influence on Abstract Expressionism. He spent most his life as a national of the United States, along with Mark Rothko, Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, Gorky has been hailed as one of the most powerful American painters of the 20th century. As such, his works were often speculated to have been informed by the suffering, Gorky was born on April 15,1904, in the village of Khorgom, situated on the shores of Lake Van in the Ottoman Empire. In later years he was vague about his date of birth, in 1908 his father emigrated to America to avoid the draft, leaving his family behind in the town of Van. In 1915, Gorky fled Lake Van during the Armenian Genocide and escaped with his mother, in the aftermath of the genocide, Gorkys mother died of starvation in Yerevan in 1919. Arriving in America in 1920, the 16-year-old Gorky was reunited with his father, but they never grew close. In the process of reinventing his identity, he changed his name to Arshile Gorky, claiming to be a Georgian noble, in 1922, Gorky enrolled in the New School of Design in Boston, eventually becoming a part-time instructor. During the early 1920s he was influenced by Impressionism, although later in the decade he produced works that were more postimpressionist, during this time he was living in New York and was influenced by Paul Cézanne. In 1925 he was asked by Edmund Greacen of the Grand Central Art Galleries to teach at the Grand Central School of Art, in 1927, Gorky met Ethel Kremer Schwabacher and developed a lifelong friendship. Gorky said, The stuff of thought is the seed of the artist, dreams form the bristles of the artists brush. As the eye functions as the sentry, I communicate my innermost perceptions through the art. In 1931, Gorky sent a group of works ranging in price from $100 to $450 to the Downtown Gallery in New York, the exact nature of their relationship is unknown. Mrs. John D. Rockefeller purchased from the gallery a Cézannesque still life by Gorky titled Fruit, Gorky may have been introduced to the gallery owner by Stuart Davis who regularly exhibited there. In 1933, Arshile Gorky became one of the first artists employed by the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project and this later came to include such artists as Alice Neel, Lee Krasner, Jackson Pollock, Diego Rivera and Mark Rothko. In 1935, Gorky signed a contract with the Guild Art Gallery. Co-owned by Anna Walinska and Margaret Lefranc, but funded and directed by Lefranc, notable paintings from this time include Landscape in the Manner of Cézanne and Landscape, Staten Island. At the close of the 1920s and into the 1930s he experimented with cubism, the painting illustrated above, The Artist and His Mother, is a memorable, moving and innovative portrait. His The Artist and His Mother paintings are based on a photograph taken in Van in which he is depicted standing beside his motherArshile Gorky – Arshile Gorky in December 1936
13. Elmyr de Hory – Elmyr de Hory was a Hungarian-born painter and art forger who is said to have sold over a thousand forgeries to reputable art galleries all over the world. Most of the information regarding de Horys early life comes from what he told American writer Clifford Irving, Elmyr claimed that he was born into an aristocratic family, that his father was an Austro-Hungarian ambassador and that his mother came from a family of bankers. However, subsequent investigation has suggested that Elmyrs childhood was, more likely, research done in 2011 by Mark Forgy, Colette Loll, Dr. He was born Elemér Albert Hoffmann on April 14,1906 and his fathers occupation was listed as Wholesaler of handcrafted goods. His parents did not divorce when Elmyr was sixteen as he asserted in the Clifford Irving biography, an updated account of de Horys life appears in Mark Forgys memoir, The Forgers Apprentice, Life with the Worlds Most Notorious Artist. At the age of 16, he began his art training in the Hungarian art colony of Nagybánya. At 18, he joined the Akademie Heinmann art school in Munich, in 1926 he moved to Paris, and enrolled in the Académie la Grande Chaumière, where he studied under Fernand Léger. This harsh reality and the shock waves of the Great Depression dimmed any prospects of his making a living from his art. New evidence indicates charges and arrests for crimes during the late 1920s and 30s. He returned to Hungary at the outbreak of the Second World War, shortly after, he became involved with a British journalist and suspected spy. This friendship landed him in a Transylvanian prison for political dissidents in the Carpathian Mountains, during this time, de Hory befriended the prison camp officer by painting his portrait. Later, during the Second World War, de Hory was released, within a year, Elmyr de Hory was back in jail, this time imprisoned in a German concentration camp for being both a Jew and a homosexual. He was severely beaten and was transferred to a Berlin prison hospital and he returned to Hungary, and it was there, he said, that he learned that his parents had been killed and their estate confiscated. On arriving in Paris after the war, de Hory attempted to make an honest living as an artist, in 1946, he sold a pen and ink drawing to a British woman who mistook it for an original work by Picasso. His financial desperation trumped his scruples, as was most often the case for the two decades. To his mind, it offered redemption from the starving artist scenario and that same year Elmyr de Hory formed a partnership with Jacques Chamberlin, who became his art dealer. They toured Europe together selling the forgeries until de Hory discovered that, although they were supposed to share the profits equally, De Hory ended the relationship and resumed selling his fakes on his own. After a successful sale of drawings in Sweden, he bought a ticket for Rio de Janeiro in 1947Elmyr de Hory – Elmyr de Hory
14. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner – He volunteered for army service in the First World War, but soon suffered a breakdown and was discharged. In 1933, his work was branded as degenerate by the Nazis and in 1937, in 1938, he committed suicide by gunshot. Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was born in Aschaffenburg, Bavaria and his parents were of Prussian descent and his mother was a descendant of the Huguenots, a fact to which Kirchner often referred. The institution provided a range of studies in addition to architecture, such as freehand drawing, perspective drawing. While in attendance, he became friends with Fritz Bleyl. They discussed art together and also studied nature, having a radical outlook in common, Kirchner continued studies in Munich 1903–1904, returning to Dresden in 1905 to complete his degree. In 1905, Kirchner, along with Bleyl and two other students, Karl Schmidt-Rottluff and Erich Heckel, founded the artists group Die Brücke. From then on, he committed himself to art, the group aimed to eschew the prevalent traditional academic style and find a new mode of artistic expression, which would form a bridge between the past and the present. They responded both to past artists such as Albrecht Dürer, Matthias Grünewald and Lucas Cranach the Elder, as part of the affirmation of their national heritage, they revived older media, particularly woodcut prints. Their group was one of the ones which in due course had a major impact on the evolution of modern art in the 20th century. The group met initially in Kirchners first studio, which had previously been a butchers shop, Kirchners studio became a venue which overthrew social conventions to allow casual love-making and frequent nudity. Group life-drawing sessions took place using models from the circle, rather than professionals. A group manifesto written by Kirchner in 1906 stated that Everyone who reproduces, directly and without illusion, whatever he senses the urge to create, belongs to us. In September and October 1906, the first group exhibition was held, focused on the female nude, in 1906, he met Doris Große, who was his favoured model until 1911. Between 1907 and 1911, he stayed during the summer at the Moritzburg lakes and on the island of Fehmarn with other Brücke members, his work featured the female nude in natural settings. In 1911, he moved to Berlin, where he founded an art school, MIUM-Institut. This was not a success and closed the year, when he also began a relationship with Erna Schilling that lasted the rest of his life. In 1913, his writing of Chronik der Brücke led to the ending of the group, at this time, he established an individual identity with his first solo exhibition, which took place at the Essen Folkwang MuseumErnst Ludwig Kirchner – Photographic self-portrait 1919
15. Vilho Lampi – Vilho Henrik Lampi was a Finnish painter who is best known for his self-portraits and paintings of Liminka and the people who lived there. Lampi was born in Oulu but lived in Liminka for most of his life and he studied at the Finnish Academy of Fine Arts from 1921 to 1925 and after finishing his studies he returned to Liminka, where he lived and painted his most famous works. Lampi committed suicide on March 17,1936, by jumping from a bridge to Oulujoki while visiting in Oulu, unto Immonen, Vilho Lampi, lakeuden melankoolikko in Suomen taiteen vuosikirja 1956–1957, Porvoo,1957. Paavo Rintala, Jumala on kauneus, Otava,1959, Eeli Aalto, Vilho Lampi, lakeuden maalari, esittelyä ja taustaa, Arvi A. Karisto, Hämeenlinna,1967. Vilho Lampi 1898–1936, ARS Nordica & Kustannus Pohjoinen,1998 ISBN 951-749-312-6 Eeli Aalto, Vilho Lampi, hannu Heikinheimo, Jumala on kauneus,1985. Kaija Viinikainen, Jumala on kauneus, Kajaanin kaupunginteatteri,1981, kristian Smeds, Jumala on kauneus, Teatteri Takomo,2000 and Finnish National Theatre,2008. Taisto Reimaluoto, Tässä on elämä, Kajaanin Runoviikko,2001, Vilho Lampi Oulu City Art Museum Vilho Lampis works, Finnish National Gallery Vilho Lampi Biografiakeskus Vilho Lampi on artnet Vilho Lampi Auction Sales and Art Market Information artprice. comVilho Lampi – Vilho Lampi.
16. Alfred Henry Maurer – Alfred Henry Maurer was an American modernist painter. He exhibited his work in avant-garde circles internationally and in New York City during the twentieth century. Highly respected today, his work met with critical or commercial success in his lifetime, and he died. Maurer was born in New York City and he was the son of German-born Louis Maurer, a lithographer with a pronounced disdain for modern art. At age sixteen, Maurer had to school to work at his fathers lithographic firm. Finding the instruction at the Academie Julian too limited, he spent most of his time copying in the Louvre and his self-portrait from that time expresses the youthful optimism of that period of his life. At the time, Maurer worked in a conventional but self-assured realist style, Maurers An Arrangement, which was compared to the work of Whistler in its color sense and fluid handling of paint, made his reputation in the American art world. Comparisons were made to Chase and Sargent, the painting received first prize at the 1901 Carnegie International Exhibition, whose jurors included Thomas Eakins and Winslow Homer. It was an honor that promised a future, and Maurer hoped it would convince his demanding and skeptical father that he could, in fact. Other awards received by Maurer included the Inness Jr. Prize of the Salmagundi Club in 1900, in 1905, he won the third medal at the Liege Exposition and a gold medal at the International Exposition in Munich. He had an exhibition with John Marin in New York City at Alfred Stieglitzs 291 gallery. He acquired esteem in avant-garde circles and he did not, however, find the popular following he needed to make a living. Leaving Paris on the eve of World War I, he returned to his fathers only to be denied support. It was the beginning, as art critic Robert Hughes wrote, for the next seventeen, increasingly depressed years, Maurer painted in a garret in his fathers house on the West Side of Manhattan and gained only limited critical acclaim. He was friends with respected avant-garde American artists like Arthur Dove, Marsden Hartley and he also exhibited regularly at the New York-based Society of Independent Artists and was elected their director in 1919. In 1924, the New York dealer Erhard Weyhe bought the contents of Maurers studio, the death of his mother in 1917, however, intensified his gradual withdrawal from the world. The artist Jerome Myers wrote poignantly of him in his autobiography, Artist In Manhattan, Alfred Maurer, after his early talent had brought him a prize at the Carnegie Institute, he went to Paris, where he stayed for years. There was no doubt that he was happy in his Parisian atmosphere, like many other young Americans there, he was attracted by the life of the boulevards, the cares, the daily affinity with brother artists with whom he was then studying the problem of colorAlfred Henry Maurer – "Self portrait" (1897)
17. Wolfgang Paalen – Wolfgang Robert Paalen was a German-Austrian-Mexican painter, sculptor and art philosopher. A member of the Abstraction-Création group from 1934–35, he joined the influential Surrealist movement in 1935 and was one of its prominent exponents until 1942 and he rejoined the group between 1951 and 1954, during his sojourn in Paris. Wolfgang Paalen was born in one of the famous Wienzeilenhäuser designed by Otto Wagner in Vienna and he was the first of four sons of the Austrian-Jewish merchant and inventor Gustav Robert Paalen, and his German wife, the actress Clothilde Emilie Gunkel. Gustav Robert, who had Polish-Ashkenazi and Spanish-Sephardic origins, converted to Protestantism in 1900, in a relatively short period Gustav R. Paalen managed to ascend into the distinguished Viennese upper-class of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. As a friend of Wilhelm von Bode and member of the Freundeskreis des Kaiser-Friedrich Museums, Berlin, in Tobelbad Paalen senior received such prominent guests as Gustav Mahler, poet and artist Fritz von Herzmanovsky-Orlando, Julius Meier-Graefe, Ida Zweig, among others. Some sources claim that it was Paalen who introduced Alma Mahler, during her visit in Tobelbad in 1910, to the German architect Walter Gropius, whom she married later. 1912 the Paalen family moved to Berlin and to the Silesian city of Sagan, Wolfgang attended different schools in Sagan, and during the war his parents also engaged a private tutor. The teacher was also an organist who specialized in Johann Sebastian Bach and it was in Rome, under the guidance of his father´s friend, the archeologist Ludwig Pollak, that he became an expert in Greek and Roman archaeology. In 1923 he returned to Berlin alone to apply for the Academy, although unsuccessful, he met his lifelong friend, companion and patron, the Swiss violinist and photographer Eva Sulzer. In 1925 he exhibited at the Berlin Secession and studied further in aesthetics, deeply influenced by Julius Meier-Graefe, Nietzsche, Schopenhauer and the Gestalt theory of Max Wertheimer. It is here and with hypnopompic hallucinations in the castle in Sagan that he found the base for his ideas of a deep entanglement of vision. After another year of studies, in Paris and Cassis, where he met Roland Penrose, Jean Varda and Georges Braque, he visited the art school of Hans Hofmann in Munich and, in 1928 and he then decided to settle in Paris. The year 1928 marks also the beginning of the decline of the family´s splendour, a later tragedy, crucial to Paalens development, was his beloved brother Rainers shooting himself in head with a pistol. Wolfgang witnessed the event, although Rainer survived, following treatment in a Berlin hospital and he died in a mental hospital in Czechoslovakia in 1942. In Paris he studied for a time with Fernand Léger. He left the group in 1935, together with Hans Arp and his work at this time was inspired by Paul Valery´s Eupalinos and tends to macerate and condensate the abstract hardliners with regard to the Surrealists. The pictorial results may be seen as language games, testing the point to which concrete forms may be reduced to latency, in the summer of 1935 he spent some time at the castle home of Lise Deharme, where he met the Parisian Surrealists and André Breton. Here, Paalen showed L´heure exacte, a clock with glass eyes and feather hands and that same year Paalen had a solo exhibition of paintings in Paris at the Galerie Pierre, owned by Breton´s friend Pierre LoebWolfgang Paalen – Paalen, c. 1940
18. Erik Pauelsen – Erik Pauelsen was a Danish painter. He is most notable for his landscapes and was also a popular portraitist, however, he did not experience the same level of success as Jens Juel and Nicolai Abildgaard, his contemporaries, and in 1790 he committed suicide. Erik Pauelsen was born in Østerballe Parish in Himmerland some time between 2 and 14 October 1749, from an early age he had his mind set on becoming an artist. He travelled to Rome by way of Hamburg, Düsseldorf and Paris and visited Dresden, during his travels he became a member of several foreign art academies and was granted the title of professor in Düsseldorf. For Pauelsen this could only be explained as a result of intrigue and he remained a popular portraitist and also enjoyed success as a landscape painter. From 1785 to 1786 he decorated a room in Frédéric de Conincks mansion on Bredgade, the decorations, murals and overdoors, presented scenes from the environs of Dronningegård, de Conincks country house north of Copenhagen. In 1788 he travelled to Norway and brought back a series of paintings which were acquired by the royal painting collections. However, he suffered from his feeling belittled and defeated by his peers, Pauelsen is most notable for his landscapes. He visited Norway and painted Sarpsfossen, now in the Danish National Gallery, among those whose portraits he painted were Johannes Ewald, Søren Gyldendal and his wife, and Friederike Brun with her daughter Ida BrunErik Pauelsen – Self-portrait by Erik Pauelsen
19. Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo – Giuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo was an Italian neo-impressionist painter. He was born and died in Volpedo, in the Piedmont region of northern Italy, Pellizza was a pupil of Pio Sanquirico. He used a divisionist technique in which a painting is created by juxtaposing small dots of paint according to color theory. His most famous work, Il Quarto Stato, has become a symbol for progressive and socialist causes in Italy. The painting is shown during the credits of Bernardo Bertoluccis film 1900 and is currently housed at the Museo del Novecento in Milan. An earlier version is held in the Pinacoteca di Brera, Pellizza hanged himself in 1907, after the deaths of his wife and sonGiuseppe Pellizza da Volpedo – Il Quarto Stato (1901)
20. Heimrad Prem – Heimrad Prem was a German painter born in Roding, Oberpfalz. From 1949–1952 he studied painting at Schwandorf and then studied painting with Josef Oberberger and sculpture with Toni Stadler at the Akademie der Bildenden Künste. While studying painting with Ernst Schumacher at the Hochschule der Künste, Berlin, he formed Gruppe SPUR with Lothar Fischer, Helmut Sturm, after meeting Asger Jorn, SPUR joined the Situationist International. In 1960 he won a scholarship of the Kulturpreises im Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie, from 1960–1962 he co-edited the magazine SPUR. In 1961 he visited Oerkelljunga, Sweden with Sturm, Zimmer and Dieter Kunzelmann staying with Jørgen Nash, in 1962 the SPUR group was expelled from the Situationist International, but they continued to work with Nash and others. His first solo exhibition in the Galerie van de Loo, Munich was also in 1963, in 1965 the group SPUR fused with Wir to form the group Geflecht. After a short stay in South Sweden, Prem organised the organization of white celebration near Munich, after his first suicide attempt in 1971 he traveled in Italy, Turkey and Iran. In 1975 he became a joint founder of the artists community Kollektiv Herzogstrasse and he became a lecturer at the winter academy in the Schloss Kißlegg. In 1976 he had an exhibition at the Haus der Kunst. The following year he exhibited in Copenhagen, following this, he continued to exhibit work mainly in Germany. Heimrad Prem committed suicide in 1978 in MunichHeimrad Prem – Heimrad Prem
21. Leno Prestini – Leno Prestini was an American painter and sculptor who was active from the 1920s through the early 1960s, mainly in the small town of Clayton, Washington. He worked as a terra cotta sculptor, creating architectural ornaments. His skillfully rendered paintings, though reflecting contemporary trends such as Surrealism and his work received limited acclaim in his lifetime, but has been the subject of several exhibitions, and has continued to attract attention since his death in 1963. Leno Prestini was born Feb.4,1906, in the village of Besano in northern Italy and his parents, Luigi and Caterina Prestini, lived and worked in Switzerland for extended periods. In 1907 Luigi Prestini moved to the United States, finding work as a stonecutter in the quarries of Barre, Vermont, a year later, Leno, his mother. In 1911 the family relocated to Eastern Washington, joining a community of Italian-American artisans who worked for the Washington Brick Company in the town of Clayton, the company was renowned for the high quality of its handcrafted terra cotta cornices and decorative panels. Luigi Prestini worked at the plant until he died of pneumonia, following surgery, in 1919, eventually. Leno Prestini had shown artistic talent from an early age, by 1931 he was the companys chief modeler, creating distinctive architectural ornaments and designing decorative tiles, which were marketed under the WACO trade name. During the Great Depression, Prestini was sometimes laid off by Washington Brick & Lime for several months at a time, for a couple of years he drifted and worked odd jobs in Chicago, San Francisco, Mexico, Hawaii, and various other places. Although he had long been sculpting original terra cotta art pieces and he was likely inspired in part by Charles Sater, a fellow terra cotta modeler who did religious-themed oil paintings. These same works were received when he took them to Los Angeles. With the advent of American involvement in World War Two, Prestini joined the Army Air Corps, although his age and his weight of 105 lbs. precluded him from combat duty, he served with the 8th Air Force in England, likely painting insignia and nose art. At wars end he returned to Clayton, where the economy was struggling. The terra cotta plant closed for good in 1947, killed by changing architectural trends, Prestini worked as a bricklayer and stonemason, building fireplaces for cabins in the area, but began pouring much of his energy into painting. His post-war work is more colorful and a little less heavy-handed than the Pages of History, sometimes displaying playful Surrealist elements. Prestinis romantic disappointments are particularly clear in his portrayals of women and his Western art was popular, and by the late 1950s his more serious work was also gaining some attention. Articles about him appeared in the Spokane Spokesman-Review and other papers, in 1961 his work was shown in Colville, at the Corbin Art Center in Spokane, and at Eastern Washington University in Cheney. However, he remained unknown outside of Eastern WashingtonLeno Prestini – Untitled - '52, by Leno Prestini. Property of Clayton/Deer Park Historical Society.
22. Edmond Thomas Quinn – Edmond Thomas Quinn was an American sculptor and painter. He is best known for his statue of Edwin Booth as Hamlet. His larger-than-lifesize bronze bust of Victor Herbert stands near The Pond in Central Park and he studied painting at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts under Thomas Eakins. Following Eakinss February 1886 forced-resignation from PAFA, Quinn followed him to the Art Students League of Philadelphia, in Paris he trained for a time as a sculptor in the studio of Jean Antoine Injalbert. He exhibited regularly at the National Academy of Design, showing paintings in 1891,1893,1905,1906 and 1907 and he first showed his sculpture there in 1908, and annually for many years, usually portrait busts. He won a medal for his sculpture at the Panama-Pacific Exposition. He also exhibited at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, Quinn was recognized as being a fine portraitist whose work shows taste and conscience. His portrait busts include Franklin Hooper, Sylvester Malone, Edwin Markham, Vicente Blasco Ibáñez, Padraic Colum, the National Portrait Gallery has a large number of his portrait busts. Quinn was found drowned off Governors Island, New York City in September 1929, Quinn had tried to kill himself four months earlier by drinking poison. Quinns papers are at Yale University, clown, La Salle University Art Museum, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Portrait of Attilio Piccirilli, National Academy of Design, New York City, Portrait of Sherry E. Fry, National Academy of Design, New York City. Portrait of Furio Piccirilli, National Academy of Design, New York City, harry Wright Monument, West Laurel Hill Cemetery, Bala Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. Harry Wright was a manager of the Philadelphia Quakers, which became the Philadelphia Phillies. William Howard, Howard Memorial Cathedral, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, bust of Edgar Allan Poe, Poe Cottage, Bronx, New York. Zoroaster, Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences, Brooklyn, New York and this architectural sculpture is approximately 12 feet tall. Architectural sculpture, Pittsburgh Athletic Association, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Benno Janssen, figure of a Nymph, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City. Relief bust of J. Edward Swanstrom, Columbus Park, Brooklyn, Edwin Booth as Hamlet, Gramercy Park, New York City. Commissioned by the Players Club, whose clubhouse had been Booths house, bust of Professor Franklin W. Hooper, Brooklyn Museum, Brooklyn, New YorkEdmond Thomas Quinn – Edwin Booth as Hamlet (1918), Gramercy Park, New York City.
23. Christopher Rave – Christopher Rave was a German painting artist, explorer of polar regions and professor. Rave was a painter of naval art living in Hamburg. Between 1900 and 1909 he created about 300 paintings about 8,000 years of navigation,1911 they were exhibited in Hamburg and sold in particular. The paintings were reproduces as postcards by at two publishers, one from Hamburg, the one from the Netherlands. In 1910 he experiences the accident of German tall ship Preußen as a passenger, in 1912 he was member of German exploration voyage to Spitsbergen. His task was the documentation by photographs and paintings, the voyage under the command of Herbert Schröder-Stranz and Alfred Ritscher as Captain of the ship Herzog Ernst failed, and just 7 out of 15 crew survived. In 1913 Rave published his experiences Tagebuch von der verunglückten Expedition Schröder-Stranz, having cancer of the throat and hardly able to talk Rave shot himself on January 13,1933. His tomb, designed by his student Valentin Kraus from Munich, is situated on Hamburg Ohlsdorf graveyard. S, das Leben und Werk des Marinemalers Christopher Rave. ZDF Expedition, Fahrten ins Ungewisse, Verschollen vor Spitzbergen Short feature about the expedition in German German NDR-TV, Lieb und teuer - presenting the painting of SMS SeeadlerChristopher Rave – Postcard-reproduction of painting of SMS Seeadler
24. Mark Rothko – Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz, was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent. Although Rothko himself refused to adhere to any art movement, he is identified as an abstract expressionist. With Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, he is one of the most famous postwar American artists, Mark Rothko was born in Dvinsk, Vitebsk Governorate, in the Russian Empire. His father, Jacob Rothkowitz, was a pharmacist and an intellectual who initially provided his children with a secular and political, rather than religious, according to Rothko, his pro-Marxist father was violently anti-religious. In an environment where Jews were often blamed for many of the evils that befell Russia, despite Jacob Rothkowitzs modest income, the family was highly educated, and Rothko was able to speak Russian, Yiddish, and Hebrew. Fearing that his sons were about to be drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Markus remained in Russia, with his mother and elder sister Sonia and they arrived as immigrants, at Ellis Island, in late 1913. From that point, they crossed the country, to join Jacob, jacobs death, a few months later, from colon cancer, left the family without economic support. Sonia operated a cash register, while Markus worked in one of his uncles warehouses and his fathers death also led Rothko to sever his ties with religion. After he had mourned his fathers death for almost a year at a local synagogue, Markus had started school in the United States in 1913, quickly accelerating from third to fifth grade. In June 1921, he completed the level, with honors, at Lincoln High School in Portland. He learned his fourth language, English, and became a member of the Jewish community center. Like his father, Rothko was passionate about issues such as workers’ rights, at the time, Portland was the epicentre of revolutionary activity in the U. S. and the region where revolutionary syndicalist union Industrial Workers of the World, was strongest. He heard Emma Goldman speak on one of her West Coast activist lecture tours, with the onset of the Russian Revolution, Rothko organised debates about it. Despite the repressive political atmosphere, he wished to become a union organiser. Rothko received a scholarship to Yale, at the end of his freshman year in 1922, the scholarship was not renewed, and he worked as a waiter and delivery boy to support his studies. He found the Yale community to be elitist and racist, Rothko and a friend, Aaron Director, started a satirical magazine, The Yale Saturday Evening Pest, which lampooned the schools stuffy, bourgeois tone. In any event, Rothkos nature was more that of a man than a diligent pupil, One of his fellow students remembers that he hardly seemed to studyMark Rothko – Rothko visiting the Scott family in 1959
25. Octave Tassaert – Octave Tassaert was a French painter of portraits and genre, religious, historical and allegorical paintings, as well as a lithographer and engraver, though this family was of Flemish origin. He was the grandson of the sculptor Jean-Pierre-Antoine Tassaert, octaves first artistic training came from his father Jean-Joseph-François Tassaert and his older brother Paul, before he was apprenticed to the engraver Alexis-François Girard. Next he studied at the École des Beaux-Arts from 1817 through 1825, under Guillaume Guillon-Lethière, winning popular but not critical success, his works showing poor peoples lives were felt melodramatic by critics but acclaimed by the public. His submission to the 1855 World Exhibition was well received by the critics and he declined into alcoholism, damaging his eyesight and finally committing suicide by inhaling coal gas in 1874. artcyclopedia. com/artists/tassaert_octave. htmlOctave Tassaert – Octave Tassaert (date unknown)
26. Death of Vincent van Gogh – Van Gogh was shot in the stomach, either by himself or by others, and died two days later. In 1889, Vincent van Gogh experienced a deterioration in his mental health, as a result of incidents in Arles leading to a public petition, he was committed to a hospital. His condition improved and he was ready to be discharged by March 1889, at Salles suggestion van Gogh chose an asylum in nearby Saint-Rémy. Theo originally resisted this choice, even suggesting that Vincent rejoin Paul Gauguin in Pont Aven, Vincent entered the asylum in early May 1889. His mental condition remained stable for a while and he was able to work en plein air, producing many of his most iconic paintings, such as Starry Night, at this time. However at the end of July, following a trip to Arles and he made a good recovery, only to suffer another relapse in late December 1889, and early the following January an acute relapse while delivering a portrait of Madame Ginoux to her in Arles. This last relapse, described by Jan Hulsker as his longest and saddest, lasted until March 1890. In May 1890 Vincent was discharged from the asylum, and after spending a few days with Theo and Jo in Paris, Vincent went to live in Auvers-sur-Oise, a commune north of Paris popular with artists. Shortly before leaving Saint-Rémy, Van Gogh told how he was suffering from his stay in the hospital, I need some air, I feel overwhelmed by boredom and grief. On arriving at Auvers, van Goghs health was not very good. Writing on 21 May to Theo he comments, I can do nothing about my illness, I am suffering a little just now — the thing is that after that long seclusion the days seem like weeks to me. But by 25 May, the artist was able to report to his parents that his health had improved and his letters to his sister Wilhelmina on 5 June and to Theo and his wife Jo on about 10 June indicate a continued improvement, his nightmares almost having disappeared. The other patients society had a bad influence on me, furthermore, an unsent letter to Paul Gauguin which van Gogh wrote around 17 June is quite positive about his plans for the future. After describing his recent colourful wheat studies, he explains, I would like to paint some portraits against a very vivid yet tranquil background. On 2 July, writing to his brother, van Gogh comments, I myself am also trying to do as well as I can, and if my disease returns, you would forgive me. I still love art and life very much, the first sign of new problems was revealed in a letter van Gogh wrote to Theo on 10 July. He first states, I am very well, I am working hard, have painted four studies, first of all, he is sicker than I am, I think, or shall we say just as much, so thats that. Certainly my last attack, which was terrible, was in a large measure due to the influence of the other patients, later in the letter he adds, For myself, I can only say at the moment that I think we all need rest — I feel exhaustedDeath of Vincent van Gogh – Graves of Vincent van Gogh and his brother Theo
27. Vincent van Gogh – Vincent Willem van Gogh was a Dutch Post-Impressionist painter who is among the most famous and influential figures in the history of Western art. In just over a decade he created about 2,100 artworks, including around 860 oil paintings and his suicide at 37 followed years of mental illness and poverty. Born into a family, Van Gogh drew as a child and was serious, quiet. As a young man he worked as an art dealer, often travelling and he turned to religion, and spent time as a Protestant missionary in southern Belgium. He drifted in ill health and solitude before taking up painting in 1881 and his younger brother Theo supported him financially, and the two kept up a long correspondence by letter. His early works, mostly still lifes and depictions of peasant labourers, in 1886 he moved to Paris, where he met members of the avant-garde, including Émile Bernard and Paul Gauguin, who were reacting against the Impressionist sensibility. As his work developed he created a new approach to still lifes and his paintings grew brighter in colour as he developed a style that became fully realised during his stay in Arles in the south of France in 1888. During this period he broadened his subject matter to include trees, cypresses, wheat fields. Van Gogh suffered from episodes and delusions and though he worried about his mental stability, he often neglected his physical health, did not eat properly. His friendship with Gauguin ended after a confrontation with a razor and he spent time in psychiatric hospitals, including a period at Saint-Rémy. After he discharged himself and moved to the Auberge Ravoux in Auvers-sur-Oise near Paris and his depression continued and on 27 July 1890, Van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. He died from his injuries two days later, Van Gogh was unsuccessful during his lifetime, and was considered a madman and a failure. He became famous after his suicide, and exists in the imagination as the quintessential misunderstood genius. His reputation began to grow in the early 20th century as elements of his style came to be incorporated by the Fauves. The most comprehensive source on Van Gogh is the correspondence between him and his younger brother, Theo. Their lifelong friendship, and most of what is known of Vincents thoughts, Theo van Gogh was an art dealer and provided his brother with financial and emotional support, and access to influential people on the contemporary art scene. Theo kept all of Vincents letters to him, Vincent kept few of the letters he received, after both had died, Theos widow Johanna arranged for the publication of some of their letters. A few appeared in 1906 and 1913, the majority were published in 1914, Vincents letters are eloquent and expressive and have been described as having a diary-like intimacy, and read in parts like autobiographyVincent van Gogh – Self-Portrait, Spring 1887, Oil on pasteboard, 42 × 33.7 cm., Art Institute of Chicago (F 345)
28. Ezra Winter – Ezra Augustus Winter was a prominent American muralist. Winter was born in Traverse City, Michigan, trained at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts in 1908, Winter became extremely successful and commanded high prices for his work. In 1924 he taught at the Grand Central School of Art, Winter studied art at the Chicago Academy of Fine Arts and was a fellow in visual arts at the American Academy in Rome in 1914. Among his best-known works are The Canterbury Tales in the Library of Congress and he also had some affiliates, namely some like gberry on occasions. He also completed murals for the U. S. Supreme Court, the U. S. Chamber of Commerce, the University of Rochester and Eastman School of Music, during World War I Winter was a camouflage designer for the U. S. He later taught at the Grand Central School of Art and kept a studio in Falls Village, Winter was associated with the National Society of Mural Painters and the Architectural League of New York. He served on the Connecticut State Commission of Sculpture and the U. S, Commission of Fine Arts, from 1928 to 1933, and was a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters. His papers are in the Archives of American Art at the Smithsonian Institution, while painting one of his murals, Ezra Winter took a step back, forgetting the extreme height at which he was at, and fell. He suffered from a broken and compacted tailbone, after this he was unable to paint because of an unsteady hand and pain because of the accident. Winter killed himself in 1949 with a shotgun near his Connecticut studio at the age of 63, rowland numerous murals at the Birmingham Public Library in Birmingham, Alabama Thomas Jefferson and Canterbury Tales murals, Library of Congress John Adams Building, Washington, D. C. Winter did eleven murals at the George Rogers Clark National Historical ParkEzra Winter – Ezra Winter's Canterbury Tales mural (1939), Library of Congress John Adams Building, Washington, D.C.
29. Emanuel de Witte – Emanuel de Witte was a Dutch perspective painter. In contrast to Pieter Jansz Saenredam, who emphasized architectural accuracy, though few in number, de Witte also produced genre paintings. De Witte was born in Alkmaar and learned geometry from his father and he joined the local Guild of St Luke in 1636. After a stay in Rotterdam, he moved to Delft and studied with Evert van Aelst, in 1651 de Witte settled in Amsterdam where his first wife, Geerje Arents, died in 1655. He then married a 23-year-old orphan, Lysbeth van der Plas, in December 1659 both were arrested for theft from a neighbor. Lysbeth, pregnant, had to leave the city for a period of six years, she lived outside the city walls, De Witte broke the contract, was sued by the dealer, and forced to indenture himself further as a result. Several patrons provided de Witte with support, but these relations did not work out well, for he tended to shout at his clients, records tell of his gambling habit and a fight with Gerard de Lairesse. Around 1688 he moved in with Hendrick van Streeck, in exchange for training him as a painter of church interiors, according to Arnold Houbraken, after an argument about the rent, de Witte hanged himself from a canal bridge in 1692. The rope broke and de Witte drowned, because the canal froze that night, his corpse was not found until eleven weeks later. De Witte initially painted portraits as well as mythological and religious scenes, after his move from Delft to Amsterdam in 1651 de Witte specialized more and more in representing church interiors, and he painted the old church in Amsterdam from almost every corner. He sometimes combined aspects of different churches to depict interiors of churches, populating them with churchgoers. De Wittes excellent sense of composition combined with his use of light created atmospheres which seem honest and his theme may have been light and how it creates livable space. E. P. Richardson, De Witte and the nature of Dutch art in Art Quarterly I,1938Emanuel de Witte – Portrait of a Family in an Interior