Haasgat is a fossiliferous South African paleocave located in the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Area, approx. 20 kilometres northeast of the sites of Sterkfontein and Swartkrans. 60 kilometres north-northwest of the City of Johannesburg and it is located on private land and is not accessible by the public. The cave system formed on the slope of a narrow. As is the case many of the dolomitic paleocaves in the region. Although this mining obliterated the original entrance and parts of the system. While Haasgat was long known to residents of the Kalkheuvel West region, the site was abandoned after this single phase of sampling and data from the site has rarely been incorporated into studies of South African Plio-Pleistocene fossil record. Since 2010, an international team has initiated a new phase of ex situ and in situ excavation, geological sampling. Subsequent biostratigraphic interpretations of the fauna processed from the ex situ dumpsites produced two different proposed age ranges and this suggests an age between 2.3 and 1.95 Ma for the majority of fossils from the site
Blombos Cave is an archaeological site located in Blombosfontein Nature Reserve, about 300 km east of Cape Town on the Southern Cape coastline, South Africa. The cave contains Middle Stone Age deposits currently dated at between c.100,000 and 70,000 years before present, and a Late Stone Age sequence dated at between 2000 and 300 years BP. The cave site was first excavated in 1991 and field work has been conducted there on a basis since 1997 – and is ongoing. The excavations at Blombos Cave have yielded important new information on the evolution of modern humans. Archaeological material and faunal remains recovered from the Middle Stone Age phase in Blombos Cave – dated to ca, on 29 May 2015 Heritage Western Cape formally protected the site as a provincial heritage site. Blombos Cave was first excavated in 1991–1992 as a part of Professor Christopher S. Henshilwood’s doctoral thesis, at the University of Cambridge, Holocene archaeology of the coastal Garcia State Forest, southern Cape, South Africa.
Blombos Cave was originally one of nine Holocene Later Stone Age sites that Henshilwood excavated, in 1997 GSF8 was renamed Blombos Cave and given its current acronym, BBC. From 1999 to 2011 in total ten seasons, each six weeks long, have been carried out at the cave site. From the initial excavations conducted in the early 1990s, the Blombos Cave project has adopted and established new, while Henshilwood’s initial, doctoral research was directed towards the more recent Later Stone Age occupation levels, the focus since 1997 has been on the Middle Stone Age sequence. In 2010–2015 the cave site is the focus of the multi-disciplinary, the TRACSYMBOLS project is led by Professor Christopher S. The cave is situated in a cliff face 34.5 meter above sea level. The cave formation is set in calcretes of the Wankoe Formation, the interior of Blombos Cave comprises a single main chamber, and the entire interior cave floor is about 39m² behind the drip line. West of the main chamber, anthropogenic deposit extends inwardly 3-5 meter.
In this area, the ceiling lowers to a point where it falls in level with the surface. In the area north-east of the chamber, deposit expands into a low laying ante-chamber of unknown extent due to the sand filling it. By the end of the 2011 field season about 19. 5m² of interior cave has been dug during the Blombos Cave excavations. The talus, which consists of Middle Stone Age deposit, rock fall and unconsolidated sediments, is stabilised by an area of large. Calcium carbonate rich ground water seeps in from the roof and percolates through the interior sediments
Mauer is a village in south western Germany. It is located between Heidelberg and Sinsheim in the Rhein-Neckar district in the state of Baden-Württemberg, mauer is the location where the first remains of Homo heidelbergensis were found. The remains, a jaw, were discovered in 1907 in the quarry by Daniel Hartmann. On 1 June 2012, John Ehret took office as mayor and he is the first black mayor in Baden-Württemberg and thought to be the first black mayor in Germany in modern times
Kromdraai fossil site
It is situated within the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site and is itself a South African National Heritage Site. In 1938, the site was brought to the attention of Robert Broom by a schoolboy named Gert Terrblanche who had discovered several hominin teeth. The teeth formed part of a skull that would become the holotype of Paranthropus robustus, Broom began excavations at the site that would continue until approximately 1947 and would result in the discovery of numerous hominin remains. Two deposits were noted and named at the site — Kromdraai A, brain recommenced work at Kromdraai B and discovered numerous additional hominin remains as well as abundant non-hominin fauna. In the 1980s Elizabeth Vrba briefly conducted excavations at Kromdraai B in order to recover additional samples for her work on South African bovids, in 1993 excavations were re-opened by Francis Thackeray of the Transvaal Museum and Lee Berger of the University of the Witwatersrand. They were joined by teams from Harvard University and other collaborators, important results of this work have been the recovery of additional hominin fossils as well as the obtaining of more accurate dates for the site.
Besides the holotype specimen of P. robustus, at the time of the writing of this article 29 hominin specimens had been recovered from Kromdraai B, many thousands of animal fossils have been recovered from both Kromdraai A and B. Kromdraai B is dated to between approximately 2.0 -1.6 Ma with the majority if not all the Paranthropus robustus fossils dating to between 1.8 and 1.6 Ma, hominids Paranthropus robustus Cradle of Humankind List of fossil sites
Laetoli is a site in Tanzania, dated to the Plio-Pleistocene and famous for its hominin footprints, preserved in volcanic ash. The site of the Laetoli footprints is located 45 km south of Olduvai gorge, the location and tracks were discovered by archaeologist Mary Leakey in 1976, and were excavated by 1978. Dated to 3.7 million years ago, they were the oldest known evidence of hominin bipedalism at that time, older Ardipithecus ramidus fossils were found with features that suggest bipedalism. With the footprints there were other discoveries excavated at Laetoli including hominin, analysis of the footprints and skeletal structure showed clear evidence that bipedalism preceded enlarged brains in hominins. At a species level, the identity of the hominins who made the trace is obviously difficult to precisely construe, Laetoli was first recognized by western science in 1935 through a man named Sanimu, who convinced archeologist Louis Leakey to investigate the area. Several mammalian fossils were collected with a lower canine tooth originally identified as that of a non-human primate.
In 1938 and 1939, German archaeologist Ludwig Kohl-Larsen studied the site extensively, several hominin remains, including premolars and incisors, were identified. A excavation in 1959 revealed no new hominins, and Laetoli went relatively unexplored until 1974—when the discovery of a hominin premolar by George Dove revived interest in the site, Mary Leakey returned and almost immediately discovered the well-preserved remains of hominins. Although much debated, researchers have concluded that Australopithecus afarensis is the species of the three hominins who made the footprints at Laetoli. This conclusion is based on the reconstruction of the skeleton of a female A. afarensis hominin by anthropologists Tim D. For gait Tuttle looked at the length, stride length, stride width, and foot angle. A. afarensis is an obligate bipedal hominin with the beginnings of sexual dimorphism attributed to its species, two dating techniques were used to arrive at the approximate age of the beds that make up the ground layers at Laetoli, potassium-argon dating and analysis of stratigraphy.
The upper unit of the Laetolil Beds dated back 3.6 to 3.8 million years ago, the beds are dominantly tuffs and have a maximum thickness of 130 meters. No mammalian fauna were found in the unit of the Laetolil Beds. However, like the Lower Laetolil Beds, no date can be assigned to the Ndolanya Beds, the Ogol lavas date back 2.4 million years. No fauna or artifacts are known from the Naibadad Beds, pleistocene fauna and Acheulean artifacts have been found in the Olpiro Beds. Based on a trachytic tuff which occurs within the beds, the Ngaloba Beds may therefore be dated between 120,000 and 150,000 years BP, recent study of the Sadiman volcano has shown that it is not a source for the Laetoli Footprints Tuff. Soft rain cemented the ash-layer to tuff without destroying the prints, in time, they were covered by other ash deposits
Es Skhul is a prehistoric cave site situated 20 km south of the city of Haifa and around 3 km from the Mediterranean Sea. The site was first excavated by Dorothy Garrod during summer of 1928, the excavation revealed the first evidence of the late Epipaleolithic Natufian culture, characterized by the presence of numerous microlith stone tools, human burials and ground stone tools. Skhul represents an area where Neanderthals - present in the region from 200,000 to 45,000 years ago - lived alongside these humans dating to 100,000 years ago, the cave has Middle Palaeolithic layers
Heritage Western Cape
Heritage Western Cape is a provincial heritage resources authority established by the Minister of Cultural Affairs and Sport of the government of the Western Cape province in South Africa. It is an entity set up under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. It is mandated to care for part of South Africas national estate that is of provincial and local significance in the Western Cape. It may delegate responsibility for heritage resources of local significance to competent municipal governments, Heritage Western Cape is the successor body to the former National Monuments Council in the Western Cape. Under the 1996 Constitution of South Africa, cultural matters are a competency shared between national and provincial government and this necessitated the creation of a system whereby many of the responsibilities of the former National Monuments Council were devolved to provincial level via the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape was hence established by regulation on 25 October 2002, in 2003 a Council was appointed by the province’s Minister for Cultural Affairs and Sport and has since met on a quarterly basis.
The Council has established a number of sub-committees which meet regularly to carry out the legal responsibilities of the organisation, for the most part this concerns the processing of almost 3300 applications per annum for work on sites protected under the terms of the National Heritage Resources Act. Heritage Western Cape inherited responsibility for approximately 2,500 former national monuments, the National Heritage Resources Act provides for a greater variety of protection than did its predecessor and the organisation has continued to institute protections of various forms under its terms. A large part of work is dedicated to transforming the heritage landscape of the Western Cape to ensure that the heritage of all its people enjoys equal recognition. The logo of the organisation was launched by the provincial Minister for Cultural Affairs, to clarify areas of uncertainty regarding mandate, representatives of Heritage Western Cape meet quarterly with SAHRA. It consists of up to 14 members appointed for a term of office.
The Council meets quarterly and has established an Executive Committee to manage its business between its meetings, the Executive is chaired by the chairperson of the Council and is otherwise made up of the chairpersons of standing sub-committees. The terms of office of the present Council and its sub-committees expire on 31 August 2016, there are five standing sub-committees which oversee aspects of the day-to-day business of the organisation. They are made up of specialists who are recognised for their expertise, applications to work on such sites are assessed by the committee to consider whether or not they should be approved. Applications to work on archaeological and palaeontological sites and meteorite permit applications in the province are considered by the APM Committee, the Committee advises the IACom regarding impact assessments on archaeological and meteorite resources. Established in 2003 this Committee deals with appeals made against decisions taken by the committees and this committee was established in 2012 via amalgamation of three sub-committees.
It has the following Sections, Administrative Support, Professional Services and Policy and Planning responsible for development, research. The latter two are made up of professional archaeologists, architects and planners, the staff provides support to and makes recommendations to the Council and its sub-committees
Eartham Pit, Boxgrove
Ameys Eartham Pit is the original name for the internationally important Lower Palaeolithic archaeological site of Boxgrove in the English county of West Sussex. Today it is a disused, and largely infilled, part of the site was designated a Site of Special Scientific Interest. When excavations began in 1982 flint tools 500,000 years old were discovered, in 2005 flint tools 700,000 years old were discovered at Pakefield, and in 2010 flint tools at least 800,000 years old were discovered at Happisburgh. The other key sites in the UK are Swanscombe, Kents Cavern, Paviland. Parts of the complex were excavated between 1982 and 1996 by a team led by Mark Roberts of the Institute of Archaeology. The site is situated in an area that features a chalk cliff that overlooked a flat beach stretching around half a mile south to the sea. Several of the bones are the oldest found specimens of their species. The combination of bones, stone artifacts, and the geology of the landscape gives a complete picture of the coastal plain as it existed half a million years ago.
Numerous Acheulean flint tools and remains of animals dating to around 500,000 years ago were found at the site. They shared the area with a variety of animals whose bones have been found there, including lion, bear and giant deer, as well as numerous smaller animals such as frog, vole. Evidence for hunting is, tentative, consisting primarily of a horse shoulderblade with a hole that has been interpreted as a projectile impact mark. No obvious hunting equipment has been found, remains of Homo heidelbergensis were first found on the site in 1993, comprising the partial tibia of a male who probably stood 1. 8m high and weighed around 80 kg. Significantly, this is the only element of Homo Heidelbergensis to have been found in Northern Europe. Both ends of the bone show signs of gnawing, possibly by a wolf, in 1995 two incisor teeth from another individual were found. These show evidence of severe disease and show tool cut marks. In 2003 English Heritage announced it would buy the quarry to ensure the preservation of the site complex.
Roberts became the director of the Boxgrove project. For this reason he found that he often hummed The Specials 1979 song Too Much Too Young to himself thinking about the project
Happisburgh (/ˈheɪz. bʌrə/ is a village and civil parish in the English county of Norfolk. The village is on the coast, to the east of a north-south road, the nearest substantial town is North Walsham 6 miles to the west. Happisburgh became a site of archaeological importance in 2010 when flint tools over 800,000 years old were unearthed. This is the oldest evidence of human occupation anywhere in the UK, in May 2013, a series of early human footprints were discovered on the beach at the site, providing direct evidence of early human activity at the site. The civil parish shrank by over 0.2 km² in the 20th century by the erosion of its beaches, groynes were constructed along the shore to try to stop the erosion. In the 2001 census, before the separation of Walcott parish to the north-west, for the purposes of local government, the parish is in the district of North Norfolk. There is a ward with the same name. This ward stretches from the coast south west to Dilham, and had a population at the 2011 Census of 2,386.
In 1086 the incoming Norman aristocracy had a church built on the site of the current tall stone one. It was demolished and rebuilt in the 15th century, the tower of St Marys church is an important landmark to mariners warning of the position of the treacherous nearby sandbanks. In 1940 a German bomber released a bomb from its bays during its return to Germany. The churchs octagonal font, of the 15th century, is carved with figures of lions and it is open to the public on occasional Sundays during the summer. In 1866 the first lifeboat house was built on the cliffs above Old Cart Gap at a cost of £189 and its building here was prompted by its proximity to the treacherous Haisborough Sands. It closed in 1926 and the lifeboat was withdrawn, a small boathouse was built in a similar site during 1965 to house a D class inshore lifeboat that went into service in June of that year. In 1987 the boathouse was replaced by a new, more building with better facilities for crews. This was further extended in 1998, a new D class lifeboat, Colin Martin, was placed on service on 13 September 1994.
In December 2002 the lifeboat launching ramp was washed away due to massive erosion, a temporary station was opened within three months at Old Cart Gap. The original station is now used for training and souvenir sales, on 22 October 2003 a new D class lifeboat D-607 Spirit of Berkhamsted was placed on service