Pages in category "Pashtun cuisine"
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 21 pages are in this category, out of 21 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Pashtun cuisine – Pashtun cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Pashtuns, who are predominant in eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan. Accompanying these staples are dairy products, including various nuts, locally grown vegetables, as well as fresh. Cities such as Peshawar, Jalalabad, Kabul, Quetta and Kandahar are known for being the centers of Pashtun cuisine, the following is a short and incomplete list of some food items that Pashtuns often eat. The dishes listed below, are Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek and this is mostly eaten during winter. Not to be confused with Bolani, then adding dried mint leaves and small amount of salt. Pashtun cuisine Chai, bread, eggs, and sometimes cheese, afghan cuisine Pashtun culture Pakistani culture
2. Gulab jamun – Gulab jamun is a milk-solid-based South Asian sweet, particularly popular in India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Pakistan and Bangladesh. It is also common in Mauritius and the Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname and it is made mainly from milk solids, traditionally from freshly curdled milk. It is often garnished with dried nuts like almonds to enhance flavour, in India, milk solids are prepared by heating milk over a low flame for a long time until most of the water content has evaporated. The balls are then soaked in a sugary syrup flavored with green cardamom and rose water. Gulab jamun is available commercially, at South Asian restaurants or pre-prepared either in tins or as kits to be prepared at home, gulab jamun was first prepared in medieval India, derived from a fritter that Central Asian Turkic invaders brought to India. One theory claims that it was prepared by the Mughal emperor Shah Jahans personal chef. The word gulab is derived from the Persian words gol and āb, jamun or jaman is the Hindi-Urdu word for Syzygium jambolanum, an Indian fruit with a similar size and shape. The Arab dessert luqmat al-qadi is similar to gulab jamun, although it uses a completely different batter. According to the culinary historian Michael Krondl, both luqmat al-qadi and gulab jamun may have derived from a Persian dish, with rose water syrup being a connection between the two. Gulab jamun is a dessert often eaten at festivals, birthdays or major celebrations such as marriages, the Muslim celebrations of Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha, there are various types of gulab jamun and every variety has a distinct taste and appearance. Gulab jamun gets its brownish red color because of the content in the milk powder. In other types of gulab jamun, sugar is added in the batter, and after frying, the sugar caramelization gives it its dark, almost black color, the sugar syrup may be replaced with diluted maple syrup for a gulab jamun with a Canadian flavor. Pantua is similar to gulab jamun, and could be called a Bengali variant of that dish, ledikeni, a variation of Pantua, is another variant of gulab jamun
3. Manti (food) – Manti or Mantu are dumplings popular in most Turkic cuisines, as well as in the Caucasian, Central Asian, Chinese Islamic, and Hejazi cuisines where it was brought by Central Asians settlers. Nowadays, manti are also consumed throughout Russia and other post-Soviet countries, the dumplings typically consist of a spiced meat mixture, usually lamb or ground beef in a dough wrapper, and either boiled or steamed. Size and shape vary significantly depending on the geographical location, manti resemble the Chinese jiaozi, Korean mandu, Mongolian buuz, and the Tibetan momo. Originally, mantou was meat filled, but nowadays mantou refers to steamed bun in China, the former territories of the Mongol Empire is where the various manti dishes are geographically located. The recipe was carried across Central Asia along the Silk Road to Anatolia by migrating Turkic, according to Holly Chase, Turkic and Mongol horsemen on the move are supposed to have carried frozen or dried manti, which could be quickly boiled over a camp-fire. In Turkey, it is also called Tatar böreği, which indicates its relation to nomadic peoples, Korean mandu is also said to have arrived in Korea through the Mongols in the 14th century. However, some researchers do not discount the possibility that manti may have originated in the Middle East and spread eastward to China, manti in Central Asian cuisines are usually larger in size. They are steamed in a metal steamer called mantovarka, mantyshnitsa. It consists of layered pots with holes, that are placed over a boiling stock, in Kazakh cuisine, the manti filling is normally ground lamb, spiced with black pepper, sometimes with the addition of chopped pumpkin or squash. This is considered to be a traditional Uyghur recipe, manti are served topped with butter, sour cream or onion sauce. When sold as food in Kazakhstan, manti are typically presented sprinkled with hot red pepper powder. In Uzbek, Tajik and Kyrgyz cuisines, manti are usually made of one of the ingredients, lamb, beef, potato or pumpkin. Steaming, frying and boiling are all common, manti are usually topped with butter and served with sour cream, tomato sauce or fresh onion rings. A sauce made by mixing vinegar and chilli powder is also common, in Uzbekistan, manti are also called kaskoni. The same style of cooking manti is traditional for Tatar, Bashkir and it is nowadays widespread throughout Russia and other post-Soviet countries. The mantu are also topped with a very small amount of tomato-based sauce which can include split peas. The amount of yoghurt sauce is much greater than the tomato sauce. Chutney, a green or red pepper condiment sauce, may be sprinkled on top
4. Pakora – Pakora, also called pakoda, pakodi, or ponako, is a fried snack. It is found across the Indian subcontinent, especially in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, the word pakoṛā is derived from Sanskrit पक्ववट pakvavaṭa, a compound of pakva and vaṭa or its derivative vaṭaka, a round cake made of pulse fried in ghee. Some divergence of transliteration may be noted in the consonant in the word. The sound is the flap, which is written in Hindi with the Devanagari letter ड़. The occurrence of consonant in the word pakora has given rise to two common alternative spellings in English, pakoda, which reflects its etymology, and pakora. Among the Muslim Cape Malays of South Africa, pakoras are known as dhaltjies, in India, particularly in Maharashtra and Karnataka, such preparations are known as bajji rather than pakora. Usually, the name of the vegetable that is deep-fried is suffixed with bajji, for instance, potato bajji is sliced potato wrapped in batter and deep-fried. In such states, pakoda is taken to mean a mix of finely chopped onions, green chillies and this is rolled into small balls or sprinkled straight in hot oil and deep-fried. These pakodas are very crisp on the outside and medium soft to crisp inside, there is also a variety that is softer overall, usually termed media pakoda in restaurants, that is made from any other ingredient, such as potatoes. Pakoras are popular across South Asia and Great Britain and they are sometimes served in a yogurt-based curry, as a main dish, pakora curry, rather than as a separate snack. In this case, the pakoras are generally doughier and are made from chopped potato, onion, pakoras are also encountered in Afghan cuisine. In China and Nepal, they are called pakoda and pakauda, in Somalia, they are known as bajiye. Pakoras are created by taking one or two ingredients, such as onion, eggplant, potato, spinach, plantain, paneer, cauliflower, tomato and they are also occasionally prepared with bread, buckwheat, groundnut, fish, or chicken. They are dipped in a made from gram flour and then deep-fried. The most popular varieties include pyaaz pakora, made from onion, other variations include paalak pakora, made from spinach, and paneer pakora, made from paneer. When onions, on their own, are prepared in the same way, a variation of pakora made from wheat flour, salt, and tiny bits of potato or onion, is called noon bariya, typically found in eastern Uttar Pradesh in India. Pakoras are usually served as a snack or appetiser, in Great Britain, pakoras are popular as a fast food snack, available in Indian and Pakistani restaurants. They are also served with chai to guests arriving to attend Indian wedding ceremonies
5. Paratha – A paratha is a flatbread that originated in the Indian subcontinent. It is still prevalent throughout Pakistan and India, and Myanmar, paratha is an amalgamation of the words parat and atta which literally means layers of cooked dough. Alternative spellings and names include parantha, forota, parauntha, prontha, parontay, porota, palata, the Hindi word paratha is derived from Sanskrit. Recipes for various stuffed wheat parathas are mentioned in Manasollasa, a 12th-century Sanskrit encyclopedia compiled by Someshvara III, who ruled from present-day Karnataka. Parathas are one of the most popular unleavened flatbreads in the India part of the Indian Subcontinent and they are made by baking whole wheat dough on a tava, most stuffed parathas are not layered. Parathas can be eaten as a breakfast dish or as a tea-time snack, the flour used is finely ground wholemeal and the dough is shallow fried. Perhaps the most common stuffing for parathas is mashed, spiced potatoes followed perhaps by dal, many other alternatives exist such as leaf vegetables, radishes, cauliflower, and/or paneer. A paratha can be eaten simply with a pat of butter spread on top or with chutney, pickles, ketchup, some roll the paratha into a tube and eat it with tea, often dipping the paratha. To achieve the layered dough for plain parathas, a number of different traditional techniques exist, plain parathas can be round, heptagonal, square, or triangular. The paratha is an important part of a traditional South Asian breakfast, traditionally, it is made using ghee but oil is also used. Some people may even bake it in the oven for health reasons, usually the paratha is eaten with dollops of white butter on top of it. Side dishes which go well with paratha are curd, fried egg, omelette, qeema, nihari, jeera aloo, daal. It may be stuffed with potatoes, paneer, onions, qeema or chili peppers, ready-to-cook paratha may also be purchased. These preparations offer one-step preparation and save time, some of the ready-to-cook products in the market are just the stuffings for making the stuffed parathas
6. Roti – It is also consumed in parts of South Africa, Fiji, Mauritius, the southern Caribbean, particularly in Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Suriname, Grenada, Barbados and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. Its defining characteristic is that it is unleavened, Indian naan bread, by contrast, is a yeast-leavened bread. A kulcha in Indian cuisine is an accompaniment, made of processed flour leavened with yeast. Various types of roti are integral to South Asian cuisine, the word roti is derived from the Sanskrit word रोटिका, meaning bread. It is also known as maani in Sindhi and phulka in Punjabi, many variations of flat breads are found in many cultures across the globe, from the Indian subcontinent to the Americas. The traditional flat bread originating from the Indian subcontinent is known as roti and it is normally eaten with cooked vegetables or curries, it can be called a carrier for curries or cooked vegetables. It is made most often from wheat flour, cooked on a flat or slightly concave iron griddle called a tawa, like breads around the world, roti is a staple accompaniment to other foods. In Iran, the two variants of this bread are called khaboos and lavash and these two breads are quite similar to other rotis. In Sri Lanka, probably the most popular type of roti is pol roti, made of flour, kurakkan flour. Sometimes, chopped green chillies and onion are added to the mixture before cooking and these are usually thicker and harder than other roti types. They are usually eaten with curries, or some types of sambol or lunu miris, another variety of roti popular in Sri Lanka is Kottu roti. Kottu roti is made up of paratha or godamba roti, paratha/godamba roti is cut into small pieces. These pieces are small in size and rectangular or square in shape, then on a square heating pan, vegetables, onions are allowed to be fried. Then eggs, cooked meat or fish are added to fried vegetables, finally the pieces of cut paratha is added. All these ingredients are mixed using two pieces of steel. A peculiar sound is made while the mixing is done. It is said that the first person who innovated kottu roti to save the remaining. paratha at his restaurant made this noise to attract patrons to make them aware of the new delicacy. Depending upon what ingredients are used, there are vegetable, egg, chicken, beef, mutton, godamba roti is another variety of roti that is found in many restaurants in Sri Lanka
7. Samosa – A samosa, or samoosa, is a fried or baked dish with a savoury filling, such as spiced potatoes, onions, peas, lentils, macaroni or noodles. Pine nuts can also be added and its size and consistency may vary, but typically it is distinctly triangular or tetrahedral in shape. Indian samosas are usually vegetarian, and often accompanied by a mint chutney, due to cultural diffusion and emigration from these areas, samosas in todays world are also prepared in other regions. Samosa is generally used in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, in eastern India, a similar dish is called Singara, Bengali, সিঙাড়া shingara, Sylheti, সিঙারা shingara sing-ra in Assamese, Odia, ଶିଙ୍ଗଡା shingada. Thambutha in Template, Kikuyu The word samosa can be traced to the sanbosag, while they are currently referred to as sambusak in the Arabic-speaking world, Medieval Arabic recipe books sometimes spell it sambusaj. The samosa is claimed to have originated in the Middle East prior to the 10th century, abolfazl Beyhaqi, an Iranian historian, mentioned it in his history, Tarikh-e Beyhaghi. Samosas were introduced to the Indian subcontinent in the 13th or 14th century by traders from Central Asia. Amir Khusro, a scholar and the poet of the Delhi Sultanate, wrote in around 1300 that the princes and nobles enjoyed the samosa prepared from meat, ghee, onion. The Ain-i-Akbari, a 16th-century Mughal document, mentions the recipe for qutab, regions where the dish serves as a staple of local cuisine have different ways of preparing it. Samosas were brought to India by various Muslim merchants, and patronized under various Islamic dynasties in the region, Samosas from South Asia are now world renowned, and are probably the most popular type of Samosas globally. The samosa contains Wheat flour or maida flour shell stuffed with filling, generally a mixture of mashed boiled potato, onions, green peas, spices. The entire pastry is then deep-fried to a brown color. It is served hot and is eaten with fresh Indian chutney, such as mint. It can also be prepared as a form, rather than as a savoury one. Samosas are often served in chaat, along with the accompaniments of yogurt, chutney, chopped onions, coriander. The samosa is bigger compared to other Indian and foreign variants, in Odisha, West Bengal and Jharkhand, shingaras are popular snacks. Shingaras are easy to make, but the folding is a little tricky and they are wrapped in a thin dough and fried. The coating is of white flour, not wheat flour, what distinguishes good shingaras are flaky textures, almost as if they are made with a savoury pie crust
8. Afghan cuisine – Afghan cuisine is largely based upon the nations chief crops, such as wheat, maize, barley and rice. Accompanying these staples are native fruits and vegetables as well as dairy products such as milk, yogurt, Kabuli Palaw is the national dish of Afghanistan. The nations culinary specialties reflect its ethnic and geographic diversity, Afghanistan is known for its high quality pomegranates, grapes and sweet football-shaped melons. Rice dishes are culturally the most important parts of a meal, wealthier families will eat one rice dish per day, and royalty spent much time on rice preparation and invention, as evidenced in the number of rice dishes in their cookbooks. Weddings and family gatherings usually feature several rice dishes, and reputations can be made in the realm of rice preparation, the rice is first parboiled, then drained and finally baked in an oven with oil, butter and salt added. This method creates a fluffy rice with each grain separated, chalaow is served mainly with qormas. Cooked the same as challow, but meat and stock, qorma, herbs and this creates elaborate colors, flavors, and aromas from which some rices are named. Caramelized sugar is sometimes used to give the rice a rich brown color. Examples include, Kabuli Pulao - a national dish, meat and stock is added, and topped with fried raisins, slivered carrots, and pistachios. Yakhni Palaw - meat and stock added, zamarod Palaw - spinach qorma mixed in before the baking process, hence zamarod or emerald. Bore Palaw - qormeh Lawand added, Bonjan-e-Roomi Palaw - qormeh Bonjan-e-Roomi added during baking process. Serkah Palaw - similar to pulao, but with vinegar. Shebet Palaw - fresh dill, raisins added during baking process, narenj Palaw - a sweet and elaborate rice dish made with saffron, orange peel, pistachios, almonds and chicken. Maash Palaw - a sweet and sour pulao baked with mung beans, apricots, alou Balou Palaw- sweet rice dish with cherries and chicken. This rice dish is cooked with water and acquires a sticky consistency and it is usually eaten with a qorma, such as Sabzi or Shalgham. With the addition of stock, meat, herbs, and grains, notable dishes include Mastawa, Kecheri Qoroot, and Shola. A sweet rice dish called Shir Birenj is often served as dessert, qormah/Korma is a stew or casserole, usually served with chalau rice. Most are onion-based, onions are fried, then added, including a variety of fruits, spices
9. Aloo gosht – Aloo gosht is a meat curry with soup in Pakistani and North Indian cuisine. It consists of potatoes cooked with meat, usually lamb or mutton, the dish can be served and eaten with plain rice or with bread such as roti, paratha or naan. It is a favorite and common dish in Pakistani meals and is consumed as a comfort food. There are various methods of cooking aloo gosht, generally, the preparation method involves simmering lamb pieces and potatoes over medium heat, with various spices. Lamb meat is cut into chunks and placed into a pot over heat. Chicken may be used as an alternative to lamb, tomatoes, along with cinnamon, bay leaves, ginger, garlic, red chili powder, cumin seeds, fried onions, black cardamom, garam masala and cooking oil are added and stirred. Potatoes and salt are mixed in, water is added, in a proportion that is enough to cover the meat, and brought to the boil. The aloo gosht is covered and left to simmer until the meat becomes tender, once ready, it may be garnished with chopped coriander and served hot. Aloo gobi List of lamb dishes Pakistani meat dishes
10. Chapli kebab – Chapli kebab is a Pashtun-style minced kebab, usually made from ground beef or mutton with various spices in the shape of a patty. It originates from Peshawar in northwest Pakistan, and is known as the Peshawari kebab. The chapli kebab is a barbecue and street food throughout Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and other parts of Pakistan, as well as in eastern Afghanistan. It can be served and eaten hot with naan bread, rice, or in buns, mughal culinary influences in the region popularised a number of kebab dishes, resulting in local recipes such as the chapli kebab. The name chapli is said to be derived from the Pashto word chaprikh, meaning flat – alluding to the light, round. Another theory is that the name is derived from chappal, the word for sandals – implying the average shape and size of a kebab. The city of Peshawar, where the recipe took hold, alone has over 2,000 kebab houses that serve the chapli kebab, such eateries have rapidly expanded in other cities as well. Today, the chapli kebab is featured on the menu of South Asian restaurants across the world, the chapli kebab is prepared with raw, marinated mince and the meat can be either beef or lamb/mutton. The kebabs can be fried shallow or deep in vegetable cooking oil over medium heat, some chefs fry the kebabs in lamb fat over wood-fired stoves to lend an organic flavour. This approach is avoided by other gastronomists, citing health-conscious reasons, once cooked, chapli kebabs can be served and garnished with parsley, chopped onions and tomatoes, along with other accompaniments such as various chutney sauces, salad, yoghurt, pickles or nuts. The chapli kebab is best served aromatic, moist and spicy and it is considered a specialty of Pashtun cuisine and often served to guests. The kebab is commonly consumed in meals with bread such as naan, rice dishes such as Kabuli pulao, in winters, green tea such as kahwah may traditionally be served alongside it, while cold drinks are preferred in the summers. List of kebabs Pashtun cuisine Pakistani fast food Pakistani meat dishes
11. Afghan bread – Afghan bread, or Naan-e Afghani, is the national bread of Afghanistan. The bread is oval or rectangular and baked in a tandoor, the Afghan version of the tandoor sits above ground and is made of bricks, which are heated to cook the bread. The bread, also known as naan, is shaped and then stuck to the wall of the oven to bake. Black cumin or caraway seeds are sprinkled on the bread, as much for decoration as for taste. Afghan bread is commonly stocked at Middle Eastern grocery stores in western countries, the baker then uses two long iron tongs to pull the bread from the tandoor wall. Afghans carry the bread in cloth bags, since people in Afghanistan normally use their hands to eat, the bread thus acts as both a fork and a spoon. The bread tastes similar to the Armenian lavash bread, as well as to Iranian barbari bread and it has a dense and rich taste
12. Bolani – Bolani, or Perakai, Poraki, is a flat-bread from Afghanistan, baked or fried with a vegetable filling. It has a thin crust and can be stuffed with a variety of ingredients, such as potatoes, lentils, pumpkin, chives and it can be served with plain yogurt or mint yogurt. Perakai is made for special occasions like birthday parties, engagement parties or holidays, in America, the Perakai Bolani is the quintessential food item at any Kabob House. Toppings typically include chives, potato, lentils, leeks and other vegetables, however, it is not limited to traditional toppings, items such as falafel, gyro meat, carne asada and bacon and all fair game. The dough is only limited to the imagination, while white flour is common, many enthusiasts prefer whole wheat or rye. America The method of using eggroll wrappers instead of making the dough for the bolani is a time saving convenience often used in Western countries, the edges of the eggroll wrappers are lightly brushed with water to allow for sticking. The wrappers are then filled half way either diagonally or lengthwise with the preferred filling, each side is then fried until golden brown. This method is the easiest and fastest way of preparing bolani, another popular method for making Perakai Bolani is baking them. Although, Frying is the most popular method for special occasions, while, baking Bolani was originally to cut back on fat, it has now popular because of its unique flavor. Baking allows for a thicker crust that leads to a pastry filled with toppings. Some argue that baked Bolani is not traditional due to its thick nature, regardless, it remains as one of the most popular methods of preparing Bolani in America