Category:Peace treaties of Greece
Pages in category "Peace treaties of Greece"
The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 7 pages are in this category, out of 7 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Treaty of Bucharest (1913) – The Treaty of Bucharest was concluded on 10 August 1913, by the delegates of Bulgaria, Romania, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. The Treaty was concluded in the aftermath of the Second Balkan War and amended the previous Treaty of London, about one month later, the Bulgarians signed a separate border treaty with the Ottomans, who had regained some territory west of the Enos-Midia Line during the second war. Bulgaria, dissatisfied with its gains in the First Balkan War, the attacks were driven back, and the Greek and Serbian armies invaded Bulgarian-held territory in return. Isolated and surrounded by a powerful coalition of opponents, Bulgaria was forced to agree to a truce and to peace negotiations to be held in the Romanian capital. Although the Ottomans had also participated in the Second Balkan War, instead, bilateral treaties were later concluded with Bulgaria and Greece. The territory thus obtained embraced central Vardar Macedonia, including Ohrid, Štip, Kočani, by this arrangement, Serbia increased its territory from 48,300 to 87,780 km2 and its population by more than 1.5 million. The boundary line separating Greece from Bulgaria was drawn from the crest of Belasica to the mouth of the Mesta, the territory thus annexed included large parts of Epirus and Macedonia, including Thessaloniki. The Greek-Bulgarian border was moved eastwards to beyond Kavala, thus restricting the Aegean seaboard of Bulgaria to an extent of 110 km. In addition, Crete was definitively assigned to Greece and was taken over on 14 December that year. Within this region was also Florina, bulgarias share of the spoils, although greatly reduced, was not entirely negligible. With only an outlet to the Aegean around the minor port of Dedeagach. According to Anderson and Hershey, a winner and triumphant after the acquisition of Thessaloniki and most of Macedonia up to and including the port of Kavala, italy was opposed to Greek claims to Northern Epirus, and controlled the Greek-inhabited Dodecanese islands. At the end of the war, Greece still had claims to territories inhabited, at the time, Anderson, Frank Marby, Amos Shartle Hershey. The Treaty of Bucharest, August 10,1913, handbook for the Diplomatic History of Europe, Asia, and Africa 1870-1914. Washington, DC, National Board for Historical Service, Government Printing Office
2. Treaty of Lausanne – The Treaty of Lausanne was a peace treaty signed in Lausanne, Switzerland, on 24 July 1923. The original text of the treaty is in French, the Treaty of Lausanne ended the conflict and defined the borders of the modern Turkish Republic. In the treaty, Turkey gave up all claims to the remainder of the Ottoman Empire and in return the Allies recognized Turkish sovereignty within its new borders. The treaty was ratified by Turkey on 23 August 1923, Greece on 25 August 1923, Italy on 12 March 1924, Japan on 15 May 1924, Great Britain on 16 July 1924. The treaty came into force on 6 August 1924, when the instruments of ratification had been deposited in Paris. Negotiations were undertaken during the Conference of Lausanne, where İsmet İnönü was the negotiator for Turkey. Lord Curzon, the British Foreign Secretary of that time, was the negotiator for the Allies. On 20 November 1922, the conference was opened and after strenuous debate was interrupted by Turkish protest on 4 February 1923. After reopening on 23 April, and following protests by the Turks and tense debates. The Allied delegation included negotiators such as U. S. Admiral Mark L. Bristol, the treaty was composed of 143 articles with major sections including, Convention on the Turkish Straits Trade Agreements Binding letters. The treaty provided for the independence of the Republic of Turkey but also for the protection of the Greek Orthodox Christian minority in Turkey and the Muslim minority in Greece. Turkey also formally accepted the loss of Cyprus as well as Egypt and Anglo-Egyptian Sudan to the British Empire, the fate of the province of Mosul was left to be determined through the League of Nations. However, the definition of Turkeys southern border in Article 3 also meant that Turkey officially ceded them and these territories included Yemen, Asir and parts of Hejaz like the city of Medina. They were held by Turkish forces until 23 January 1919, Turkey officially ceded Adakale Island in River Danube to Romania with Articles 25 and 26 of the Treaty of Lausanne, by formally recognizing the related provisions in the Treaty of Trianon of 1920. Due to a diplomatic irregularity at the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the United States Senate refused to ratify the treaty, and consequently Turkey annulled the concession. The Treaty of Lausanne led to the recognition of the sovereignty of the new Republic of Turkey as the successor state of the defunct Ottoman Empire. The Convention on the Turkish Straits lasted only thirteen years and was replaced with the Montreux Convention Regarding the Regime of the Turkish Straits in 1936, the customs limitations in the treaty were shortly reworked. Political amnesty was applied to the 150 personae non gratae of Turkey who slowly acquired citizenship — the last one was in 1974
3. Armistice of Mudros – The Armistice of Mudros, concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey, the Ottoman army including the Ottoman air force was demobilized, and all ports, railways, and other strategic points were made available for use by the Allies. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans had to retreat to within the borders between the Ottoman and the Russian Empires. The armistice was followed by the occupation of Constantinople and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the Treaty of Sèvres which was signed in the aftermath of World War I was never ratified by the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul. The Caucasus Campaign put the Ottomans at odds with their ally, Germany, the Ottomans wanted to establish its eastern borders The Ottoman armies advanced far into Caucasus, gathering supporters as far away as Tashkent, on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea. Additionally, with the Bolsheviks in power in Moscow, chaos spread in Persia, in contrast, in Syria, the Ottomans were steadily pushed back by British forces, culminating in the fall of Damascus in October 1918. Hopes were initially high for the Ottomans that their losses in Syria might be compensated with successes in the Caucasus, developments in Southeast Europe quashed the Ottoman governments hopes. The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonika campaign, had been stable since 1916. In September 1918, the Allied forces mounted an offensive which proved quite successful. The Bulgarian army was defeated, and Bulgaria was forced to sue for peace in the Armistice of Salonica, Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha visited Berlin, Germany, and Sofia, Bulgaria in September 1918. He came away with the understanding that the war was no longer winnable, with Germany likely seeking a separate peace, the Ottomans would be forced to do so as well. Talaat convinced the members of the ruling party that they must resign. On October 13, Talaat and the rest of his ministry resigned, ahmed Izzet Pasha replaced Talaat as Grand Vizier. Two days after taking office, he sent the captured British General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend to the Allies to seek terms on an armistice, the British Cabinet received word of the offer and were eager to negotiate a deal. The British cabinet empowered Admiral Calthorpe to conduct the negotiations with an exclusion of the French from them. They also suggested an Armistice rather than a peace treaty, in the belief that a peace treaty would require the approval of all of the Allied nations. The negotiations began on Sunday, October 27 on the HMS Agamemnon, both sides did not know that the other was actually quite eager to sign a deal and willing to give up their objectives to do so. B. before speaking to America. He also thought it would attract attention to our enormous gains during the war if we swallowed our share of Turkey now
4. Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine – The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. The treaty was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, the treaty required Bulgaria to cede Western Thrace to the Entente thereby cutting off Bulgarias direct outlet to the Aegean Sea. The signing ceremony was held in Neuillys town hall, in Bulgaria, the results of the treaty are popularly known as the Second National Catastrophe. Bulgaria subsequently regained South Dobruja as a result of the Treaty of Craiova, during World War II, together with Nazi Germany, it temporarily reoccupied most of the other territories ceded under the treaty. Four minor regions had been part of Bulgaria from its inception as a principality in 1878, except for the region around Strumitsa, some areas with a Bulgarian majority population were ceded to Serbia. Territories ceded by the treaty to the then Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, in Serbia, to which the term generally applies in Bulgaria, the territory ceded is split between the modern Serbian District of Pirot and District of Pčinja. It also includes a section along the Timok River in the municipality and District of Zaječar. In 1919, the area corresponded to the parts of the Bulgarian okrugs, Kyustendil,661 km2, Tzaribrod 418 km2, Tran 278 km2, Kula 172 km2. Bulgarian sources claim that the Bulgarian population made 98% of the population in Bosilegrad, in the Yugoslav census of 1931, all South Slavs were simply counted as Yugoslavs so a comparison could not be made. According to the last Census in Serbia from 2002, Bulgarians made 50%, Bulgarians in Macedonia Bulgarians in Serbia List of treaties Minority Treaties Western Outlands Borisova, Galina M. Bulgaria, Greece and Britains Policy 1919. The treaties of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Sevres, or the redefining of a new Balkan Europe, Bulgarian Historical Review-Revue Bulgare dHistoire 3-4, 99-113. Greek Macedonia and the Convention of Neuilly, Balkan Studies 3#1 pp 169-184, text of the Treaty Map of Europe at time of Treaty of Neuilly at omniatlas. com
5. Treaty of London (1913) – The Treaty of London was signed on 30 May during the London Conference of 1912–13. It dealt with the territorial adjustments arising out of the conclusion of the First Balkan War, the combatants were the victorious Balkan League and the defeated Ottoman Empire. Representing the Great Powers were the United Kingdom, Germany, Russia, Austria-Hungary, hostilities had officially ceased on 2 December 1912, except for Greece that had not participated in the first truce. Austria-Hungary and Italy strongly supported the creation of an independent Albania, in part, this was consistent with Austria-Hungarys previous policy of resisting Serb expansion to the Adriatic, Italy had designs on the territory, manifested in 1939. The balance of power struck between the members of the Balkan League had been on the assumption that no Albanian polity would be formed, the Ottoman Empire ceded Crete, while it was left to the Great Powers to determine the fate of the other islands in the Aegean Sea. The borders of Albania and all questions concerning Albania were to be settled by the Great Powers. However, the division of the territories ceded to the Balkan League was not addressed in the Treaty, as a result of Bulgarian dissatisfaction with the de facto military division of Macedonia, the Second Balkan War broke out between the combatants on 16 June 1913. A final peace was agreed at the Treaty of Bucharest on 12 August 1913, treaties of London Chronology of the 1913 London Peace Conference
6. Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947 – The Treaty of Peace with Italy was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities. It came into effect on 15 September 1947. On 24 December 1951 Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, as provided by Annex XI of the Treaty, upon the recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 390 of 2 December 1950, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia on 11 September 1952. Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia de facto on 24 May 1991, Italian Somaliland was under British administration until 1949 when it became a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration. Italian Somaliland combined with British Somaliland on 1 July 1960 and together became the Somali Republic. The reparations were to be paid in goods and services over a seven-year period, articles 47 and 48 called for the demolition of all permanent fortifications along the Franco-Italian and Yugoslav-Italian frontier. Italy was banned from possessing, building or experimenting with atomic weapons, guided missiles, guns with a range of over 30 km, the military of Italy was limited in size. Italy was allowed a maximum of 200 heavy and medium tanks, former officers and non-commissioned officers of the Blackshirts and the National Republican Army were barred from becoming officers or non-commissioned officers in the Italian military. Some warships were awarded to the governments of the Soviet Union, the United States, Italy was ordered to scuttle all its submarines and was banned from acquiring new battleships, submarines and aircraft carriers. The navy was limited to a force of 25,000 personnel. The Italian army was limited to a size of 185,000 personnel plus 65,000 Carabinieri for a total of 250,000 personnel. The Italian air force was limited to 200 fighters and reconnaissance aircraft plus 150 transport, air-rescue, training, the number of air force personnel was limited to 25,000. Article 17 of the treaty banned Fascist organizations in Italy, a subsequent annex to the treaty provided for the cultural autonomy of the German minority in South Tyrol. Paris Peace Treaties,1947 Full text of the treaty