Category:Peace treaties of Italy
Pages in category "Peace treaties of Italy"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Armistice of Cassibile – It was signed at a conference of generals from both sides in an Allied military camp at Cassibile in Sicily, which had recently been occupied by the Allies. The armistice was approved by both King Victor Emmanuel III and Italian Prime Minister Pietro Badoglio, the armistice stipulated the surrender of Italy to the Allies. After its publication, Germany retaliated against Italy, attacking Italian forces in Italy, South of France, Italian forces were quickly defeated and most of Italy was occupied by German troops, while the King, the government and most of the navy reached territories occupied by the Allies. Following the surrender of the Axis powers in North Africa on 13 May 1943 and these moves by Mussolini were described as slightly hostile acts to the king, who had been growing increasingly critical of the war. To help carry out his plan, the King asked for the assistance of Dino Grandi. Grandi was one of the members of the Fascist hierarchy and, in his younger years. The King was also motivated by the suspicion that Grandis ideas about Fascism might be changed abruptly, various ambassadors, including Pietro Badoglio himself, proposed to him the vague possibility of succeeding Mussolini as dictator. The conspirators devised an Order of the Day for the reunion of the Grand Council of Fascism which contained a proposal to restore direct control of politics to the king. Following the Council, held on 23 July 1943, where the order of the day was adopted by majority vote, Mussolini was summoned to meet the King, upon leaving the meeting, Mussolini was arrested by carabinieri and spirited off to the island of Ponza. Badoglio took the position of Prime Minister and this went against what had been promised to Grandi, who had been told that another general of greater personal and professional qualities would have taken the place of Mussolini. The appointment of Badoglio apparently did not change the position of Italy as Germanys ally in the war, however, many channels were being probed to seek a peace treaty with the Allies. Meanwhile, Hitler sent several divisions south of the Alps, officially to help defend Italy from allied landings, three Italian generals were separately sent to Lisbon in order to contact Allied diplomats. In the end, Castellano was admitted to speak with the Allied diplomats in order to set the conditions for the surrender of Italy. To ease communication between the Allies and the Italian Government, a captured British SOE agent, Dick Mallaby, was released from Verona prison and secretly moved to the Quirinale. It was vital that the Germans remained ignorant of any suggestion of Italian surrender, Badoglio still considered it possible to gain favourable conditions in exchange for the surrender. He ordered Castellano to insist that any surrender of Italy was subordinate to a landing of Allied troops on the Italian mainland. On 31 August General Castellano reached Termini Imerese, in Sicily, by plane and was transferred to Cassibile. It soon became obvious that the two sides in the negotiations had adopted rather distant positions, Castellano pressed the request that the Italian territory be defended from the inevitable reaction of the German Wehrmacht against Italy after the signing
2. Boxer Protocol – It is often regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties. In Western countries, it was known as the Treaty of 1901. In China, it was known as the Xinchou Treaty and it was later regarded as one of the Unequal Treaties. The Qing dynasty was by no means defeated when the Allies took control of Beijing. The Allies had to temper the demands they sent in a message to Xian to get the Dowager Empress to agree with them, for instance, China did not have to give up any land. The Dowager was practical, and decided that the terms were enough for her to acquiesce and stop the war. United Kingdom represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Ernest Mason Satow, Russian Empire, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Michael Nikolajewitsch de Giers. Empire of Japan, represented by the Minister for Foreign Affairs Komura Jutarō, French Republic, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Paul Beau. United States represented by the Special envoy William Woodville Rockhill, German Empire, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Alfons Mumm von Schwarzenstein. Austria-Hungary, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Baron Moritz Czikann von Wahlborn, Kingdom of Italy, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Giuseppe Salvago Raggi. Kingdom of Belgium, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Maurice Joostens, Kingdom of the Netherlands, represented by the Minister plenipotentiary Fridolino Marinus Knobel. His Highness Yikuang, Prince Qing first Prime Minister of the Imperial Cabinet,450 million taels of fine silver were to be paid as indemnity over a course of 39 years to the eight nations involved. The Chinese paid the indemnity in gold on a scale with a 4% interest charge until the debt was amortized on December 31,1940. After 39 years, the amount was almost 1 billion taels, also, additional 16,886,708 taels was paid at local level in 17 provinces. By 1938,652.37 million taels had been paid, the interest rate was to be paid semi-annually with the first payment being the July 1,1902. The Qing government was also to allow the countries to base their troops in Beijing. She was later removed from the list, China recognised the right of each Power to maintain a permanent guard in the said Quarters for the defense of its Legation. Boxer and Government officials were to be punished for crimes or attempted crimes against the foreign Governments or their nationals, many were either sentenced to execution, deportation to Turkestan, imprisoned for life, commit suicide, or suffer posthumous degradation
3. Armistice of 11 November 1918 – It went into effect at 11 a. m. Paris time on 11 November 1918, and marked a victory for the Allies, the Germans were responding to the policies proposed by U. S. President Woodrow Wilson in his Fourteen Points of January 1918. Although the armistice ended the fighting, it took six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. In addition, he recommended the acceptance of the demands of US president Woodrow Wilson including putting the Imperial Government on a democratic footing, hoping for more favorable peace terms. As he said to officers of his staff on 1 October, on 3 October, the liberal Prince Maximilian of Baden was appointed Chancellor of Germany, replacing Georg von Hertling in order to negotiate an armistice. In the subsequent two exchanges, Wilsons allusions failed to convey the idea that the Kaisers abdication was a condition for peace. The leading statesmen of the Reich were not yet ready to contemplate such a monstrous possibility, in late October, Ludendorff, in a sudden change of mind, declared the conditions of the Allies unacceptable. He now demanded to resume the war which he himself had declared lost only one month earlier, however the German soldiers were pressing to get home. It was scarcely possible to arouse their readiness for battle anew, the Imperial Government stayed on course and Ludendorff was replaced by Wilhelm Groener. On 5 November, the Allies agreed to take up negotiations for a truce, the latest note from Wilson was received in Berlin on 6 November. That same day, the led by Matthias Erzberger departed for France. For example, they assumed that the de-militarization suggested by Wilson would be limited to the Central Powers, there were also contradictions with their post-War plans that did not include a consistent implementation of the ideal of national self-determination. Also on 9 November, Max von Baden handed over the office of Chancellor to Friedrich Ebert, eberts SPD and Erzbergers Catholic Centre Party had enjoyed an uneasy relationship with the Imperial government since Bismarcks era in the 1870s and 1880s. They were well represented in the Imperial Reichstag, which had power over the government. Their prominence in the negotiations would cause the new Weimar Republic to lack legitimacy in right-wing. The Armistice was the result of a hurried and desperate process and they were then entrained and taken to the secret destination, aboard Ferdinand Fochs private train parked in a railway siding in the forest of Compiègne. Foch appeared only twice in the three days of negotiations, on the first day, to ask the German delegation what they wanted, the Germans were handed the list of Allied demands and given 72 hours to agree. The German delegation discussed the Allied terms not with Foch, but with other French, the Armistice amounted to complete German demilitarization, with few promises made by the Allies in return
4. Franco-Italian Armistice – The Franco-Italian Armistice, or Armistice of Villa Incisa, signed on 24 June 1940, in effect from 25 June, ended the brief Italian invasion of France during the Second World War. On 10 June 1940, Italy declared war on France while the latter was already on the verge of defeat in its war with Germany. Fearing that the war would end before Italy had achieved any of its aims, the Franco-German armistice was signed on the evening of the 22 June, but would not come into force until the Italians signed their own armistice. Their troops unable to break through, the Italians abandoned their major war aims and it came into effect early the next morning. It established an occupation zone and an Italian Armistice Commission with France in Turin to oversee French compliance. Armistice commissions were established for French North Africa and French Somaliland. The armistice remained in force until November 1942, when during Case Anton the Italians occupied all of southeastern France and Corsica and it also requests that he convey to the Italian government its desire to find together the basis of a lasting peace between the two countries. Ciano wrote in his diary about the demand some of his staff suggested, the entire French fleet, all its colonies, all its locomotives. The final list of demands presented to the French were mild. Italy dropped its claims to the Rhône Valley, Corsica, Tunisia and it was his view that it was not German pressure that led him to back down. Indeed, Hitler had wanted the Italians to claim even more territory from the defeated French, Badoglio, however, had warned Mussolini that a larger occupation of southern France would require fifteen divisions. On the evening of 21 June, Ambassador Dino Alfieri in Berlin transmitted the German armistice terms to Rome, according to Ciano, under these conditions, Mussolini is not prepared to make territorial demands. And wait for the conference to make all our formal demands. He added that Mussolini wished to delay the meeting with the French in the hopes that General Gambara would take Nice, the French had tried to play the allies off against each other, they flattered the Germans belittled the Italian war effort. Unlike the Franco-German armistice talks, the Franco-Italian negotiations would be genuine, at 1500 hours on 23 June, the French delegation, headed by General Charles Huntziger, who had signed the German armistice the previous day, landed in Rome aboard three German aircraft. Italy was represented by Badoglio, Cavagnari, Ciano, Roatta, the first meeting of the two delegations took place at 1930 hours at the Villa Incisa allOlgiata on the Via Cassia. It lasted only minutes, during which Roatta read out Italys proposed terms, Huntziger requested a recess to confer with his government. During the adjournment, Hitler informed Mussolini that he thought the Italian demands too light, Roatta convinced Mussolini that it was too late to change the demands
5. Armistice of Mudros – The Armistice of Mudros, concluded on 30 October 1918, ended the hostilities, at noon the next day, in the Middle Eastern theatre between the Ottoman Empire and the Allies of World War I. It was signed by the Ottoman Minister of Marine Affairs Rauf Bey, the Ottoman army including the Ottoman air force was demobilized, and all ports, railways, and other strategic points were made available for use by the Allies. In the Caucasus, the Ottomans had to retreat to within the borders between the Ottoman and the Russian Empires. The armistice was followed by the occupation of Constantinople and the subsequent partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, the Treaty of Sèvres which was signed in the aftermath of World War I was never ratified by the Ottoman Parliament in Istanbul. The Caucasus Campaign put the Ottomans at odds with their ally, Germany, the Ottomans wanted to establish its eastern borders The Ottoman armies advanced far into Caucasus, gathering supporters as far away as Tashkent, on the eastern side of the Caspian Sea. Additionally, with the Bolsheviks in power in Moscow, chaos spread in Persia, in contrast, in Syria, the Ottomans were steadily pushed back by British forces, culminating in the fall of Damascus in October 1918. Hopes were initially high for the Ottomans that their losses in Syria might be compensated with successes in the Caucasus, developments in Southeast Europe quashed the Ottoman governments hopes. The Macedonian Front, also known as the Salonika campaign, had been stable since 1916. In September 1918, the Allied forces mounted an offensive which proved quite successful. The Bulgarian army was defeated, and Bulgaria was forced to sue for peace in the Armistice of Salonica, Grand Vizier Talaat Pasha visited Berlin, Germany, and Sofia, Bulgaria in September 1918. He came away with the understanding that the war was no longer winnable, with Germany likely seeking a separate peace, the Ottomans would be forced to do so as well. Talaat convinced the members of the ruling party that they must resign. On October 13, Talaat and the rest of his ministry resigned, ahmed Izzet Pasha replaced Talaat as Grand Vizier. Two days after taking office, he sent the captured British General Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend to the Allies to seek terms on an armistice, the British Cabinet received word of the offer and were eager to negotiate a deal. The British cabinet empowered Admiral Calthorpe to conduct the negotiations with an exclusion of the French from them. They also suggested an Armistice rather than a peace treaty, in the belief that a peace treaty would require the approval of all of the Allied nations. The negotiations began on Sunday, October 27 on the HMS Agamemnon, both sides did not know that the other was actually quite eager to sign a deal and willing to give up their objectives to do so. B. before speaking to America. He also thought it would attract attention to our enormous gains during the war if we swallowed our share of Turkey now
6. Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine – The Treaty of Neuilly-sur-Seine required Bulgaria to cede various territories, after Bulgaria had been one of the Central Powers defeated in World War I. The treaty was signed on 27 November 1919 at Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, the treaty required Bulgaria to cede Western Thrace to the Entente thereby cutting off Bulgarias direct outlet to the Aegean Sea. The signing ceremony was held in Neuillys town hall, in Bulgaria, the results of the treaty are popularly known as the Second National Catastrophe. Bulgaria subsequently regained South Dobruja as a result of the Treaty of Craiova, during World War II, together with Nazi Germany, it temporarily reoccupied most of the other territories ceded under the treaty. Four minor regions had been part of Bulgaria from its inception as a principality in 1878, except for the region around Strumitsa, some areas with a Bulgarian majority population were ceded to Serbia. Territories ceded by the treaty to the then Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, in Serbia, to which the term generally applies in Bulgaria, the territory ceded is split between the modern Serbian District of Pirot and District of Pčinja. It also includes a section along the Timok River in the municipality and District of Zaječar. In 1919, the area corresponded to the parts of the Bulgarian okrugs, Kyustendil,661 km2, Tzaribrod 418 km2, Tran 278 km2, Kula 172 km2. Bulgarian sources claim that the Bulgarian population made 98% of the population in Bosilegrad, in the Yugoslav census of 1931, all South Slavs were simply counted as Yugoslavs so a comparison could not be made. According to the last Census in Serbia from 2002, Bulgarians made 50%, Bulgarians in Macedonia Bulgarians in Serbia List of treaties Minority Treaties Western Outlands Borisova, Galina M. Bulgaria, Greece and Britains Policy 1919. The treaties of Neuilly-sur-Seine and Sevres, or the redefining of a new Balkan Europe, Bulgarian Historical Review-Revue Bulgare dHistoire 3-4, 99-113. Greek Macedonia and the Convention of Neuilly, Balkan Studies 3#1 pp 169-184, text of the Treaty Map of Europe at time of Treaty of Neuilly at omniatlas. com
7. Italo-Turkish War – The Italo-Turkish or Turco-Italian War was fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Ottoman Empire from September 29,1911, to October 18,1912. As a result of conflict, Italy captured the Ottoman Tripolitania Vilayet, of which the main sub-provinces were Fezzan, Cyrenaica. These territories together formed what became known as Italian Libya, during the conflict, Italian forces also occupied the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea. Although minor, the war was a significant precursor of the First World War as it sparked nationalism in the Balkan states, seeing how easily the Italians had defeated the weakened Ottomans, the members of the Balkan League attacked the Ottoman Empire before the war with Italy had ended. The Italo-Turkish War saw numerous changes, notably the airplane. The Turks, lacking anti-aircraft weapons, were the first to shoot down an aeroplane by rifle fire, when Italian diplomats hinted about possible opposition by their government, the French replied that Tripoli would have been a counterpart for Italy. In 1902, Italy and France had signed a treaty which accorded freedom of intervention in Tripolitania. However, the Italian government did little to realize the opportunity and knowledge of Libyan territory, the Italian press began a large-scale lobbying campaign in favour of an invasion of Libya at the end of March 1911. It was fancifully depicted as rich in minerals, well-watered, also, the population was described as hostile to the Ottoman Empire and friendly to the Italians, the future invasion was going to be little more than a military walk, according to them. The Socialist party had strong influence over public opinion, however, it was in opposition and also divided on the issue. It acted ineffectively against a military intervention, the future fascist leader Benito Mussolini – at this time still a left-wing Socialist – took a prominent anti-war position. A similar opposition was expressed in Parliament by Gaetano Salvemini and Leone Caetani, an ultimatum was presented to the Ottoman government led by the Committee of Union and Progress party on the night of 26–27 September. Through Austrian intermediation, the Ottomans replied with the proposal of transferring control of Libya without war and this suggestion was comparable to the situation in Egypt, which was under formal Ottoman suzerainty, but was actually controlled by the United Kingdom. Giolitti refused, and war was declared on September 29,1911, despite the time it had had to prepare the invasion, the Italian Royal Army was largely unprepared when the war broke out. The Italian fleet appeared off Tripoli in the evening of September 28, the city was conquered by 1,500 sailors, much to the enthusiasm of the interventionist minority in Italy. Another proposal for a settlement was rejected by the Italians. The Turks did not have an army in Trablusgarp. Many of the Ottoman officers had to travel there by their own means, often secretly, through Egypt, the Ottoman navy was too weak to transport troops by sea
8. Paris Peace Treaties, 1947 – The Paris Peace Treaties were signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946. The victorious wartime Allied powers negotiated the details of peace treaties with minor Axis powers, namely Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland, following the end of World War II in 1945. The treaties allowed Italy, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, and Finland to resume their responsibilities as sovereign states in international affairs, no penalties were to be visited on nationals because of wartime partisanship for the Allies. Italy lost its colonies, Italian East Africa and Italian Libya in North Africa, in the peace treaty, Italy recognized the independence of Albania. Italy also lost its concession in Tianjin, which was turned over to China, Italy had to cede most of Istria, including the provinces of Fiume, Zara, and most of Gorizia and Pola to Yugoslavia. Italy also had to cede to Yugoslavia all islands in the eastern Adriatic, the Dodecanese Islands were ceded to Greece. The border with France was slightly modified in favor of France, mostly in uninhabited Alpine area, except for the Tende valley, the border with France did not change since 1860. Finland was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, except for the province of Petsamo. However, this sympathy had been eroded by Finlands pragmatist collaboration with Nazi Germany during the war years from 1941 to 1944. During this time, Finland not only recaptured territory it had lost in 1940 and this prompted the United Kingdom to declare war on Finland in December 1941, further weakening political support in the West for the country. Hungary was restored to its borders before 1938 and this meant restoring the southern border with Yugoslavia, as well as declaring the First and Second Vienna Awards null and void, cancelling Hungarys gains from Czechoslovakia and Romania. Furthermore, three villages situated south of Bratislava were also transferred to Czechoslovakia, Romania was restored to the borders of 1 January 1941, with the exception of the border with Hungary giving Northern Transylvania back to Romania. This confirmed the 1940 loss of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union and the Treaty of Craiova, the war reparation problem proved to be one of the most difficult arising from post-war conditions. In the cases of Romania and Hungary, the terms as set forth in their armistices were relatively high and were not revised. $300,000,000 Finnish war reparations to the Soviet Union $300,000,000 from Hungary, $200,000,000 to the Soviet Union, $100,000,000 to Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia. $300,000,000 from Romania to the Soviet Union, $70,000,000 from Bulgaria, $45,000,000 to Greece, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia did not lead to any renegotiation of the Paris Peace Treaties. However, in 1990 Finland unilaterally cancelled the restrictions the treaty had placed on its military, Paris Peace Conference Proceedings United States Department of State Foreign relations of the United States,1946. Paris Peace Conference Documents United Nations Treaty Series volume 49, paris-WWII Peace Conference-1946, Settling Romanias Western Frontiers, at the Honorary Consulate of Romania in Boston, has pictures of the Romanian delegation
9. Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947 – The Treaty of Peace with Italy was signed on 10 February 1947 between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending hostilities. It came into effect on 15 September 1947. On 24 December 1951 Libya declared its independence as the United Kingdom of Libya, as provided by Annex XI of the Treaty, upon the recommendation of the United Nations General Assembly in Resolution 390 of 2 December 1950, Eritrea was federated with Ethiopia on 11 September 1952. Eritrea gained its independence from Ethiopia de facto on 24 May 1991, Italian Somaliland was under British administration until 1949 when it became a United Nations Trust Territory under Italian administration. Italian Somaliland combined with British Somaliland on 1 July 1960 and together became the Somali Republic. The reparations were to be paid in goods and services over a seven-year period, articles 47 and 48 called for the demolition of all permanent fortifications along the Franco-Italian and Yugoslav-Italian frontier. Italy was banned from possessing, building or experimenting with atomic weapons, guided missiles, guns with a range of over 30 km, the military of Italy was limited in size. Italy was allowed a maximum of 200 heavy and medium tanks, former officers and non-commissioned officers of the Blackshirts and the National Republican Army were barred from becoming officers or non-commissioned officers in the Italian military. Some warships were awarded to the governments of the Soviet Union, the United States, Italy was ordered to scuttle all its submarines and was banned from acquiring new battleships, submarines and aircraft carriers. The navy was limited to a force of 25,000 personnel. The Italian army was limited to a size of 185,000 personnel plus 65,000 Carabinieri for a total of 250,000 personnel. The Italian air force was limited to 200 fighters and reconnaissance aircraft plus 150 transport, air-rescue, training, the number of air force personnel was limited to 25,000. Article 17 of the treaty banned Fascist organizations in Italy, a subsequent annex to the treaty provided for the cultural autonomy of the German minority in South Tyrol. Paris Peace Treaties,1947 Full text of the treaty
10. Treaty of Trianon – The treaty regulated the status of an independent Hungarian state and defined its borders. It left Hungary as a state covering 93,073 square kilometres. Its population was 7.6 million, only 36% of the kingdoms population of 20.9 million. The areas that were allocated to neighbouring countries in total possessed a majority of non-Hungarian population, five of the pre-war kingdoms ten largest cities were drawn into other countries. The treaty limited Hungarys army to 35,000 officers and men, the principal beneficiaries of territorial division of pre-war Kingdom of Hungary were the Kingdom of Romania, the Czechoslovak Republic, and the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. One of the elements of the treaty was the doctrine of self-determination of peoples. In addition, Hungary had to pay war reparations to its neighbours, the treaty was dictated by the Allies rather than negotiated and the Hungarians had no option but to accept its terms. The Hungarian delegation signed the treaty under protest on 4 June 1920 at the Grand Trianon Palace in Versailles, the treaty was registered in League of Nations Treaty Series on 24 August 1921. The modern boundaries of Hungary are the same as those defined by the Treaty of Trianon except for three villages that were transferred to Czechoslovakia in 1947, the Hungarian government terminated its union with Austria on 31 October 1918, officially dissolving the Austro-Hungarian state. The de facto borders of independent Hungary were defined by the ceasefire lines in November–December 1918. On 1 December 1918, the National Assembly of Romanians in Transylvania declared union with the Kingdom of Romania, Slovakia, which became part of Czechoslovakia. That was signed on 6 December 1918, territories of Banat, Bačka and Baranja came under military control of the Kingdom of Serbia and political control of local South Slavs. The Great Peoples Assembly of Serbs, Bunjevci and other Slavs from Banat, Bačka, the ceasefire line had a character of temporary international border until the treaty. The city of Fiume was occupied by the Italian Army and its affiliation was a matter of international dispute between the Kingdom of Italy and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Croatian-populated territories in modern Međimurje remained under Hungarian control after the agreement of Belgrade from 13 November 1918. After the Romanian Army advanced beyond this line, the Entente powers asked Hungary to acknowledge the new Romanian territory gains by a new line set along the Tisza river. Unable to reject these terms and unwilling to accept them, the leaders of the Hungarian Democratic Republic resigned, in spite of the country being under Allied blockade, the Hungarian Soviet Republic was formed and the Hungarian Red Army was rapidly set up. In the end, this invitation was not issued
11. Treaty of Versailles – The Treaty of Versailles was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end. The Treaty ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers and it was signed on 28 June 1919, exactly five years after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The other Central Powers on the German side of World War I signed separate treaties, although the armistice, signed on 11 November 1918, ended the actual fighting, it took six months of Allied negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference to conclude the peace treaty. The treaty was registered by the Secretariat of the League of Nations on 21 October 1919 and this article, Article 231, later became known as the War Guilt clause. The treaty forced Germany to disarm, make substantial territorial concessions, in 1921 the total cost of these reparations was assessed at 132 billion marks. On the other hand, prominent figures on the Allied side such as French Marshal Ferdinand Foch criticized the treaty for treating Germany too leniently, although it is often referred to as the Versailles Conference, only the actual signing of the treaty took place at the historic palace. Most of the negotiations were in Paris, with the Big Four meetings taking place generally at the Quai dOrsay, the First World War was fought across Europe, the Middle East, Africa and Asia. Countries beyond the war zones were also affected by the disruption of trade, finance. In 1917, two revolutions occurred within the Russian Empire, which led to the collapse of the Imperial Government, the American war aim was to detach the war from nationalistic disputes and ambitions after the Bolshevik disclosure of secret treaties between the Allies. The existence of these treaties tended to discredit Allied claims that Germany was the power with aggressive ambitions. On 8 January 1918, United States President Woodrow Wilson issued a statement that became known as the Fourteen Points and this speech outlined a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination. After the Central Powers launched Operation Faustschlag on the Eastern Front and this treaty ended the war between Russia and the Central powers and annexed 1,300,000 square miles of territory and 62 million people. During the autumn of 1918, the Central Powers began to collapse, desertion rates within the German army began to increase, and civilian strikes drastically reduced war production. On the Western Front, the Allied forces launched the Hundred Days Offensive, sailors of the Imperial German Navy at Kiel mutinied, which prompted uprisings in Germany, which became known as the German Revolution. The German government tried to obtain a settlement based on the Fourteen Points. Following negotiations, the Allied powers and Germany signed an armistice, the terms of the armistice called for an immediate evacuation of German troops from occupied Belgium, France, and Luxembourg within fifteen days. In addition, it established that Allied forces would occupy the Rhineland, in late 1918, Allied troops entered Germany and began the occupation. Both the German Empire and Great Britain were dependent on imports of food and raw materials, primarily from the Americas, the Blockade of Germany was a naval operation conducted by the Allied Powers to stop the supply of raw materials and foodstuffs reaching the Central Powers
12. Armistice of Villa Giusti – The Armistice of Villa Giusti ended warfare between Italy and Austria-Hungary on the Italian Front during World War I. The armistice was signed on 3 November 1918 in the Villa Giusti, outside of Padua in the Veneto, northern Italy, by the end of October 1918 the Austro-Hungarian Army found itself in such a state that its commanders were forced to seek a ceasefire. At the final stage of the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, the troops of Austria-Hungary were defeated, ceased to exist as a combat force, from 28 October onwards, Austria-Hungary sought to negotiate a truce but hesitated to sign the text of armistice. In the meantime the Italians reached Trento, Udine, and landed in Trieste, after the threat to break off the negotiations, on 3 November the Austro-Hungarians accepted the terms. The cease-fire would be started at 3.00 pm on 4 November, but due to an order of the Austro-Hungarian high command. After the war, the Kingdom of Italy annexed the Southern Tyrol, according to Treaty of London terms as well as Trieste, nyékhegyi Korvettenkapitaen Georg Ritter von Zwierkowski Oberstleutnant i. G. Victor Freiherr von Seiller Hauptmann i. G, camillo Ruggera Bollettino della Vittoria address of General Diaz to his troops and the nation after the Armistice of Villa Giusti Text of the armistice