Category:People executed by stoning
Pages in category "People executed by stoning"
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 24 pages are in this category, out of 24 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Stoning – Stoning, or lapidation, is a method of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until they die. No individual among the group can be identified as the one who kills the subject and this is in contrast to the case of a judicial executioner. Slower than other forms of execution, stoning within the context of contemporary Western culture is considered a form of execution by torture, in some countries, such as Afghanistan and Iraq, stoning has been declared illegal by the state, but is practiced extrajudicially. In several others, people have been sentenced to death by stoning, in modern times, allegations of stoning are politically sensitive, the government of Iran, for example, describes allegations of stoning as political propaganda. The Jewish Torah serves as a religious reference for Judaism. Stoning is the method of execution mentioned most frequently in the Torah. And thou shalt stone him with stones, that he die, because he sought to thrust thee away from the LORD thy God. The inclusion of the children in the punishment was troubling to later Jewish commentators, the Talmud describes four methods of execution, stoning, pouring molten lead down the throat of the condemned person, beheading, and strangulation. The Mishna gives the following list of persons who should be stoned, prior to early Christianity, particularly in the Mishnah, doubts were growing in Jewish society about the effectiveness of capital punishment in general in acting as a useful deterrent. Subsequently its use was dissuaded by the central legislators, the Mishnah states, A Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seven years is called destructive. Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah says that this extends to a Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seventy years. Rabbi Akiba and Rabbi Tarfon say, Had we been in the Sanhedrin none would ever have put to death. Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel says, they would have multiplied shedders of blood in Israel, in the following centuries the leading Jewish sages imposed so many restrictions on the implementation of capital punishment as to make it de facto illegal. The restrictions were to prevent execution of the innocent, and included many conditions for a testimony to be admissible that were difficult to fulfill. Philosopher Moses Maimonides wrote, It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death and he was concerned that the law guard its public perception, to preserve its majesty and retain the peoples respect. He saw errors of commission as much more threatening to the integrity of law than errors of omission, in rabbinic law, capital punishment may only be inflicted by the verdict of a regularly constituted court of twenty-three qualified members. The culprit must be a person of age and of sound mind. On the day the verdict is pronounced, the convict is led forth to execution, a sentence is not attended by confiscation of the convicts goods, the persons possessions descend to their legal heirs
2. Achan (biblical figure) – His name is given as Achar in 1 Chronicles 2,7. The Book of Joshua claims that this act resulted in the Israelites being collectively punished by God, in that they failed in their first attempt to capture Ai, with about 36 Israelite lives lost. The Israelites used cleromancy to decide who was to blame, and having identified Achan, stoned him, as well as his sheep, other livestock and their remains were burnt by the Israelites, according to the text, and stones piled on top. Rashi, and many opinions in the Talmud, argue that the stoning was only carried out on the livestock and Achan himself, and that his children were merely brought forward to witness the Israelites. The Talmud writers do, however, admit the possibility of the children being also stoned, arguing that since they had kept silent about their fathers actions, they were complicit in the crime. Other classical Rabbis portray Achan as guilty of more crimes, claiming that he had committed incest. In the narrative, before Achan is stoned to death, he first confesses his actions, the narrative states that the location for this punishment of Achan, which lies between Jericho and Ai, became known as the vale of Achor in memory of him. This narrative is seen by some scholars as an etiological myth providing a folk etymology for Achor. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Singer, Isidore. New York, Funk & Wagnalls Company and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Easton, Matthew George
3. Murder of Du'a Khalil Aswad – Du’a Khalil Aswad was a 17-year-old Iraqi girl of the Yazidi faith who was stoned to death in an honor killing. It is believed that she was killed around 7 April 2007, the rumor that the stoning was connected to her alleged conversion to Islam prompted reprisals against Yazidis by Sunnis, including the 2007 Mosul massacre. Some reports claim that Aswad was murdered for having converted to Islam to marry an Iraqi Sunni Muslim boy and it is disputed whether or not she actually converted to Islam, some reports say the Sunni boyfriend has denied that she had. Other sources instead indicate that Aswad was killed in punishment for being absent from her one night. Either way, the police handed Dua into the custody of a local Yezidi sheikh, some news agencies reported that Aswad was being sheltered by a Yazidi tribal leader in Bashika in fear of her life until her family persuaded her that she had been forgiven and could return home. Other reports indicate that she was given asylum by a local Muslim Sheikh. It is not known whether the members of her family that convinced her to return home were responsible for her death. It is not clear from the video whether she was ambushed returning to her home, or if the mob stormed her home. Estimates of the number of range from hundreds to one thousand to two thousand men. The incident took place in Bashika, a town in Ninawa Governorate, Aswad was taken to the town square, according to reports she was stripped naked to symbolize that she had dishonored her family and religion. After her death in the square, Aswads body was tied behind a car. She was buried with the remains of a dog, to disrespect her, eventually, her body was exhumed and sent to the Medico-Legal Institute in Mosul so that tests could be performed to see whether she had died a virgin. A protest in Arbil against Aswads killing attracted hundreds of Kurds who called for an end to honor killings. It is believed Aswads murder sparked, or was used as a pretext for, the same day also witnessed another reprisal attack claimed by Ansar al-Sunna by a suicide carbomb attack targeted the village of Tel Isqof killing 25 Yazidis and Assyrian Christians. Both her murder and the reprisal were condemned by Amnesty International, authorities in Northern Iraq have arrested four people in connection with the killing. Stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow Genocide of Yazidis by ISIL Murder of Farkhunda Femicide Honor killing Video of the stoning
4. Stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow – The stoning of Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow was a public execution carried out by the Al-Shabaab militant group on October 27,2008 in the southern port town of Kismayo, Somalia. Initial reports stated that the victim, Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, was a 23-year-old woman found guilty of adultery, the execution took place in a public stadium attended by about 1,000 bystanders, several of whom attempted to intervene but were shot by the militants. The stoning was condemned by human rights groups and was cited as being among the first incidents in the civil war in Somalia to be widely reported in the Western media. According to Amnesty International, Al-Shabaab had formally charged Duhulow with adultery despite the fact that convicting a girl her age of adultery would be according to Islamic law. In 1991, the government of then President of Somalia Siad Barre was overthrown by a coalition of armed factions, the Islamic Courts Union took control of the southern half of Somalia in 2006, imposing Sharia law. In 2006, the Transitional Federal Government assisted by Ethiopian troops re-captured the capital Mogadishu, Al-Shabaab, the ICUs militant and youth branch, subsequently took up irregular warfare and guerrilla tactics against the allied forces. In 2008, the group was designated as a terrorist organization by the United States, several thousand local civilians were killed by the militants during the height of the insurgency between December 2006 and October 2008. Duhulow and her family moved to the city of Kismayo, Somalia from the Hagardeer refugee camp in Dadaab. Three months after her arrival in Kismayo, Duhulow was reportedly raped by three armed men while travelling on foot to visit her grandmother in Mogadishu in October 2008. Her aunt took her to a station to report the incident to the Al-Shabaab Islamist militia in Kismayo. They were asked to return to the station a few days later, Duhulow was subsequently arrested by the insurgents under charges that she had chatted up the men and committed adultery. She was then sentenced to death by stoning, one militant, Sheik Hayakalah, stated that the evidence came from her side and she officially confirmed her guilt She told us that she was happy with the punishment under Islamic law. No attempts were made by the insurgent group to apprehend Duhulows purported attackers, on October 27,2008, during the afternoon, several militants transported Duhulow to a public stadium in Kismayo containing around 1,000 people. She reportedly struggled with the insurgents and at one point screamed, What do you want from me Im not going, four militants subsequently forced Duhulow into a dug out hole, burying her up to the neck. Around 50 militants participated in the execution, throwing rocks at her head. According to witnesses, nurses were instructed to verify whether Duhulow was still alive. After ten minutes, she was dug out of the hole and two confirmed that she was still alive, after which point Duhulow was put back in the hole. Although many witnesses to the event were too afraid of the militants to intervene
5. Saint Eskil – Saint Eskil was an Anglo-Saxon monk particularly venerated during the end of the 11th century in the Province of Södermanland, Sweden. He was the founder of the first Diocese of the lands surrounding Lake Mälaren and he is the patron saint of Södermanland and the Diocese of Strängnäs. Saint Eskil was sent as a Missionary Bishop to the Lake Mälaren landscapes by Saint Sigfrid of Växjö along with Saint Botvid, Botvid lies buried in Botkyrka, today a suburb of Stockholm in the east of Södermanland. All three saints are known to have perished trying to Christianize the people living around Lake Mälaren, David has been made patron saint of Västerås and the province of Västmanland. They all are sources of medieval legends. Saint Eskil made the village of Tuna his missionary diocese and later, around 1080, he made a 30 kilometre journey east of Tuna to Strängnäs, Saint Eskil was stoned to death, according to tradition, because he disrupted a holy ritual. Saint Eskils followers decided to take his corpse back to Tuna, the spring is known as the Spring of Saint Eskil. Saint Eskil was buried in his monastery in Tuna, Strängnäs was later converted into Christianity and the diocese that Eskil had created in Tuna was moved or re-created in Strängnäs. Strängnäs Cathedral was later built on the site of the pagan ritual Eskil had observed. This is confirmed, since the hill where the Cathedral now stands is known to have been the ritual site, the old church and burial site of Saint Eskil in Tuna later became one of the first monasteries in the region. When Tuna got priviligies, Eskil was added into the name, Eskil probably lived during the reign of King Inge the Elder at the end of the 11th century. He is said to have killed by stoning and with axes. The legend shows stylistic influence from sources, including the legend of Saint Olaf of Norway. The veneration of Eskil spread in Sweden and to Denmark and Norway, Eskils feast was on 11 June, but it was later moved, except in the Diocese of Strängnäs, to June 12 in order not to collide with the Feast of Barnabas. Toni Schmid, Eskil, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, vol, the Diocese of Strängnäs, Strängnäs domkyrkas historia, Pamphlet available from the Diocese
6. James, brother of Jesus – James, who died in martyrdom in 62 or 69 AD, was an important figure of the Apostolic Age. Other epithets used to refer to James include James the Just, or a variation of James, Roman Catholic tradition generally holds that this James is to be identified with James, son of Alphaeus, and James the Less. It is agreed by most that he should not be confused with James, according to Eusebius James was named a bishop of Jerusalem by the apostles, James, the brother of the Lord, to whom the episcopal seat at Jerusalem had been entrusted by the apostles. Ordained by the bishop of Jerusalem. And that James ruled the church of Jerusalem thirty years, James is a principal author of the Apostolic Decree of Acts 15, and the Epistle of James in the New Testament is traditionally attributed to him. Jerome believed that the brothers of the Lord were Jesus cousins, Jerome concluded that James the brother of the Lord, is therefore James, son of Alphaeus, one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, and the son of Mary Cleophas. James, the brother of Jesus was also stoned to death by the Jews, with this testimony of Hippolytus there is good reason to assume that James the son of Alphaeus is the same person as James the brother of Jesus. These two works of Hippolytus are often neglected because the manuscripts were lost during most of the church age, as most scholars consider them spurious, they are often ascribed to Pseudo-Hippolytus. The two are included in an appendix to the works of Hippolytus in the collection of Early Church Fathers. According to the fragments of the work Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord of the Apostolic Father Papias of Hierapolis. 70–163 AD, Cleophas and Alphaeus are the person, and Mary the wife of Cleophas or Alphaeus would be the mother of James the brother of Jesus, and of Simon and Judas. These four are found in the Gospel, thus James, the brother of the Lord would be the son of Alphaeus, who is the husband of Mary the wife of Cleophas or Mary the wife of Alphaeus. For the Anglican theologian J. B. Lightfoot this fragment quoted above would be spurious, Jerome also concluded that James the brother of the Lord is the same as James the Less. Other epithets are James the brother of the Lord, surnamed the Just and he is sometimes referred to in Eastern Christianity as James Adelphotheos, James the Brother of God. The oldest surviving Christian liturgy, the Liturgy of St James, uses this epithet, the New Testament mentions several people named James. The Pauline Epistles, from about the decade of the 1st century, has two passages mentioning a James. The Acts of the Apostles, written sometime between 60 and 150 AD, also describes the period before the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD and it has three mentions of a James. The Gospels, with disputed datings ranging from about 50 to as late as 130 AD, describe the period of Jesus ministry and it mentions at least two different people named James
7. Anthony Neyrot – Anthony Neyrot was an Italian Dominican priest, apostate, reconvert, and martyr. Anthony Neyrot was born in Rivoli, in Piedmont, Italy, after completing his studies, he was ordained and lived for a while at San Marco in Florence where he studied under Antoninus of Florence. Unsatisfied, he asked for a change and he was sent to Sicily. Still unhappy, he left for Naples, on this voyage, his ship was captured by Moorish pirates, and along with the other passengers, was taken to North Africa. It would appear that the Muslim caliph of Tunis seemed to have liked Anthony, as he was treated kindly, antony was impatient and resented the idea of being a prisoner. Living on a diet of bread and water, he soon collapsed and he then denied his faith in order to buy his freedom. Anthony lost all faith in Christianity and began to translate the Koran and he was adopted by the king and married a Turkish lady of high rank. Then came news of the death of Antoninus and this led to a radical change in Anthonys attitudes. Finding a Dominican priest, Anthony confessed his sins, and on Palm Sunday of 1460, wanting his reconversion to be as public as his denial had been, Anthony waited until the king held a public procession. Having confessed and made his private reconciliation with God, Anthony mounted the steps where all could see him clothed in a Dominican habit. Anthony proclaimed his faith, and the king ordered that he be stoned to death. Anthony was killed on Holy Thursday,1460, Anthonys body was recovered at great expense by merchants from Genoa and was returned to Rivoli, where his tomb became a place of pilgrimage. Miracles were attributed to it, and a procession was held at his shrine, wherein all the present-day members of his family dressed in black. Blessed Anthonys cultus was approved by Pope Clement XIII on 22 February 1767
8. Palamedes (mythology) – In Greek mythology, Palamedes was the son of Nauplius and Clymene. He joined the Greeks in the expedition against Troy, pausanias in his Description of Greece says that in Corinth is a Temple of Fortune in which Palamedes dedicated the dice that he had invented. Agamemnon sent Palamedes to Ithaca to retrieve Odysseus, who had promised to defend the marriage of Helen, paris had kidnapped Helen, but Odysseus did not want to honor his oath. He pretended to be insane and plowed his fields with salt, Palamedes guessed what was happening and put Odysseus son, Telemachus, in front of the plow. Odysseus stopped working and revealed his sanity, the ancient sources show differences in regards to the details of how Palamedes was caused to die and also the actual way in which his death was brought about. Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for ruining his attempt to out of the Trojan War. When Palamedes advised the Greeks to return home, Odysseus hid gold in his tent, the letter was found and the Greeks accused him of being a traitor. Palamedes was stoned to death by Odysseus and Diomedes, according to other accounts the two warriors drowned him during a fishing expedition. Still another version relates that he was lured into a well in search of treasure, although he is a major character in some accounts of the Trojan War, Palamedes is not mentioned in Homers Iliad. Ovid discusses Palamedes role in the Trojan War in the Metamorphoses, Palamedes fate is described in Virgils Aeneid. In the Apology, Plato describes Socrates as looking forward to speaking with Palamedes after death, euripides and many other dramatists have written dramas about his fate. The major Dutch playwright Joost van den Vondel wrote in 1625 the play Palamedes, authorities in Amsterdam found no difficulty in deciphering the political meanings behind Vondels Classical allusions, and imposed a heavy fine on the playwright. D. R. Reinsch, Die Palamedes-Episode in der Synopsis Chronike des Konstantinos Manasses und ihre Inspirationsquelle, studien zur byzantinischen Literatur gewidmet Wolfram Hoerandner zum 65. Hg. v. Martin Hinterberger und Elisabeth Schiffer, berlin-New York, Walter de Gruyter,2007, 266-276
9. Petronius Maximus – Petronius Maximus was Western Roman Emperor for two and a half months in 455. A wealthy senator and a prominent aristocrat, he was instrumental in the murders of the Western Roman magister militum, Flavius Aëtius, Maximus was killed during the events culminating in the sack of Rome by the Vandals in 455. Petronius Maximus was born in about 396, although he was of obscure origin, it is now believed that he belonged to the Anicii family. Maximus achieved a remarkable career early in life, from January/February 420 to August/September 421 he was praefectus urbi of Rome, an office he held again sometime before 439, as praefectus he restored the Old St. Peters Basilica. He was also appointed praetorian prefect sometime between 421 and 439, it was either while holding this post or during his second urban prefecture that he was appointed consul for the year 433. From August 439 to February 441 he held the prefecture of Italy. Between 443 and 445 Maximus built a forum in Rome, on the Caelian Hill between via Labicana and the Basilica di San Clemente. During this year, he was briefly the most honored of all non-Imperial Romans, until the consulate of Flavius Aëtius, generalissimo of the Western empire. The enmity between Petronius Maximus and the powerful Patricius and magister militum of the West Aëtius clearly led to the events that brought down the Western Roman Empire. Initially however, the beneficiary of this was Maximus, who came to the throne as a result of the murders of Aëtius in 454. According to the historian John of Antioch, Maximus poisoned the mind of the Emperor against Aëtius, john’s account has it that Valentinian and Maximus placed a wager on a game that Maximus ended up losing. As he did not have the available, Maximus left his ring as a guarantee of his debt. Valentinian then used the ring to summon to court Lucina, the chaste and beautiful wife of Maximus, Lucina went to the court, believing she had been summoned by her husband, but instead found herself at dinner with Valentinian. Although initially resisting his advances, the Emperor managed to wear her down, returning home and meeting Maximus, she accused him of betrayal, believing that he had handed her over to the Emperor. Although Maximus swore revenge, he was motivated by ambition to supplant a detested and despicable rival. According to John of Antioch, Maximus was acutely aware that while Aëtius was alive he could not exact vengeance on Valentinian, so Aëtius had to be removed. He therefore allied himself with a eunuch of Valentinians, the primicerius sacri cubiculi Heraclius, according to John of Antioch, Maximus was so irritated by Valentinian’s refusal to appoint him as his magister militum that he decided to have Valentinian assassinated as well. He chose as accomplices Optilia and Thraustila, two Scythians who had fought under the command of Aetius and who, after the death of their general, had appointed as Valentinian’s escort
10. Sahibzada Abdul Latif – It is believed that Abdul Latif helped King Abdur Rahman Khan during the negotiation of the Durand Line Agreement with the British India in 1893. It is also believed that in 1902 he became a follower of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad and is remembered as one of the first martyrs of the Ahmadiyya movement. He had thousands of all over Afghanistan and students came to him from far regions of Central Asia He was a learned man, fluent in Persian, Pashto. It is also claimed that he owned a piece of land in Khost Province. Abdul Latif is often called the Sayyed-ul-Shuhada within the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam. He had visited Hoshiarpur, and frequented Deoband a city and a board in Saharanpur district in the state of Uttar Pradesh India. It is famous for its Dar ul Uloom. Abdul Latif was an eminent member of the Ulama of Afghanistan, in 1889 Abdul Latif heard about Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian, British India, who claimed to be the Promised Messiah and Imam Mahdi. He sent one of his pupils, Maulvi Abdur Rahman, to British India on a secret mission, Abdur Rahman returned after having accepted Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, and joining the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, bringing with him some books written by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad for him to read. After Abdul Latif read one of Mirza Ghulam Ahmads books, he joined the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, in 1902, Abdul Latif asked Habibullah Khan for permission to make pilgrimage to Hajj in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. The King granted him permission and even presented him with a sum for his expenses. Abdul Latif reached Lahore in October 1902 accompanied by some of his pupils, on arrival, he discovered that a plague had spread in India and the Ottoman Government had imposed restrictions on people coming from British India. Instead of going for Hajj as he told the king he would do and he publicly announced his allegiance to the Ahmadiyya movement, offering Bayah to Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in Qadian. On 14 July 1903, Abdul Latif was sentenced to death after it was learned that he was mentally fit and that he willingly became a follower of the Ahmadiyya movement. It is believed that he did not surrender his beliefs for the Afghan government and it is claimed that Abdul Latif replied in response I am carrying the chains, shackles and handcuffs for the sake of the prophet Muhammad and to me they are like ornaments. I am walking briskly because I am impatient for a rendezvous with my Master, thereafter, the Afghan government carried on with his execution. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community claim that he was buried underground and stoned to death. According to the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam, he is the first recognized martyr for its cause, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad has written books on him and his stoning. It is reported that a total of about 3 Ahmadiyya Muslims executions were carried out in Kabul between 1901 and 1924, since then, no more Ahmadiyya Muslims have been reported in Afghanistan, but a possibility of their existence remains
11. Saint Stephen – Accused of blasphemy, at his trial he made a long speech denouncing the Jewish authorities who were sitting in judgment on him and was then stoned to death. His martyrdom was witnessed by Saul of Tarsus, a Pharisee who would himself become a follower of Jesus. The only primary source for information about Stephen is the New Testament book of the Acts of the Apostles, Stephen is mentioned in Acts 6 as one of the Greek-speaking Hellenistic Jews selected to participate in a fairer distribution of welfare to the Greek-speaking widows. The Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, Oriental Orthodox, Eastern Orthodox Churches, Stephens name in the original Greek of the Acts of the Apostles is given as Stephanos, meaning crown. Traditionally, Stephen is invested with a crown of martyrdom, artistic representations often depict him with three stones and the palm frond. Eastern Christian iconography shows him as a young, beardless man with a tonsure, wearing a deacons vestments, according to Orthodox belief, he was the eldest and is therefore called archdeacon. As another deacon, Nicholas of Antioch, is stated to have been a convert to Judaism, it may be assumed that Stephen was born Jewish. Since the name Stephanos is Greek, it has assumed that he was one of these Hellenistic Jews. Stephen is stated to have full of faith and the Holy Spirit. Members of these synagogues had challenged Stephens teachings, but Stephen had bested them in debate, furious at this humiliation, they suborned false testimony that Stephen had preached blasphemy against Moses and God. They dragged him to appear before the Sanhedrin, the legal court of Jewish elders, accusing him of preaching against the Temple. Stephen is said to have been unperturbed, his face looking like that of an angel, robert Eisenman puts forward the theory that the stoning of Stephen is in fact an account of the stoning of James, first Bishop of Jerusalem, as recounted by Josephus, in 62CE. In a long speech to the Sanhedrin comprising almost the whole of Acts Chapter 7, Stephen presents his view of the history of Israel. The God of glory, he says, appeared to Abraham in Mesopotamia, thus establishing at the beginning of the one of its major themes. Stephen recounts the stories of the patriarchs in some depth, God appeared to Moses in the burning bush, and inspired Moses to lead his people out of Egypt. Nevertheless, the Israelites turned to other gods and this establishes the second main theme of Stephens speech, Israels disobedience to God. Stephen faced two accusations, that he had declared that Jesus would destroy the Temple in Jerusalem and that he had changed the customs of Moses. The Roman Catholic Church states that St. Stephen appealed to the Jewish scriptures to prove how the laws of Moses were not subverted by Jesus but and he denounces his listeners as stiff-necked people who, just as their ancestors had done, resist the Holy Spirit
12. Saint Telemachus – Saint Telemachus was a monk who, according to the Church historian Theodoret, tried to stop a gladiatorial fight in a Roman amphitheatre, and was stoned to death by the crowd. The Christian Emperor Honorius, however, was impressed by the monks martyrdom, frederick George Holweck gives the year of his death as 391. The last known gladiatorial fight in Rome was on 1 January 404 AD and he is described as being an ascetic who came to Rome from the East. The story is found in the writings of Theodoret, Bishop of Cyrrhus, although the site of Telemachus martyrdom is often given as being the Colosseum in Rome, Theodoret does not actually specify where it happened, saying merely that it happened in the stadium. Later retellings of the story have differed from Theodorets in a number of details, foxes Book of Martyrs claims that Telemachus was first stabbed to death by a gladiator, but that the sight of his death turned the hearts of the people. In the version of the story told by Ronald Reagan in 1984, there is also an alternate form of the story, in which Telemachus stood up in the amphitheatre and told the assembly to stop worshipping idols and offering sacrifices to the gods. Upon hearing this statement, the prefect of the city is said by this source to have ordered the gladiators to kill Telemachus, Telemachus, The Monk Who Ended the Coliseum Games January 1,404, Telemachus Martyred Attempting to Stop a Gladiator Fight | Church History Timelines
13. Saint Theocharis – Saint Theocharis of Nevşehir is a saint of the Greek Orthodox Church. He is considered a new martyr as he gave his life rather than convert to Islam and his feast day is on August 20. Saint Theocharis was orphaned at a young age, with the Ottoman State at war, young Theocharis was taken to a concentration camp for Christian boys. There, he was spotted by the governor of Nevşehir who took a liking to the boy, the governor took Theocharis out of the camp and took him back to work on his estate. The governor and his wife liked Theocharis so much that they decided to offer their daughter to him and this caused the Governor great offence and so he threatened Theocharis with hunger, torture and death. He was stoned and then hanged at noon on 20 August 1740
14. Zechariah ben Jehoiada – Zechariah ben Jehoiada /zɛkəˈraɪ. ə/ is regarded as one of the Prophets of the Tanakh in Judaism, and is possibly alluded to in the New Testament. He is mostly known for the event that led to his martyrdom, Zechariah was the son of Jehoiada, the High Priest in the times of Ahaziah and Jehoash of Judah. After the death of Jehoiada, Zechariah condemned both King Jehoash and the people for their rebellion against God and this so stirred up their resentment against him that at the kings commandment they stoned him, and he died in the court of the house of the Lord. In rabbinical literature, Zechariah was the son-in-law of the king, and, being also a priest, prophet and he was killed in the priests courtyard of the Temple on a Sabbath which was likewise the Day of Atonement. Later, when Nebuzar-adan, the captain of Nebuchadnezzars body-guard, came to destroy the Temple, the Assyrian asked the Jews what that phenomenon meant, but when they replied that it was the blood of sacrifices, he proved the falsity of their answer. Still the blood continued to boil, whereupon Nebuzar-adan cried, Zechariah, Zechariah. for thee have I slain the best of them, and at these words the blood ceased to effervesce. Most modern Christian commentators identify this Zechariah with the one whose murder Jesus alluded to in Matthew 23,35 and Luke 11, Zechariah is then understood as representing as the last of the martyrs recorded in the Masoretic Text. D. C. Allison notes that Luke 11, 49-51 echoes 2 Chron 24, 17-25 by referring to the sending of the prophets, the blood of Zechariah, the Gospel of Matthew records his name as Zechariah son of Berechiah. This identification can be reconciled if Jehoiada was Zechariahs grandfather, however, the prophet Zechariah is listed as the son of Berechiah and some therefore make this identification. The Book of Zechariah is commonly dated to c, 520-518 BC, several hundred years after the reign of Jehoash of Judah, and in this interpretation Zechariah is chronologically the last of the martyrs. According to Jewish tradition, an ancient monument in the Kidron Valley outside the Old City of Jerusalem is identified as the tomb of Zechariah, Zechariah Ben Jehoiada in the Jewish Encyclopedia