Category:People from Kursk Governorate
Pages in category "People from Kursk Governorate"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Arkady Gaidar – Arkady Petrovich Golikov, better known as Arkady Gaidar, was a Russian Soviet writer, whose stories were very popular among Soviet children. Gaidar was born in the town of Lgov in Imperial Russia, to a family of teachers, through his noble mother, he was a descendant of Mikhail Lermontov. In 1912 the family moved to Arzamas where in 1914 Arkady enrolled into a secondary school. In 1917, an ardent 13-year-old Bolshevik follower, started to distribute leaflets, during one of such missions he received his first injury, a stab in the chest. In 1918 Golikov applied for the Communist Party membership and started working for the local newspaper Molot as a correspondent, in August 1918 he became a party member and in December volunteered for the Red Army, having lied about his age. In January 1919 Golikov went to the frontline as a Special Units commanders adjutant, fresh from the 7th Moscow Red Commanders courses Gaidar went to the Ukrainian front as a company commander. In December 1919, injured and shell-shocked, he was demobilized, in summer 1920 Gaidar took part in fighting generals Geyman and Zhitikov units. In 1921, Gaidar participated in the suppression of several anti-communist uprisings, in 1922 he was moved to the Mongolian border but later that year got hospitalized with traumatic neuroses. He retired from the army in 1924 due to a contusion, in 1927 Gaidar moved to Moscow. A year later he went to Archangelsk to work for a local newspaper Pravda Severa, back in Moscow, in 1930 he published School novel. In the early 1930s several articles on Gaidars works appeared in the Soviet press, Konstantin Fedin being his major supporter, in 1939 Gaidar was awarded the Order of the Badge of Honour. A captivating account of an altruistic pioneer youth gave birth to the mass Timur movement among Young Pioneers, as the Great Patriotic War broke out, Gaidar was sent to the front as a special correspondent for the newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda. In the fall of 1941, Gaidar and other soldiers were surrounded by the German troops and he joined the partisans and became a machine gunner. On 26 October, Gaidar was killed in combat near village Lyuplyava and he was interred in the town of Kaniv, where a monument honoring him was erected in 1953. Gaidar was awarded two orders and several medals, Arkady Gaidars father Pyotr Isidorovich Golikov, a teacher, came from a working family. Mother Natalya Arkadyevna Golikova, also a teacher, was a daughter of a Tsarist Army officer, Arkady was the first of the couples four children, his three sisters were Natalya, Olga and Yekaterina. The Russian economist Yegor Gaidar was Arkady Gaidars grandson, Yegor Gaidars father, three biographical movies about Arkady Gaidar were released in the USSR, Serebryanye truby, Konets imperatora taygi, and Ostayus s vami. The latter was a story of Arkady Gaidars last days, a number of films was made based on his stories
2. Mikhail Gurevich (aircraft designer) – Mikhail Iosifovich Gurevich was a Soviet Jewish aircraft designer, a partner who co-founded the famous MiG military aviation bureau. MiG is an abbreviation of their surnames, the bureau now simply known as Mikoyan, is famous for its fighter aircraft, rapid interceptors and multi-role combat aircraft which were staples of the Soviet Air Forces throughout the Cold War. The main focus in designing the aircraft were on high speed, fast ascent, the bureau designed 170 projects of which 94 were made in series. In total 45000 aircraft of MiG brand have been manufactured domestically, over 14000 MiG fighters have been produced under licence abroad. The last plane which Gurevich personally worked on before his retirement was the Mig-25, after a year, for participation in revolutionary activities, he was expelled from the university and from the region and continued his education in Montpellier University. In the summer 1914 Gurevich was visiting his home when World War I broke out and this and later the Russian Civil War interrupted his education. In 1925 he graduated from the Aviation faculty of Kharkov Technological Institute and worked as an engineer of the state company Heat, in 1929 Gurevich moved to Moscow to pursue the career of aviation designer. Soviet design was an affair, organised in so-called OKBs or design bureaus. In 1937 Gurevich headed a team in the Polikarpov Design Bureau. In late 1939 they created the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau, with Gurevich in the position of Vice Chief Designer, and after 1957 as its Chief Designer and this is quite remarkable, considering that he never joined the Communist Party. In 1940 Mikoyan and Gurevich designed and built the high-altitude MiG-1 fighter plane, the improved MiG-3 fighter aircraft was widely used during World War II. In the years after the war, the two designed the first Soviet jet fighters, including the first supersonic models, the last model Gurevich worked on was the MiG-25 interceptor, which is among the fastest military aircraft ever to enter service. Their main focus was on speed, fast ascent. For his winning designs, Mikhail Gurevich won several major Soviet awards, five State Stalin Prizes The Order of Lenin The title of Hero of Socialist Labor Artem Mikoyan for a much more elaborate article about their common work at the MiG design bureau
3. Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov – Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov was a Russian and Soviet biologist who specialized in the field of artificial insemination and the interspecific hybridization of animals. He may have involved in controversial attempts to create a human-ape hybrid. Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov was born in the town of Shchigry, Kursk gubernia, Russia and he graduated from the Kharkov University in 1896 and became a full professor in 1907. Around the start of the 20th century, Ilya Ivanov perfected artificial insemination and he proved that this technology allows one stallion to fertilize up to 500 mares. The results were sensational for their time, and Ivanovs station was frequented by horse breeders from many parts of the world, the most controversial of Ivanovs studies was his attempt to create a human-ape hybrid. As early as 1910, he had given a presentation to the World Congress of Zoologists in Graz in which he described the possibility of obtaining such a hybrid through artificial insemination, in the 1920s, Ivanov carried out a series of experiments to create a human/nonhuman ape hybrid. Working with human sperm and female chimpanzees, he failed to create a pregnancy, in 1929 he organized a set of experiments involving nonhuman ape sperm and human volunteers, but was delayed by the death of his last orangutan. In the course of a political shakeup in the Soviet scientific world, Ivanov. In the spring of 1930, Ivanov came under criticism at his veterinary institute. Finally, on December 13,1930, Ivanov was arrested and he was sentenced to five years of exile to Alma Ata, where he worked for the Kazakh Veterinary-Zoologist Institute until his death from a stroke on 20 March 1932. The renowned physiologist and psychologist Ivan Pavlov wrote an obituary for him, les Orchidées de Staline, is a thriller that depicts a plot by Animal rights fanatics to create a man-ape hybrid using twenty-first century knowledge of genetics and medical technology. Jeremy Powell the leader of World Animalist Movement is the son of a marxist biologist who worked in the union in the thirties on the man-ape project. Ilya Ivanov is a character in the novel’s flashbacks, alexander Bogdanov Heart of a Dog Humanzee Rossiianov K. Beyond species, Ilya Ivanov and his experiments on cross-breeding humans, beyond eugenics, the forgotten scandal of hybridizing humans and apes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, from Tonos. ru The myth of Stalins half-man, half-ape
4. Sofiya Kalistratova – Sofiya Vasilyevna Kalistratova, also known as Sofia Kallistratova was a public defense lawyer in the Soviet Union. She defended various Soviet dissidents and from 1977 was a member of the Moscow Helsinki Group, born in the town of Rylsk, she graduated from the Moscow State University, specializing in the field of law. Unable to find a position in office, she began her activity as public defender at the Moscow College of Advocates. According to rumors, in the 1960s, the officer who was issuing her with a new passport, sofiya did not make a big deal out of it and signed the documents as Kalistratova ever since. She joined the Moscow Helsinki Group as a legal consultant, the KGB searched Kalistratovas apartment several times and confiscated typewriters and documents. Some of Kalistratovas friends were arrested, the activity of the Moscow Helsinki Group became nearly impossible when Yuri Andropov started his campaign of repression against dissidents. Supporters claim that all their work defending the right to obtain, discuss. As many other human rights defenders, she was accused of Anti-Sovietism, in 1987, she tried to initiate a campaign for amnesty for political prisoners. During perestroika and glasnost, material regarding violations of the law between 1917 and 1985 were published in the mass media and that time, various literators used to say We did not know about the period 1917–1986, and, especially, about the Brezhnev stagnation. She usually replied, You are lying and you do not look like an idiot. You DID know, but you were afraid to talk about it, yuly Kim dedicated her a song. Kalistratova died in 1989 and was interred in Vostryakovskoye Cemetery in Moscow, for her activism, she was awarded the medal of the Guild of Russian Advocates. In 2003, a book about her life was published, a Chronicle of Human Rights in the USSR, 56–64. New York Times article,29 July 1985 Moscow Helsinki Group website Софья Васильевна Каллистратова
5. Lev Lvovich Kamenev – Lev Lvovich Kamenev, was a Russian landscape painter. A passion for painting with Lev Kamenev saw grandfather of Konstantin Korovin, traveling to Germany and Switzerland, he carried out together with Ivan Shishkin. The real blooming of Kamenev creative came in 1860-70s, when his painting Winter Road took its place in the Tretyakov collection, between the 1871-1884 Kamenev took part at the exhibitions of the Association. In 1886 Kamenev died in poverty and solitude
6. Nikita Khrushchev – Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev was a politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War. He served as First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, Khrushchevs party colleagues removed him from power in 1964, replacing him with Leonid Brezhnev as First Secretary and Alexei Kosygin as Premier. Khrushchev was born in the village of Kalinovka in 1894, close to the border between Russia and Ukraine. He was employed as a metalworker in his youth, and during the Russian Civil War was a political commissar, with the help of Lazar Kaganovich, he worked his way up the Soviet hierarchy. He supported Joseph Stalins purges, and approved thousands of arrests, in 1938, Stalin sent him to govern Ukraine, and he continued the purges there. During what was known in the Soviet Union as the Great Patriotic War, Khrushchev was again a commissar, Khrushchev was present at the bloody defense of Stalingrad, a fact he took great pride in throughout his life. After the war, he returned to Ukraine before being recalled to Moscow as one of Stalins close advisers, in the power struggle triggered by Stalins death in 1953, Khrushchev, after several years, emerged victorious. On 25 February 1956, at the 20th Party Congress, he delivered the Secret Speech, denouncing Stalins purges and his domestic policies, aimed at bettering the lives of ordinary citizens, were often ineffective, especially in agriculture. Hoping eventually to rely on missiles for defense, Khrushchev ordered major cuts in conventional forces. Despite the cuts, Khrushchevs rule saw the most tense years of the Cold War, flaws in Khrushchevs policies eroded his popularity and emboldened potential opponents, who quietly rose in strength and deposed the premier in October 1964. However, he did not suffer the fate of previous losers of Soviet power struggles, and was pensioned off with an apartment in Moscow. His lengthy memoirs were smuggled to the West and published in part in 1970, Khrushchev died in 1971 of heart disease. Khrushchev was born on 15 April 1894, in Kalinovka, a village in what is now Russias Kursk Oblast and his parents, Sergei Khrushchev and Ksenia Khrushcheva, were poor peasants of Russian origin, and had a daughter two years Nikitas junior, Irina. Sergei Khrushchev was employed in a number of positions in the Donbas area of far eastern Ukraine, working as a railwayman, as a miner, and laboring in a brick factory. Wages were much higher in the Donbas than in the Kursk region, Kalinovka was a peasant village, Khrushchevs teacher, Lydia Shevchenko, later stated that she had never seen a village as poor as Kalinovka had been. Nikita worked as a herdsboy from an early age and he was schooled for a total of four years, part in the village parochial school and part under Shevchenkos tutelage in Kalinovkas state school. She urged Nikita to seek education, but family finances did not permit this. In 1908, Sergei Khrushchev moved to the Donbas city of Yuzovka, fourteen-year-old Nikita followed later that year, while Ksenia Khrushcheva and her daughter came after
7. Macarius Bulgakov – Metropolitan Macarius, was the Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna in 1879–82 and member of many learned societies, including the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 1841, he graduated from the Kiev Ecclesiastical Academy, of which he served as a dean in 1851–57 and his popular student manual, Orthodox Dogmatic Theology, steeped in the Latin methodology, was originally printed in 6 volumes in 1847–53. In 1866 Macarius started the publication of his landmark History of the Russian Church, the 12th volume of his magnum opus, covering the patriarchate of Nikon, was released posthumously. Macarius has been considered one of the three major church historians of the Russian Empire, along with Filaret Gumilevsky and Yevgeny Golubinsky, mitropolitan Macarius, History of Russian Church
8. Semyon Rudniev – Semyon Vasilyevich Rudniev was one of the leaders of Soviet partisan movement during World War II and Peoples Commissar in the partisan group operating in Ukraine and led by Sydir Kovpak. Rudniev was born in a peasant family in what is now Sumy region, as a teenager Rudniev moved to Saint-Petersburg and became an apprentice carpenter at the Russo-Balt Factory. Rudniev became a member of the Bolshevik movement and joined the party in March 1917. For distributing Bolshevik leaflets, Rudniev was sent to the Vyborg prison and he participated in the assault on the Winter Palace during the October Revolution. In 1918, Rudniev joined the Red Army, at first he served as a platoon commander, but later became secretary of party organization for the 373rd Rifle Regiment of the 42nd Rifle Division. He then became a commissar for the Donetsk Labour Armys political department and he then became assistant commissar of the 44th Rifle Regiment of the 15th Rifle Division. Rudniev fought on the Southern Front of the Russian Civil War, in 1929, Rudniev graduated from the Lenin Military-Political Academy. He became commissar of the 61st Coastal Defence Antiaircraft Artillery Regiment in Sevastopol, in 1932 he was transferred to become commissar of the 9th Coastal Defence Artillery Brigade in the Far East. In July 1933, he became commissar of the De-Kastri fortified area. In August 1937, he was appointed commissar of the 1st Military Construction Brigade there, on 7 February 1938, he was arrested by the NKVD and in May 1939 charged with committing crimes under Article 58 of the RSFSR Penal Code, which carried the death penalty. Rudniev initially confessed to creating the Trotskyist organization in his fortified area and he soon retracted his confession, stating that it was made under duress. In July 1939, his case was sent for review to the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, after a retrial, Rudniev was released from prison. He was soon discharged for health reasons and returned to Putyvl, in 1940, he became the chairman of the OSOAVIAKHIM district council. On 22 June 1941, German troops attacked the Soviet Union in Operation Barbarossa and they soon reached Ukraine and had reached Kiev by late August. In September, Rudniev formed a group in Putyvl. In October, Rudniev and Sydir Kovpaks partisan detachment united into one unit and he quickly gained respect among partisan fighters and remained Kovpaks commissar while their initially small group rose into a large well-organized formation raiding the rear of the Axis occupants. In the winter of 1942, Rudniev was wounded in battle near Vesyloye village, on April 9,1943 Semyon Rudniev was promoted to the rank of major general. According to official sources, Rudniev, recovering from a wound, committed suicide in a sudden German attack
9. Fyodor Sergeyev – Fyodor Andreyevich Sergeyev, better known as Comrade Artyom, was a Russian revolutionary, Soviet politician, agitator, and journalist. He was a friend of Sergei Kirov and Joseph Stalin. Sergeyev was an ideologist of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, Sergeyev was born in the village of Glebovo, Kursk Governorate, Russian Empire near the city of Fatezh to a family of a peasants. His father Andrey Arefyevich Sergeyev was a contractor to a construction porter, in 1901 Fyodor finished studies at the Yekaterinoslav realschule. He went on to attend the Imperial Moscow Technical College, from 1902 he was a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, later remaining with the Bolshevik faction of the party. He was a prominent party agitator in Yekaterinoslav, Kursk, in 1905 Sergeyev participated in the armed uprising in Kharkiv. In 1906 for a time he headed the Perm party committee. In 1910 he escaped to Brisbane, Australia where he organized the Union of Russian Emigrants, in 1912 Sergeyev receiving a British citizenship was a chief-editor of Echo of Australia and was better known as Big Tom. He joined the Australian Socialist Party and was involved in trade-unionist opposition to the first world war, in 1917, after the February revolution, he returned to Russia, becoming a leader of the Bolshevik faction in the Kharkiv council. In October 1917 he was organizer of a military coup-detat in Kharkiv, at the 1st congress of Soviets in Ukraine he was elected to the Central Executive Committee of Ukraine and later appointed the Ukrainian Narkom of Trade and Industry. Sergeyev was a chairman of the Sovnarkom of the unrecognized Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic in Ukraine and his actions secured the nationalization of industrial centers concentrated in the eastern Ukraine. Sergeyev became one of the organizers of Ukrainian Central Military-Revolutionary Committee in resistance to Central powers, Fyodor Sergeyev died in 1921 during the test of the Aerowagon and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis. The city of Bakhmut, former center of Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, was renamed in his honor as Artemivsk in 1924 and his infant son Artyom Fyodorovich was adopted by Joseph Stalin. Hence in February 2016 the city Artemivsk returned to its original name, in Thomas Keneallys novel The Peoples Train, the lead character, Artem — aka “Tom” — Samsurov, is loosely based on the life of Sergeyev
10. Vladimir Shukhov – He is also the inventor of the first cracking method. Besides the innovations he brought to the oil industry and the construction of bridges and buildings. These forms, based on non-Euclidean hyperbolic geometry, are known today as hyperboloids of revolution, Shukhov developed not only many varieties of light-weight hyperboloid towers and roof systems, but also the mathematics for their analysis. Shukhov is particularly reputed for his designs of hyperboloid towers such as the Shukhov Tower. Vladimir Shukhov was born in a town of Graivoron, Belgorod uezd and his father Grigory Ivanovich Shukhov was a minor government official, promoted for his efforts in the Crimean War. For a while, Grigory served as Mayor of Graivoron and later as an administrator in Warsaw, in 1864 Vladimir entered Saint Petersburg gymnasium from which he graduated with distinction in 1871. During his high school years he showed mathematical talents, once demonstrating to his classmates, the teacher praised his skills but he failed the grade for violating the textbooks guidelines. After graduating from the gymnasium, Shukhov entered the Imperial Moscow Technical School, in which his teachers included Pafnuty Chebyshev, Aleksey Letnikov, in the beginning of the year 1876 Shukhov graduated from school with distinction and a Gold Medal. Chebyshev offered him a job as a lecturer in mathematics at the Imperial Moscow Technical School, during his stay in the US, Shukhov came to know a Russian-American entrepreneur, Alexander Veniaminovich Bari who also worked on the organization of the Fair. In 1877 Shukhov returned to Russia and joined the office of the Warsaw–Vienna railroad. Within several months, Shukhovs frustration with standard and routine engineering made him abandon the office, on his coming to Russia in 1877, Bari persuaded Shukhov to give up his medical education and to assume the office of Chief Engineer in a new company specializing in innovative engineering. Shukhov worked with Bari at this company until the October Revolution and their works revolutionized many areas of civil engineering, ship engineering, and oil industry. The thermal cracking method, the Shukhov cracking process, was patented by Vladimir Shukhov in 1891, Shukhov always found time for a passionate hobby – photography. The photographic works of Shukhov opened new trends ahead of their flourishing of Fine art photography and he made photos in various genres, reporting, city landscape, portrait, constructivism. About two thousand photos and negatives made by Shukhov have survived until this day, after the October Revolution Shukhov decided to stay in the Soviet Union despite having received alluring job offers from around the world. Many signal Soviet engineering projects of the 1920s were associated with his name, in 1919 he framed his slogan, We should work independently from politics. The buildings, boilers, beams would be needed and so would we, in the later 1930s during the Great Purge he retired from engineering work but was not arrested or persecuted. Shukov died on 2 February 1939 in Moscow and was buried at the Novodevichy Cemetery and his many honours included the Lenin Prize and the title of Hero of Labour
11. Nikolay Strakhov – Nikolay Nikolayevich Strakhov, also transliterated as Nikolai Strahov, was a Russian philosopher, publicist and literary critic. He shared the ideals of Pochvennichestvo and was a longtime friend, Strakhov was born in Belgorod, Kursk Governorate in a priest family. In 1851 Nikolay Strakhov graduated from Saint Petersburgs Main Pedagogical Institute, in 1861, Strakhov moved to Saint Petersburg and became a prominent publicist and literary critic. Strakhov worked on the literary journals Time and Epoch together with Fyodor Dostoyevsky and he became one of the very few close friends of Leo Tolstoy. In the 1870s Nikolay Strakhov wrote his most famous philosophical work World as a Whole and was among the first to recognize Tolstoys War and Peace as one of the worlds greatest novels. In 1883 Nikolay Strakhov wrote The Struggle Against the West in Russian Literature and supported ideas of Nikolay Danilevsky, Nikolay Strakhov supported and encouraged the young Vasily Rozanov to become a writer and philosopher. Russian liberals bitterly resented Strakhov and considered him a reactionary philosopher, Strakhov died in Saint Petersburg in 1896, he never married and had no children
12. Viacheslav Petrovich Volgin – Viacheslav Petrovich Volgin was a Russian historian who wrote a number of books on early forms or precursors of communism, and who became vice-president of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Viacheslav Petrovich Volgin was born in Barshchouka village, Khomutovsky District, Kursk Governorate, between 1897 and 1908 he attended Moscow University, where he studied first physics and mathematics, then history and philology. A committed communist, he was arrested during this period. He published his first scientific paper in 1906, on the German labor movement, in 1908 he wrote a study on A Revolutionary Communist of the 18th Century. The study was published in 1919, during World War I, Volgin was a contributor to Maxim Gorkys Chronicles. Before the revolution Volgin was a Menshevik and he joined the Bolsheviks in 1920. In 1918 Volgin helped organize the Socialist Academy in Moscow, which became the Communist Academy. He was a professor of the history of socialism at Moscow State University from 1921 to 1930, one of the first challenges that he faced as rector was to reform the VUZy to ensure that their teachers and staff were ideologically sound. It took an effort to ensure that the correct people were elected. In August 1922 there was a purge of intellectuals, one of Volgins predecessors as rector of MGU, Mikhail Mikhailovich Novikov, was placed under house arrest. Despite protests by Volgin, a few days later the State Political Directorate told Novikov they were deporting him, Volgin did what he could to minimize the impact of the purge, trying to ensure that where the charges were minor the teachers could continue to teach. Volgin became president of the council of the sector of workers of Rabpros. From 1919 to 1929 he was a member of the National Scientific Council and he was an organizer of the Russian Association of Research Institutes of Social Sciences, Institute of History of the Communist Academy and the Society of Marxist historians. Volgin was permanent secretary of the Russian Academy of Sciences from 1930 to 1935, Volgin was Chairman of the Group for the Study of French history at the Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences. As Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences, he had authority over how books from abroad would be distributed to libraries, Volgin did what he could to ensure that the academy followed the communist party line and concentrated on useful work. Volgin edited a number of periodicals and historical anthologies. He launched and edited the multi-volume series The precursors of scientific socialism in 1947 and he was awarded the Lenin Prize in 1961. He died in Moscow on 3 July 1962, aged 83 and his name was given to the V. P