Category:People from Qom
Pages in category "People from Qom"
The following 60 pages are in this category, out of 60 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 60 pages are in this category, out of 60 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Qom – Qom, also spelled as Ghom, is the eighth largest city in Iran. It lies 125 kilometres by road southwest of Tehran and is the capital of Qom Province, at the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, comprising 545,704 men and 528,332 women. It is situated on the banks of the Qom River, Qom is considered holy by Shiʿa Islam, as it is the site of the shrine of Fatema Mæsume, sister of Imam Ali ibn Musa Rida. The city is the largest center for Shiʿa scholarship in the world, Qom is famous for a brittle toffee called “Sohan”, considered a souvenir of the city and sold by 2,000 to 2,500 “Sohan” shops. Qom has developed into an industrial centre owing in part to its proximity to Tehran. Qom gained additional prosperity when oil fields were discovered at Sarajeh near the city in 1956, Qom, the capital of Qom province, is located 125 kilometers south of Tehran, on a low plain. The shrine of Masoumeh, the sister of Imam Reza, is located in this city, the city is located in the boundary of the central desert of Iran. At the 2011 census its population was 1,074,036, Qom is counted as one of the focal centers of the Shiʿa both in Iran and around the globe. Since the revolution, the population has risen from around 25,000 to more than 45,000. Substantial sums of money in the form of alms and Islamic taxes flow into Qom to the ten marja-i taqlid or “Source of Imitation” that reside there. The number of schools in Qom is now over fifty. Its theological center and the Fatima al-Masumeh Shrine are prominent features of Qom, another very popular religious site of pilgrimage formerly outside the city of Qom but now more of a suburb is called Jamkaran. Qom’s proximity to Tehran has allowed the clerical establishment easy access to monitor the affairs, many Grand Ayatollahs possess offices in both Tehran and Qom, many people simply commute between the two cities as they are only 156 kilometres or 97 miles apart. Southeast of Qom is the ancient city of Kashan, directly south of Qom lie the towns of Delijan, Mahallat, Naraq, Pardisan City, Kahak, and Jasb. The surrounding area to the east of Qom is populated by Tafresh, Saveh, Qom has a hot desert climate with low annual rainfall due to remoteness from the sea and being situated in the vicinity of the subtropical anticyclone aloft. Except for its hot and extremely dry summers, which are due to the relatively low altitude among the hottest in inland Iran. The present town of Qom in Central Iran dates back to ancient times and its pre-Islamic history can be partially documented, although the earlier epochs remain unclear. Its true function is still a matter of dispute, but the contributions by Wolfram Kleiss point to a Parthian palace that served as a station on the highway and was used until Sasanian times
2. Iran – Iran, also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a sovereign state in Western Asia. Comprising a land area of 1,648,195 km2, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East, with 82.8 million inhabitants, Iran is the worlds 17th-most-populous country. It is the country with both a Caspian Sea and an Indian Ocean coastline. The countrys central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, Tehran is the countrys capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is the site of to one of the worlds oldest civilizations, the area was first unified by the Iranian Medes in 625 BC, who became the dominant cultural and political power in the region. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, under the Sassanid Dynasty, Iran again became one of the leading powers in the world for the next four centuries. Beginning in 633 AD, Arabs conquered Iran and largely displaced the indigenous faiths of Manichaeism and Zoroastrianism by Islam, Iran became a major contributor to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential scientists, scholars, artists, and thinkers. During the 18th century, Iran reached its greatest territorial extent since the Sassanid Empire, through the late 18th and 19th centuries, a series of conflicts with Russia led to significant territorial losses and the erosion of sovereignty. Popular unrest culminated in the Persian Constitutional Revolution of 1906, which established a monarchy and the countrys first legislative body. Following a coup instigated by the U. K. Growing dissent against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution, Irans rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 21 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and 11th-largest in the world. Iran is a member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC. Its political system is based on the 1979 Constitution which combines elements of a democracy with a theocracy governed by Islamic jurists under the concept of a Supreme Leadership. A multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, most inhabitants are Shia Muslims, the largest ethnic groups in Iran are the Persians, Azeris, Kurds and Lurs. Historically, Iran has been referred to as Persia by the West, due mainly to the writings of Greek historians who called Iran Persis, meaning land of the Persians. As the most extensive interactions the Ancient Greeks had with any outsider was with the Persians, however, Persis was originally referred to a region settled by Persians in the west shore of Lake Urmia, in the 9th century BC. The settlement was then shifted to the end of the Zagros Mountains. In 1935, Reza Shah requested the international community to refer to the country by its native name, opposition to the name change led to the reversal of the decision, and Professor Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia Iranica, propagated a move to use Persia and Iran interchangeably
3. Hamid Naderi Yeganeh – Hamid Naderi Yeganeh is an Iranian mathematical artist. He is known for using mathematical formulas to create drawings of objects, intricate illustrations, animations, fractals. Naderi Yeganeh has introduced two methods to draw real-life objects with mathematical formulas, in the first method, he creates tens of thousands of computer-generated mathematical figures to find a few interesting shapes accidentally. For example, by using this method, he found some shapes that resemble birds, fishes, in the second method, he draws a real life object with a step-by-step process. In each step, he tries to find out which mathematical formulas will produce the drawing, for example, by using this method, he drew birds in flight, butterflies, human faces and plants using trigonometric functions. He has designed some fractals and tessellations inspired by the continents, for example, in 2015, he described the fractal Africa with an Africa-like octagon and its lateral inversion. Naderi Yeganeh received his bachelors degree in mathematics from the University of Qom and he won a gold medal at the 38th Iranian Mathematical Society’s Mathematics Competition in May 2014 and a silver medal at the 39th IMS’s Mathematics Competition in May 2015
4. Musa al-Sadr – Sayyid Musa al-Sadr was a Lebanese-Iranian philosopher and Shia religious leader from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Born in the Cheharmardan neighborhood of Qom, Iran, he underwent both seminary and secular studies in Iran and he left Qom for Najaf to study theology and returned to Iran after the 1958 Iraqi coup détat. Some years later, Sadr went to Tyre, Lebanon as the emissary of Ayatollahs Broujerdi, due to the lasting influence of his political and religious leadership in Lebanon, he has been referred to by Fouad Ajami as a towering figure in modern Shii political thought and praxis. He gave the Shia population of Lebanon a sense of community, in Lebanon, he founded and revived many organizations including schools, charities, and the Amal Movement. On 25 August 1978, Sadr and two companions departed for Libya to meet government officials at the invitation of Muammar Gaddafi. The three were last seen on 31 August and they were never heard from again. Many theories exist around the circumstances of his disappearance, none of which have been proven, Musa al-Sadr came from a long line of distinguished clerics tracing their ancestry back to Jabal Amel. Muhammad Sharafeddin, a cleric, was born in Shhour. He returned to Najaf shortly before his death in 1847, the youngest of his five sons, Ismail, was born in Isfahan, in Qajar ruled Iran, and eventually became a leading mujtahid. The second son of this Ismail, also known by the name Sadreddin, born in Ottoman Iraq and he would become Musa al-Sadrs father. While living in Iran, Sadreddin married a daughter of Ayatollah Hussein Tabatabaei Qomi, an important Iranian religious leader, Musa al-Sadr was born in the Cheharmardan neighborhood of Qom, Iran, on 4 June 1928. He attended Hayat Elementary School in Qom where he attended seminary classes informally, among his teachers he was considered a quick learner and remarkably knowledgeable for his young age. After a while he started teaching other students lower-level courses and this coincided with the liberalizing of Iranian politics, the political climate of his time was secular, so that most religious scholars felt politically and socially marginalized. To have some influence in the life he concluded that he had to become familiar with modern science. As a result, he started a full secular education alongside his seminary studies and he moved to the Iranian capital Tehran where he received a degree in Islamic jurisprudence and political sciences from Tehran University and learned some English and French. He then moved back to Qom to study theology and Islamic philosophy under Allamah Muhammad Husayn Tabatabai, following the death of his father in 1953, he left Qom for Najaf to study theology under Ayatollah Muhsin al-Hakim and Abul Qasim Khui. Musa al-Sadr became a mujtahid in Najaf, in 1955 he traveled to Lebanon where he met Abd al-Hossein Sharafeddin. He had met him previously in 1936 when his family had hosted Abd al-Husayn in Iran, the same year he left Iran and returned to Najaf and, in the autumn of 1956, he married the daughter of Ayatollah Azizollah Khalili
5. Farrokhroo Parsa – Farokhroo Parsay, was an Iranian physician, educator and parliamentarian. She served as Minister of Education of Iran in the last pre-Islamic revolution government and was the first female minister of an Iranian government. Parsay was a supporter of womens rights in Iran. She was executed by firing squad on 8 May 1980 after the Islamists came to power in Iran, on religious-revolutionary charges. In the early 1960s, she wrote a letter to the Shah requesting the right to vote for women and her mother, Fakhr-e Āfāgh, was the editor of the womens magazine Jahān-e Zan, and a vocal proponent for gender equality and for educational opportunities for women. It was here that Farrokhroo was born, some minutes past midnight on Iranian New Years Eve 1922, later, with the intervention of Prime Minister Hasan Mostowfi ol-Mamalek, her family was allowed to return to Tehran. Upon obtaining a degree, Parsa became a biology teacher in Jeanne dArc Highschool in Tehran. At the school she came to know Farah Diba, one of her students at school. In 1963, Parsa was elected to parliament, and began petitioning Mohammad Reza Pahlavi for suffrage for Irans women and she was also a driving force for legislation that amended the existing laws concerning women and family. In 1965 Pārsā was appointed Deputy Minister of Education and on 27 August 1968 she became Minister of Education in the cabinet of the Amir-Abbas Hoveyda government and it was the first time in the history of Iran that a woman has occupied a cabinet position. Farrokhroo Parsa was executed by firing squad on 8 May 1980 in Tehran, in her last letter from prison, Farrokhroo Parsa wrote to her children, I am a doctor, so I have no fear of death. Death is only a moment and no more, I am prepared to receive death with open arms rather than live in shame by being forced to be veiled. I am not going to bow to those who expect me to regret for fifty years of my efforts for equality between men and women. I am not prepared to wear the chador and step back in history, in fact, during her tenure as minister of education, Beheshti, Bahonar and Mohammed Mofatteh were on the ministrys payroll. These three were to be major players in the Islamic Revolution several years later, with her ministrys funding, Beheshti established the Islamic Center of Hamburg and Bahonar was able to set up a few Islamic public schools around Tehran. Womens rights movement in Iran Womens rights in Iran Women in Iran
6. Hassan-i Sabbah – Hassan-i Sabbāh or Hassan al-Sabbāh was a Nizārī Ismā‘īlī missionary who converted a community in the late 11th century in the heart of the Alborz Mountains of northern Persia. He later seized a fortress called Alamut. He founded a group of fedayeen whose members are referred to as the Hashshashin. Hassan is thought to have written an autobiography, which did not survive, the latter is known only from quotations made by later Persian authors. He is the original Grand Master creating many of its main principles, the possibly autobiographical information found in Sarguzasht-e Sayyidnā is the main source for Hassans background and early life. According to this, Hassan-i Sabbāh was born in the city of Qom in Persia in the 1050s to a family of Twelver Shī‘ah, born and raised in Persia, Early in his life, his family moved to Rayy. Rayy was a city that had a history of thought since the 9th century. It was in center of religious matrices that Hassan developed a keen interest in metaphysical matters. From 7 to 17, he studied at home, and mastered palmistry, languages, philosophy, astronomy, Rayy was also home to the activities of Ismā‘īlī missionaries in the Jibal. At the time, Ismailism was a movement in Persia. The Ismāīlī mission worked on three layers, the lowest was the soldier or fidāī, followed by the rafīk or comrade. It has been suggested that the popularity of the Ismāīlī religion in Persia was due to the dissatisfaction with the Seljuk rulers. In Rayy, a young Hassan came in touch with Amira Darrab, a comrade, Hassan was initially unimpressed, his interest gradually grew after participating in many passionate debates that discussed the merits of Ismā‘īl over Mūsā. Seeing the conviction of Darrab, convinced Hassan to delve deeper into Ismāīlī doctrines and beliefs, at the age of 17, Hassan converted and swore allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph in Cairo. Hassans studies did not end with his crossing over and he further studied under two other dā‘iyyayn, and as he proceeded on his path, he was looked upon with eyes of respect. Hassans austere and devoted commitment to the dawa brought him in audience with the missionary of the region. Ibn Attash, suitably impressed with the young seventeen-year-old Hassan, made him Deputy Missionary, however, Hassan did not go to Cairo. This prompted his abandoning Rayy and heading to Cairo in 1076, Hassan took about 2 years to reach Cairo
7. Mehdi Khalaji – Mehdi Khalaji is an Iranian-American writer, scholar of Islamic studies and political analyst. He has been researching at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy since 2005 and he has frequently contributed to major media outlets such as The Guardian, BBC, The Washington Post, and The New York Times. From 1986 to 2000, Khalaji trained in the seminaries of Qom, in Qom, and later in Tehran, Khalaji launched a career in journalism, first serving on the editorial board of a theological journal, Naqd va Nazar, and then the daily Entekhab. In addition to his own writing, he has translated the works of the Islamic humanist scholar Muhammad Arkoun, in 1993, Khalaji became a contributor to Kiyan monthly magazine, which at the time was the main voice of religious intellectuals in Iran. In 2000, Khalaji moved to Paris where he studied Shiite theology, at Radio Farda, he produced news, features, and analysis on a range of Middle Eastern, Iranian, and Islamic issues. In 2005, Mehdi Khalaji became a fellow at The Washington Institute, focusing on the politics of Iran. A Shiite theologian by training, Khalaji has also served on the boards of two prominent Iranian periodicals and produced for the BBC as well as the U. S. governments Persian news service. He is a frequent contributor in PolicyWatch and PeaceWatch segments submitted by the Washington Institute for Near East Policy and he is a writer and contributor for numerous English-language and Persian-language media entities. He also teaches Persian-language webinars on Quranic interpretation for Tavaana, E-Learning Institute for Iranian Civil Society, on January 122010, Mehdi Khalaji’s father, Mohammad Taghi Khalaji, was arrested in Iran. Mehdi Khalajis daughters passport was among those confiscated, Khalajis family was banned from leaving Iran. Khalaji has wrote a piece in New York Times on why he is against Iran deal. Booklets Apocalyptic Politics, On the Rationality of Iranian Politics Through the Veil, The Role of Broadcasting in U. S
8. Gholam Ali Oveissi – General Gholam-Ali Oveissi was an Iranian four-star general and the Chief Commander of the Imperial Iranian Armed Forces under Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. He was the last general to head the Imperial Army of Iran and he is regarded as one of the most powerful and adept military generals in Iran’s modern history. General Oveissi was born in 1918 in the city of Qhom and he came from a large prominent family with a long military and political history. Most of the members of his including his brothers and sisters served in Government office. He is a descendant of Eskandar Beik Torkaman, the Minister, head of army. On his mothers side he was the grandson of Hossein Ali Mirza, Oveissi received his diploma from Irans Military High School. He attended the Officer’s Faculty in 1938 continuing his training in the Military Academy in Tehran. He attended the Military organization in Fort Meyers, Virginia and Fort Leavenworth Kansas in 1959, from 1938-1939 he was chosen to command the Military Section of the 7th and 13th regiments positioned in Fars Province and replaced the commander of the 6th regiment from 1940-1941. From 1941 –1943 he replaced the commander of Fars Province. From 1940-1960 he was chief of the faculty in Tehran. After 1955 his military career progressed very rapidly, on 12 September 1954, he became a full colonel and served with that rank until 1960 when he was promoted to general in the Royal Iranian Army. From 1958-1960 he participated actively in the military prosecution of communist officers. He continued his studies in the United States periodically from 1960-1965. Four Star General of the Army, from 1960-1965 he became a four star general of the Army, being the youngest of his peers to achieve the rank of four stars. In 1965 General Oveissi became the Chief Commander of the security divisions of the Policy Academy, in 1966 he served in the Committee of Information of the Imperial Iranian Army. In 1969 he obtained the highest military rank, Oveissi additionally obtained medals from various countries’ military organizations. He received medals from Italian, English, Lebanese, German, below are excerpts of reports/cables produced by the American Embassy in Tehran before the revolution and later obtained by the newly installed revolutionary regime. The cables were published by Kayhan, Irans leading conservative newspaper, General Gholam Ali Oveissi, furthermore, the position of the Chief Commander of the Iranian Police Division was afforded to him
9. Sadeq Rohani – Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Mohammad Sadeq Hussaini Rohani is an Iranian Twelver Shia Marja currently residing in Qum, Iran. He was born in the city of Qum, Iran during Muharram 1345 AH and his family was of Imam Hussein extraction, with a great background of knowledge and virtues. He received his Ijtihad Authority at the age of 14, from Grand Ayatollah Abul-Qassim Khoei and he became a Marja, after death of Grand Ayatollah Borujerdi, at the age of 35. His father, Mahmoud Rohani, was a teacher in the Islamic Seminary of Qum. He was born in the year 1307 AH and he moved to Najaf, Iraq in the year 1330 AH to study under Sayed Abul Hasan Esfahani and Mirza Na’eni. He also studied for a while under Hussain Tabatabai Qummi in the city of Mashad and he then moved to the Islamic Seminary of Qum, Iran. Some believe that it was he who managed to convince Abdulkarim Haeri to move to the city of Qum to start teaching Islamic Studies and he is regarded by some as being one of the most exceptional students of Haeri. Mahmoud Rohani died on the 18th of Shaban 1381 AH after a period of illness. When the news of his death spread, the city of Qum, including the markets, education institutions and offices, closed out of recognition of the loss of a great figure. After his father died, Sayed Sadiq Rohani spent many years leading the prayer in the mosque whilst also answering peoples’ religious questions. Sayed Sadiq Rohani started his career in the city of Qum with his father teaching Arabic Grammar. After being examined by Khoei, he started his higher Islamic studies of “Fiqh” and it is one of the most important and difficult books taught in Islamic Seminaries and understanding such a book requires much talent. Rohani studied under some of the most renowned and highest religious scholars, however, the role ayatollah khoei played in treating Ayatollah Rohani was really appreciable. As he acknowledges, a share of his knowledge is due to 15-year attendance in public. His published works verifies this claim, Ayatollah Khoei used to scout around for intelligent students and to play greater role in training them. When attended Najaf seminary in his adolescence, Ayatollah Rohani was a student with an unbelievable comprehension. He would learn complicated lessons of fiqh, write down the notes and make a copy of them at home, discuss the lesson with his friends. This huge bulk of task, especially in lack of learning and living facilities, moreover, he would do his personal affairs such as earning his living while tolerating the economic pressures