Bruno Durieux, born October 23,1944 in Montigny, Sarthe is a French politician. Durieux is a graduate of the École polytechnique and ENSAE and he served in Algeria under the command of Marcel Bigeard before embarking upon an administrative career. Entering politics, Durieux served in the cabinet of Raymond Barre from 1976 to 1981, in 1990 he became a member of the Michel Rocard administration. With the change in government in 1995, he was named by defense minister Charles Millon to represent the defense department overseas and he was elected mayor of Grignan in the Drôme in 1995 and was reelected in 2001 and 2008. He is the current mayor. De lIVG à la peine de mort, article polémique de lHumanité sur les prises de position de Bruno Durieux
Albert Pierre René Maignan was a French history painter and illustrator. In 1864, he left his hometown to study law in Paris, during his studies he painted and took art lessons from Jules Achille Noël. He had his début at the Salon in 1867, and continued to exhibit throughout his life. In 1868, he travelled extensively, painting in Rouen, Córdoba, upon his return, he found a position in the studios of Évariste Vital Luminais. In 1889, he won a Gold Medal at the Exposition Universelle, three years later, he was named a Knight in the Légion dhonneur. Most of his work is devoted to painting, although he produced many portraits. His Spanish and Orientalist paintings show the influence of Henri Regnault, after 1889, he drew illustrations and painted decorative murals, including some at the Salon des Lettres at the Hôtel de Ville and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry in Saint-Étienne. Branching out, from 1895 to 1899 he created a series of tapestries for the Salle des Conférences at the Palais du Luxembourg.
Dominique Mallet, Albert Maignan et son œuvre, in La Revue historique et archéologique du Maine, Vol. LXXIII, Le Mans, presse Lois Unis Service, Paris,1990 ISBN 2-908557-01-0 ArtNet, More works by Maignan
Robert Garnier was a French tragic poet. He published his first work while still a law-student at Toulouse and it was a collection of lyrical pieces, now lost, entitled Plaintes amoureuses de Robert Garnier. After some legal practice at the Parisian bar, he became conseiller du roi au siege présidial and sénéchaussé of Maine, his native district and his friend Lacroix du Maine says that he enjoyed a great reputation as an orator. He was a magistrate, of considerable weight in his native province, who gave his leisure to literature. In his early plays he was a follower of the school of dramatists who were inspired by the study of Seneca. In these productions there is little that is strictly dramatic except the form, a tragedy was a series of rhetorical speeches relieved by a lyric chorus. His pieces in this manner are Porcie, Cornélie and Hippolyte. In Porcie the deaths of Cassius and Portia are each the subject of an eloquent recital, but the action is confined to the death of the nurse, in 1592 The Countess of Pembroke wrote The Tragedy of Antonie, an English version of Garniers play.
In 1582 and 1583 he produced his two masterpieces Bradamante and Les Juives. In Bradamante, which alone of his plays has no chorus, he cut himself adrift from Senecan models, and sought his subject in Ariosto, the result being what came to be known as a tragicomedy. The dramatic and romantic story becomes a drama in Garniers hands, though even there the lovers, Bradamante. The contest in the mind of Roger supplies a genuine dramatic interest in the manner of Corneille, Les Juives is the moving story of the barbarous vengeance of Nebuchadnezzar on the Jewish king Zedekiah and his children. Gamier must be regarded as the greatest French tragic poet of the Renaissance and he exercised a major influence on the development of Elizabethan tragedy. Thomas Kyd is the author of an English translation of Cornélie published in England in the early 1590s. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh. Works by Robert Garnier at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Robert Garnier at Internet Archive
Sarthe is a French department situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country. It is named after the River Sarthe, which flows from east of Le Mans to just north of Angers, in the late 18th century, before it was officially Sarthe, the nobility built their Mansions and Chateaus there, as an escape from Paris. The department was created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, pursuant to the law of 22 December 1789, the latter was divided into two departments, Sarthe to the east and Mayenne to the west. In Roman times, this contained the city of Mans. The Roman Thermal Bathhouse attracts many tourists, as does the Theater of Aubigné-Racan, marin Mersenne, perhaps the most important scientific figure in the early 17th century, was born in the vicinity of Sarthe. The department of Sarthe is at the end of the administrative region of Pays-de-la-Loire. It is south of Normandy and on the edge of the Armorican Massif. It is bordered by the departments of Orne, Eure-et-Loir, Loir-et-Cher, Indre-et-Loire, Maine-et-Loire, approximately 300,000 people, comprising more than half of the departments population, live in Le Mans, its conurbation, or the essentially urban communes close by.
The rest of the department retains a rural character, with agriculture as the part of the economy. The arrival of the railways in 1854 boosted trade for the local economy, a TGV connection was constructed in 1989, connecting the community to high-speed transport. In terms of connections, the A11 autoroute, which was constructed to Le Mans from the east in 1978. The department was the base of former Prime Minister Francois Fillon
Lionel-Noël Royer was a French painter. He was most famous for painting scenes of the life of Joan of Arc in the Basilica of Bois-Chenu in Domrémy. Lionel Royer was born in Château-du-Loir in Sarthe on December 25,1852 and he volunteered before his 18th birthday for the Franco-Prussian War and took part in the Battle of Loigny-Poupry on December 2,1870 under the command of General Athanase de Charrette de la Contrie. Contrie, having noticed Royers artistic talent, offered to finance his studies at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris, Royer became a pupil of Alexandre Cabanel and of William-Adolphe Bouguereau. He obtained the Prix de Rome in 1882 and he became a portraitist and, especially, a painter of historical scenes. His best known works are Vercingétorix Throwing his Weapons at the Feet of Caesar, in illustrated supplements of newspapers of the era, he was a commentator on current affairs, in particular when he painted Alfred Dreyfus in his prison or Auguste Comte and his three muses.
To elicit emotion, both allegory and the come to the aid of history. Lionel Royer relies heavily on the depiction of historical sites. Joan, alone in the foreground, is the means by which a possible reconciliation between the political and religious spheres is suggested, by the evocative synthesis he achieves and the deep feeling he introduces here, the painter leaves interpretation open to each observer. Royer reprised this Johannic iconography at the basilica of Domrémy, in the window entitled Dépôt de l’épée de Fierbois par un ange, the face of Jean Poton de Xaintrailles bears the features of the architect Paul Sédille. Royer had two daughters and a son, the son, who planned to become a priest, was injured in World War I and died shortly after. The two girls raised families in France and Belgium, Lionel Royer died in Neuilly-sur-Seine on June 30,1926. Peindre l’Histoire – Lionel Royer in Revue Historique et Archéologique du Maine, Le Mans,1998.18, tome CXLIX de la Collection, p
Claude Chappe was a French inventor who in 1792 demonstrated a practical semaphore system that eventually spanned all of France. This was the first practical system of the industrial age. Chappe was born in Brûlon, France, the grandson of a French baron and he was raised for church service, but lost his sinecure during the French Revolution. He was educated at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen and his uncle was the astronomer Jean-Baptiste Chappe dAuteroche famed for his observations of the Transit of Venus in 1761 and again in 1769. The first book Claude read in his youth was his uncles journal of the 1761 trip and his brother, wrote Reading this book greatly inspired him, and gave him a taste for the physical sciences. From this point on, all his studies, and even his pastimes, were focused on that subject, because of his astronomer uncle, Claude may have become familiar with the properties of telescopes. He and his four unemployed brothers decided to develop a system of semaphore relay stations.
Claudes brother, Ignace Chappe was a member of the Legislative Assembly during the French Revolution, with his help, the Assembly supported a proposal to build a relay line from Paris to Lille, to carry dispatches from the war. The Chappe brothers determined by experiment that the angles of a rod were easier to see than the presence or absence of panels and their final design had two arms connected by a cross-arm. Each arm had seven positions, and the cross-arm had four more permitting a 196-combination code, the arms were from three to thirty feet long and counterweighted, moved by only two handles. Lamps mounted on the arms proved unsatisfactory for night use, the relay towers were placed from 12 to 25 km apart. Each tower had a telescope pointing both up and down the relay line, Chappe first called his invention the tachygraph, which means fast writer. A friend suggested a name meaning a far writer, telegraph, in 1792, the first messages were successfully sent between Paris and Lille. In 1794 the semaphore line informed Parisians of the capture of Condé-sur-lEscaut from the Austrians less than an hour after it occurred, other lines were built, including a line from Paris to Toulon.
The system was copied by other European states, and was used by Napoleon to coordinate his empire. In 1805, Claude Chappe committed suicide in Paris by throwing himself down a well at his hotel and he was said to be depressed by illness, and claims by rivals that he had plagiarized from military semaphore systems. In 1824 Ignace Chappe attempted to increase interest in using the line for commercial messages, such as commodity prices, however. In 1846, the government of France committed to a new system of telegraph lines
Jacques Triger was a French geologist who invented the Triger process for digging through waterlogged ground. Triger was Deputy Director of coal mining operations in Chalonnes-sur-Loire, Triger was born in Mamers, a town in the Sarthe French county, on 10 March 1801. He studied at La Flèche and in Paris, where he met Louis Cordier in 1825, Cordier was an eminent French geologist, who taught Triger his first lessons in geology. He was quickly interested in the challenges of this industrial sector. At 32 years old, together with skilled managers, he developed new industries in Sarthe and he developed and launched in this period three coal mines, a paper mill and a sawmill. In 1833 he is alone by the woman with whom he was supposed to get married. About 1834 he started the study and the investigation of his region - Sarthe. He never stopped working on them until his death and these investigations, and discussions with Louis Cordier, drove him to Anjou where coal was craft mined. Thus, in 1839, Triger seriously began to look at the Loire river, after having read many articles on compressed air, he was convinced that he could use it in order to dig trough this layer of soil.
His success does not lie on the idea of using compressed air, and especially the finding of a practical way to utilize the technique on an industrial scale. While focused on his activities, he did not step away from his geological research work. Helped by a taste for travels, pieces after pieces. After more than 20 years of research, the document was presented in 1853 at the Geological Society of France, the topographic background, support of the geological layers, was designed by Triger himself. Triger wanted the designation of the strata to be borrowed from paleontology. He was a paleontologist, part of the first team to excavate the site of Roc-en Paille. His very large collection of rocks and minerals is now visible at the Museum of Natural History in Angers, a last honorable task kept Triger busy until the end of his life, the constitution of regular geological cross-sections of the whole eastern part of France. This huge work was carried out by a team of geologists directed by Triger, geological sections from Paris to Brest, from Le Mans to Angers, from Paris to Rennes, Vendôme to Brest.
On 16 December 1867 Triger died from an attack after a meeting at the Geological Society of France
Pierre Belon was a French traveler, naturalist and diplomat. Like many others of the Renaissance period, he studied and wrote on a range of topics including ichthyology, botany, comparative anatomy and Egyptology. He is sometimes known as Pierre Belon du Mans, or, in the Latin in which his works appeared, ivan Pavlov called him the prophet of comparative anatomy. Belon was born in 1517 at the hamlet of Souletière near Cérans-Foulletourte and his family was not wealthy and as a boy, he worked as an apprentice at an apothecary at Foulletourte. He worked as an apothecary to the bishop of Clermont and he travelled through Flanders and England, taking a keen interest in zoology. When he returned to Auvergne, he was supported by René du Bellay, bishop of Le Mans and he travelled around Germany with Cordus and on his arrival at Thionville, was arrested on suspicions that he was a Lutheran. He was released by the interventions of a certain Dehamme who was an admirer of his friend from Paris, around 1542 he studied medicine at Paris, and obtained a licentiate in medicine although he never took the degree of doctor.
With the recommendation of Duprat, he became an apothecary to Cardinal François de Tournon, under this patronage, he was able to undertake extensive scientific voyages. Starting in 1546, he travelled through Greece, Asia Minor, Egypt and Palestine and he hoped to find the remains of Homers Troy in the Levant. A full account of his Observations on this journey, with illustrations, was published in Paris,1553, returning to the household of Cardinal de Tournon at Rome for the Papal conclave, 1549-1550, Belon encountered the naturalists Guillaume Rondelet and Hippolyte Salviani. He returned to Paris with his copious notes and began to publish, in 1557 he travelled again, this time in northern Italy, the Dauphiné and Auvergne. He was assassinated one evening in April 1564, when coming through the Bois on his return from Paris, Belon was typical of the renaissance scholar and took an interest in all kinds of good disciplines in his lifetime. He was interested in zoology and classical Antiquity, besides the narrative of his travels he wrote several scientific works of considerable value, particularly the Histoire naturelle des estranges poissons, De aquatilibus.
His works were translated by Carolus Clusius, and he was held in high authority by Ulisse Aldrovandi, in his LHistoire de la nature des oyseaux he included two figures of the skeletons of humans and birds marking the homologous bones. This is widely used as one of the earliest ideas on comparative anatomy, all of these were first published in Paris. 1553, De arboribus Coniferis, Resiniferis aliisque semper virentibus, a basic text on conifers and evergreens. 1553 De admirabili operi antiquorum et rerum suspiciendarum praestantia, treating the funerary customs of Antiquity, in three volumes, of which separate titles head the second, on mummification and third. 1553, Les observations de plusieurs singularitez et choses memorables trouvées en Grèce, Judée, Egypte,1555, revised edition of the Observations, it was translated into Latin for an international readership by Clusius,1589